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near Sebenico is the chief. The fish caught in the lakes, &c. form a chief part of the subsistence of many of the inhab. Excellent timber for ship-building and other urposes abounds in the interior; but is next to useless rom the absolute want of roads, canals, or navigable rivers, to convey it to the sea. The large forests which formerly existed on the coast have been cut down, and that part of the country is now almost bare of wood. The attention of the Austrian government is now, how. ever, directed to the forest economy of the prov., in the view of supplying the dock-yards at Flume and Venice with Dalmatian timber. Coal is found in several parts, and considerable quantities are exported to Trieste. Ship-building, and the distillation of maraschino and rosoglio, are the chief branshes of manufacturing industry. Maraschino is extensively consumed at Vienna, and it is well known in this and most other countries. Besides these, a few articles of primary necessity only are manufactured; for all others, the inhab. are obliged to have recourse to the neighbouring countries. This prov. enjoys the important advantage of being placed without the Austrian customs line, the duty on foreign goods imported being only 3% per cent. ad valorem. But the strictness with which quarantine regulations are enforced have gone far to nullify the important benefits that would otherwise have resulted from this valuable privilege. The Dalmatians are amongst the best sailors of the Adriatic. In 1837 they had 410 vessels, of the burden of 14,435 tons, of which about two thirds belonged to Ragusa. This country is divided into four o named after their respective capitals, Zara, Spalatro, Ragusa, and Cattaro : the last two circles are separated from the rest of Dalmatia, and from each other, by two narrow slips of land belonging to Turkey, which stretch down to the sea coast. The other chief towns are, Sebenico, Trau, and Macarsca. Zara is the cap., and seat of the governor and council of the prov. In 1837, the pop., with the marriages, births, deaths, &c., in these circles, were : —

Pop. per Circles. Pop. Gor. 4. Mar. Births. Deaths. Mile.

City of Zara - - - 62 51 x 285 Circle of Zara - - 955 1,167, 4,6 5, 190 Spalatro - - - 1,685 | 1,062, 4,985 5,511 - - - - 1,960 349. 1,650. 848 Cattaro - ... - - 88: 195 896, 669 Military - - - - - 10. 18 109

Total - - - 1,707 2,81. 21 8,740

The inhab. of Dalmatia are Slavonians of the same race with the Croatians, Servians, and Bosnians. The names of their rivers, mountains, &c. are all Slavonic, and that of the country itself expresses the most re. motely situated tribe.* The vicinity of, and constant intercourse with, the Italian harbours, has introduced the use of the Italian language amongst the commercial art of the inhab., as German is the principal tongue }. amongst the civil and military official circles. The number of Italians settled in the country is estimated by Blumenbach at 37,000. Some descendants of Hungarian families are found amongst the nobility of the N. circles, and the Jews, who are not very numerous, are said to descend from the exiles of that mation driven from Spain in 1502. Near Verlika and in other parts, zinzari, or gipsies, are found. Even amongst the Slavonic inhabitants different tribes are distinguishable. The most backward, in point of civilisation, are the Morlacchi, the mountaineers of the circles of Zara and Spalatro. They are addicted to a nomadic kind of life, and wander about as shepherds, sleeping in summer in the open air. The comforts of the agriculturist and fishermen are few, as is usually the case in warm climates: their houses are small and badly built, and furniture is mostly dispensed with. Fish and vegetables are the chief articles of nourishment, and both are abundant. The dress of the inhab. of the coast consists in blue tight pantaloons, a blue waistcoat, and in winter a spencer, with a coarse brown cloak shaped like that of the Italian boatmen. The mountaineers wear a linen dress in summer, and in winter throw their sheepskins about their shoulders, which are proof against all the vicissitudes of the weather. The inhab. are gene. rally active, courageous, and of quick perception; but, until they came under the Austrian sceptre, were not only neglected, but living on terms of constant warfare with their Mussulman neighbours, from which state of things the recent border feuds are an inheritance. The large knife and pistols which the Morlacchi still wear in their girdles, and the gun which the shepherd slings over his shoulder from custom, remind the stranger no less strongly than the shaven heads of some of the mountaineers, of the affinity, in descent and in manners, existing between the Slavonic tribes that inhabit both sides of the mountains.

