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6A, 1, and in one or two of Nepos, but Tacitus is the only writer who uses the word freely as a preposition. The grammars and dictionaries do not quote Livy for the prepositional use, which occurs in 35, 49, 1.

§ 4. cum enim etc.: the triple repetition of cum in this sentence seems careless and inelegant, but passages of the sort are not uncommon in Cic.; cf. my n. on pro Balbo 1, l. 3, also Fam. 9, 6, 3 cum videremus

cuni...tum. 5 mecum ageres. pleaded with me'; so tecum agere in 16, 1. 24; agere cum populo in 96, 1. 26.

scriberem aliquid: so Cat. m. 2 cum de senectute vellem aliquid scribere. 7 feci ut prodessem: I took pains to confer benefit. The constr. is a

favourite one with Cic.; cf. Vat. 21 invitus facio ut recorder; Cat. m. 42 invitus feci ut L. Flaminium e senatu eicerem. Cic. often gives as his reason for writing the desire to serve his countrymen; so Acad. I, II; Diy. 2, 5; Off. 2, 2.

Non invitus also in 25, l. 4. 8 Catone maiore: see Introd. p. 10.

qui est...senectute: 'which I dedicated to you...'; cf. Cat. m. 3 hunc librum ad te de senectute misimus; Fin. 1, 8 libro quem ad me de virtute misisti; Div. 2, 3 liber is quem ad Atticum de senectute misimus; Att. 8, 12, 6 Demetri Magnetis librum quem ad te misit de concordia. For the collocation of the words cf. Tusc. 4, 66 eam rationem quae maxime pro

batur de bonis et malis, also De Or. 2, 61 libri qui sunt fere inscripti de. 9

induxi...persona, both words are connected with the stage. Inducere is literally 'to bring upon the boards' (cf. 59, l. 25): persona properly means a mask, here (a type of character as we say. See my n.on Arch. 3, 1. 13, also cf. Lael. 93, 1. 5; 100, 1. 4, and for the general sense of the passage Att. 13, 19, 5 haec Academica, ut scis, cum Catulo Lucullo Hortensio contuleram. Sane in personas non cadebant ; ib. 13, 16, I ecce tuae litterae de Varrone. Nemini visa est aptior Avtioxela ratio.

loqueretur: Cic. uses loqui (more rarely other verbs of speaking) very frequently when the subject is an abstract noun, as here persona practically is. So Fin. 2, 48 consuetudo loquitur; ib. 4, 41 institutio hominis si loqueretur ; Acad. 2, 101 conclusio loquitur.

floruisset : at first sight this seems a reference to the physical and mental powers for which Cato was famous in advanced age. Cic., however, does not use florere in the sense of vigere; Nauck therefore is probably right in supposing the word to allude to the general worldly prosperity of Cato, indicated in Cat. m. 8.

maxime memorabilem: superlatives from adjectives in -bilis are rare. In 51, l. 16 we have amabilissimum; Cato has stabilissimus, Columella mirabilissimum, and mobilissimus is common; these are all the instances which appear until post-Augustan times. Several adjectives of this class, as laudabilis probabilis flebilis, have comparatives, but no superlatives, in pre-Classical or Classical Latin.

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idonea : 'I thought Laelius a suitable character to expound the very views which had been maintained by him and recalled to mind by Scaevola'. Literally which, maintained by him, Sc. had recalled '. It is not necessary to supply esse so as to make this a case of the perfect infinitive after meminisset. Disputare aliquid (cf. n. on 1, 1.6) often means not to discuss an opinion, but to put an opinion forward in discussion,

and so to defend or maintain it; cf. n. on 8, 1. 21 respondere. 15 genus autem etc.: 'discourses of this kind seem, somehow or other,

to acquire greater dignity when they rely on (lit. are founded on the influence of ancient characters, particularly such as are renowned '. Observe genus hoc sermonum=sermones huius generis; cf. 12, p. 31, 1. 2

quo de genere mortis; 93, 1. 6 id genus amici. 18 mea: without scripta, as in Acad. 1, 8 nihil magno opere meorum

miror. So 7, l. 12 omnia tua.

§ 5.

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19 senem senex : at the time the Cato maior was written Atticus was 65

and Cic. 60. Note the fondness of Cic. (as well as other Latins) for bringing into juxtaposition different cases of the same word. So De Or. 2, 310 rebus res and Lucr. I, 359 res rebus; cf. also below, 25, 1. 10 iustitiam iustissimo.

hoc libro: this corresponds to tum above; nunc would have been more formally correct; so below, 11. 20, 21 tum...nunc.

scripsi de amicitia : it is not often that Cic. leaves out the object after scribere ; above in 4, 1. 5 aliquid is added. Sometimes a qualifying adverb takes the place of the object, as Att. 9, 15, 5. quod scribis me asperius quam mei patiantur mores de Dionysio scripsisse. Here the phrase ad amicum amicissimus softens the construction. Cf. however Fam. 9, 16, I: 14, 2, 4.

senior-prudentior-sapiens amicitiae gloria excellens. notice the order of the phrases, sapiens corresponding with prudentior, and senior

with amicitiae gloria excellens; an instance of chiasmus; see n. on 23, l. 10. 24 tu velim...avertas: we have here an incomplete conditional sentence,

the apodosis only being given, while the protasis (something like si tu quoque velis, or si tibi idem cordi esset) is suppressed as in 24, p. 35, 1. 31 possent ; also 51, l. 23 sciam; 47, 1. io videas. When Cic. uses the subjunctive construction after volo he nearly always leaves out ut, as here. Remark also that the subject of the dependent verb, if expressed, always precedes the words velim, vellem, malim and the like, as in the present passage; cf. also Tusc. 5, 20 nos vellem praemio elicere possemus, and

Fam. 15, 3, 2. 25 Laelium...putes: the omission of a conjunction to connect two clauses

together is particularly common in Cic. when two clauses are contrasted, as here and below, ab his sermo oritur, respondet Laelius; cf. 49, l. 32; 69, p. 50, 1. 5; 13, 1. 16; 19, 1. 29; 22, 1. 27; 90, 1. 18. however (below), the clauses are not contrasted, but parallel.

In ll. 32, 33

27 disputatie: here not discussion', but merely discourse'; cf. De Or.

2, 233 disputes quid sentias; also n. on 4, 1. 13. 28 te ipse cognosces: 'you will recognise your own likeness'. Cf. 10,

1. 12 me ipse consolor; also 59, 1. 20; 80, l. 4. In these places ipse, not ipsum, is put, because there is an implied contrast between the subject of the verb and other persons, so that ipse==kal attós; here you yourself, as well as others'.

§ 6. 29 sunt ista: 'what you say is true '; sunt ista (čo tu tauta) and sunt ista

vera being equivalent expressions. The phrases esto (be it granted') and verum esto are frequently interchanged, as in Cic. Flacc. 71, 72,95; cf. also N. D. 1,60 quid non sit, quid sit ; Acad. I, 134 tum hoc mihi probabilius, tum illud videiur, et tamen nisi alterutrum sit, virtutem plane iacere puto. In two passages of the Academica containing esse or verum esse, Mss readings have been wrongly tampered with by editors. In 2, 10 dicam enim nec mea nec ea in quibus, si non fuerint, non vinci me malim quam vincere, there is not the slightest need to insert vera after fuerint; while in 1, 43 verum esse autem arbitror correctionem veteris

Academiae putandam (sc. hanc rationem), it is altogether unnecessary to expunge either verum or autem, the sense being 'I believe it however to be true that the system should be looked upon as a reform of the Old

Academy'. 30 existimare...existimant: the repetition is a mark of careless writing. 31 oculos...coniectos : the cause is given at the end of $ 7. 32 hoc: i.e. ut sapiens et appellaretur et existimaretur. For the tense of tribuebatur see n. on 37, 1. 2 videbamus.

modo : 'a little while since'; the expression is somewhat loose since Cato died in 149 B.C.; cf. the use of nuper in 13, 1. 10; 24, 1. 25. 33 L. Acilium : supposed to be the person mentioned by Cic. Leg.

2, 59 as a commentator on the XII tables, and probably a contemporary of Cato. By some he is thought to be the person named by Liv. 40, 31, 1 as commander of the left wing of the Rom

army at the battle of Aebura in 181 B.C. Some read in our passage L. Atilius, a name about which nothing is known.

P. 29.
uterque: sc. sapiens appellatus est or habuit hoc nomen sapientis.

alio quodam modo: 'in a somewhat different way"; understanding atque tu. Cf.25, 1. 4 aliud quoddam; 7,1.6 and 74, 1. 14 alio quodam modo; 27, p. 37, 1. 1. Quidam (like quasi in 3, p. 28, 1. 2) is often used to indicate that the word to which it is attached does not accurately represent the writer's meaning. In the passages quoted above quodam quoddam etc. indicate that alio aliud etc. are too strong for Cicero's meaning. On the other hand in 29, 1. 26; 45, 1. 18; 75, 1. 21; 59, p. 46, l. 32 the parts of quidam used shew that Cicero cannot find terms strong enough, and that the terms used are only make-shifts. The indefinite rus is used in the same two ways in Greek.

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prudens in iure: Seyffert rightly points out that Cic. does not use prudens with a genitive. He might have added that the phrase iuris prudens (for iuris peritus or consultus) is not Latin, though iuris prudentia occurs, as in De Or. 1, 256, and though jurisconsults are styled prudentes. Cic. has imprudens with gen. in De inv. 2, 95, also prudens ad in pro Font. 43; and prudentia often both with gen. and with in and abl.

multarum rerum usum: 'a manifold experience'. Liv, 39, 40, 4 says of him nulla ars neque privatae neque publicae rei gerendae ei defuit. 3 habebat et multa: for the reading see Appendix. There is a change

of construction in the sentence; the clause from Acilius to putabatur requires to be completed by supplying something like ergo appellatus est sapiens, while the clauses from Cato to ferebantur, which are parallel to the former clause, have their sense actually completed by the words from propterea to sapientes. multa eius... ferebantur : 'many instances where both in the se

e senate and the forum he displayed either

wise Foresight, or firm conduct, or shrewdness in reply, were on every tongue'. The chief reference in responsa is to Cato's fame as a lawyer. According to old Roman custom he sat at home in the early morning, on purpose to resolve the legal difficulties of all who chose to consult him. This was technically called ius respondere. 5 quasi: “almost'; cf. n. on quasi, 3, p. 28, 1. 2.

iam: i.e. even before his death.

sapientis: observe this difference between Latin and English idiom; the Latins always say nomen iustitiae, vox fortitudinis, appellatio prudentis etc. where we use apposition—the name justice', 'the word courage', 'the title skilful'. Cf. 92, !. 30 nomen amicitiae and for the sense Čat. m. 5 (where Cato is speaking) sapientiam meam admirari soletis,quae utinam digna esset opinione vestra nostroque cognomine! Note that the same term cognomen is applied to the inherited third name Cato and to the acquired name sapiens. In late Latin agnomen was applied to the latter to mark the distinction.

8 7. 6 te autem...esse sapientem: this clause was really intended to depend

on existimant below, l. 13, but owing to the great length of the sentence Cic. made a pause at iudicatum, and repeated the gist of the sentence down to that point in the words hanc...sapientiam, which are actually made to depend on existimant. The sentence is an example of change of construction or anacoluthia.

non solum... doctrina : here natura denotes the intellectual endowments with which a man is born, and mores his natural character; cf. 7, 1. 7; 27, p. 37, 1. 7. Studium or devotion to the pursuit of learning depends on mores, doctrina or attainment on this combined with natura. "The two words natura and mores together comprise the whole natural endowments of a man, while studium and doctrina indicate his acquirements. Lahmeyer says that natura corresponds to studio and moribus to doctrina, but the following passage will prove him to be wrong: Academica i,

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20 naturae celeritatem ad discendum et memoriam dabant,...

....morum autem putabant studia esse. Cf. also (with my notes on the passage) Arch. 15 ego multos homines excellenti animo ac virtute fuisse et sine doctrina naturae ipsius habitu...gravis exstitisse fateor etc., and Verg: Georg. 4, 5 mores et studia. Studio et doctrina is not an instance of ÈV dia dvoiv, and should not be translated by zeal for learning', but

by devotion and culture’; cf. Arch. 3 otium ac studium ; De Or. 1, 22 otio studioque. 9 reliqua : this word is proleptic or anticipative, since its sense is not

fully seen till we come to Athenis which completes the contrast. So ceterus is often used and doctos, állos in Greek; cf. 16, 1. 21 ceteris; 22, l. 24 ceterae; 54, 1. 17 antea ; 41, l. 18 deinde; 55, 1. 21 cetera.

septem : 'the seven', sapientes being understood, as in 59, p. 46, 1. 32. So xii alone often stands for XII tabulae (Leg. 2, 59, 60), and Asinius Pollio has (in Cic. Fam. 10, 32, 2) xiv for xiv ordines. subtilius: 'with

usual accuracy'. Subtilis is often the exact equivalent of the Greek ακριβής. .

non habent : Cic. in Off. 3, 16 denies the title sapiens not only to the seven, but to Cato and to Laelius himself.

unum: emphatic : 'one only'. Cic. nearly always leaves the English 'only'unexpressed, but occasionally he uses modo, and once (Acad. 2, 74) tantum, the occurrence of which Seyffert on this passage wrongly denies.

et eum quidem : these words really belong to and add emphasis to sapientissimum; cf. 4, l. 16 et eorum ; 38, 1. 23 et eorum quidem.

Apollinis...iudicatum: Socrates in Plato's Apology p. 21 A merely says that the oracle declared that no one was wiser than himself (undeva oopúrepov elval). The person who put the enquiry to the oracle, Chaerephon, a pupil of Socrates, was dead when the trial took place, but his brother bore evidence to the facts. Xenophon in his Apology 14 (if it be his) makes Socrates speak more definitely about the oracles-aveilev ó 'Απόλλων μηδένα είναι ανθρώπων εμού μήτε ελευθεριώτερον μήτε δικαιότερον unte owopovégtepov. In another part of the Apology by Plato (33 c) Socrates says that the life he followed had been enjoined on him by the Delphian god και εκ μαντείων και εξ ενυπνίων. The Scholiast on Aristophanes' Nubes 114 gives there the actual words of the answer to Chaerephon : σοφός Σοφοκλής, σοφώτερος δ' Ευριπίδης, ανδρών δ' απάντων Σωκράτης σοφώτερος. The latter of the two lines is also preserved by Diogenes Laertius 2, 5, § 37. Cic. speaks in four other passages of the

oracle, viz. Lael. 10 and 13, Cat. m. 78, Academ. I, 16. 13 omnia tua in te posita esse: the Stoic doctrine is here hinted at, that

virtue is the only thing deserving the name of good, and that the happiness of the truly wise man is absolutely unaffected by external circumstances. People were curious to see whether Laelius would try to carry out his philosophy, and to appear careless about the death of his friend. For

constr. posita in cf..4, 1. 16; 20, p. 34, 1. 7. 14 virtute inferiores: 'of less importance than virtue'. This (see pre

ceding n.) is not strong enough to express the Stoic doctrine.

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