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Number of children who in that year were returned as able to go to school, 17,978; so that those at school do not amount to 1-4th part of those who should be there ! The criminal accusations in 1837, amounted to 623; making, with the remainder from the previous year, 999. Of these only 574 were decided during the year, of which 261 were acquittals. Of 2,575 persons convicted, the proportion of the principal crimes to 100 convictions was ollows:– Outrageous conduct, 10; abuse of authority, l ; thieving and swindling, 32; robbery, 6; rape, 1 ; breach of sanatory regulations, 3 ; murder, 7; cutting and maiming, l l ; arson, 14; other crimes, 22. Dalmatia differs from the other *...". of the Austrian empire, in having no provincial diet or representative assembly; but certain of its towns and some districts, especially that of Poglizza near Spalatro, retain their own jurisdiction, and the same privileges they possessed before their union with Austria. The highest authority in Dalmatia is the governor, who resides at Zara, the seat of the Gubernium. In this city the court of appeals, and the highest criminal court are established, with dependent courts in the four circle towns, Zara, Spalatro, Ragusa, and Cattaro. Each circle has several districts, the chief magistrate in which is named praetor, and takes cognizance of judicial and police affairs, besides directing the rural economy of the district. The districts divide into greater and lesser parishes or communes, under headboroughs (Capi villa and Podesta) who receive no salary, but are exempted from the Robot (public service work), as are also the Sardari, a description of gens-d'armes, formed by the government out of the armed peasantry which, during the war, had lived upon a very o: footing. The guarding of the frontiers towards Turkey, is an important charge in Dalmatia, and a strict watch is also kept along the coast. For purposes of trade, 6 bazaars or markets are held on the !. and 7 rastells, or parlatoria, at intervening stations. Lazarets are established at Zara, Spalatro, Ragusa, and Castelmono. Dalmatia formed, from the commencement of the 12th century down to 1419, a portion of the kingdom of Hungary: at the lo epoch it passed under the sway of the Venetians, who had made themselves masters of Ragusa nearly 100 years previously. During the 16th and 17th centuries 3. country was the constant seat of wars between the Venetians and Turks, until it was finally conquered by the latter, who held, it till 1797, when i. was ceded to Austria. In 1805, Austria gave up Dalmatia to the French, who incorporated it into the kingdom of Italy. Napoleon made it a duchy, and conferred the title §aui. of Dalmatia on Marshal Soult. On the downfall of Napoleon it reverted to Austria. (Oesterr. Nat. Encyc.; Fortis's Travels 5 and private information from P'tenna.) DAMASCUS (called by the natives Es-Sham, an: Dimeshk, Heb. Damasck, Greek Aaozarxes), a city of Syria, cap. of an important pachalic of the same name, and the virtual metropolis of Syria, in a the E. foot of the Anti-Libanus, about 180 m. S. by W. Aleppo; lat. 330 27 N., long. 36° 25' E. Pop. from 120,000 to 150,000, of whom 12,000 are Christians, and as many Jews. A splendid mosque of great antiquity, the construction of which is disputed by Christians and, Mussulmans, is the chief architecturas ornament. The form of the building (a cross), with a similarity in arrangement, to the sacred edifices of Italy, seems to evince its Christian origin, while the abundance of Saracenic ornaments É. that the Arabs, if not its founders, have contriuted extensively to its decoration. It is, 650 ft. in length, by 150 in width ; a fountain plays in the midst of a magnificent court, and the pillars and other ornaments are superb. A skull, said to be that of the Baptist, and his sepulchre, give such sanctity to this mosque, that it is death for even a Mohammedan to enter the room where the relics are kept. A Christian is liable to the bastinado for merely Woki, into the court; and the western world is indebted for its knowledge of the interior of the building to the works of Ali Bey and Buckingham, who, in their character of Mussulmans, were allowed to inspect what no known Christian is permitted to approach. There are man According to Ali Bey (ii. 266.) and they are o of notice; but Robinson says they are only less splendid than those of Constantinople. The bazaars are extremely numerous, and well supplied with merchandise: but the private residences of the gentry are, after all, the most striking objects to a stranger, not for their exterior appearance, which presents nothing but a gloomy wall of mud, or sun-dried bricks, but for the combination of convenience, magnificence, and taste, which mark the interior arrangements, and realise all that can be imagined of eastern splendour. 200,000 piastres (2,000l ) is sometimes expended on the fittings up of a single rpartment. There are 31 khans, or establishments for the reception of merchandise, and that of Hussein I’acha, built of alternate layers of black and white marble, with its fountain, arcades, and corridors, is a very beautiful and imposing object. A mosque of dancing dervishes deserves notice, less as one of the principal edifices of the town, than from the singular contrast in the occupations of its inmates, who, every Friday (the Mohammedan Sunday), pirouette and twiri themselves about from morning till night, while, during the other six days, they are industrious silk weavers. There are asso Greek, Maronite, Syrian, and Armenian churches, 3 convents of Franciscan monks, and 8 Jewish synagogues. Hospitals numerous ; the principal, in which great numbers of sick and lame poor are lodged and fed gratuitously, is a fine building, with a mosque belonging to it. There are about 30 large schools for children, a great number of smaller ones, besides which public lectures are given daily in the great mosque, and in some others, but education is confined to the religion and laws of Mohammed. * The serai, or palace of the pacha, is a large fortified building in the centre of the city. The latter is surrounded by walls and towers, but they are in a half ruinous state, and pressed upon by extensive suburbs on every side. Damascus is essentially a commercial town ; 200 merchants are permanently settled in it, besides which there are 129 tanners, 47 painters, 22 o and 35 dyers of various stuffs; 120 silk dyers (all Jews), 34 silkwinders, 748 dealers in damask cloth, 21 l grocers, 19 warehouses of cotton thread, 68 tobacco-manufactories, 72 saddlers, l l tent-sellers, 47 o 50 ironmongers, 54 farriers, 70 furriers, 98 lacemen, 140 bakers, 58 millers, 24 corn-merchants, 122 coffee-houses, 32 confectioners, 129 butchers, 124 barbers, 71 tailors, 6 watchmakers, 6 bookbinders, 6 paper-merchants, 43 pipe-manufacturers, 200 dealers in handkerchiefs and fancy articles, 150 dealers in tobacco and coffee, 4 glass-houses, 4 soap-makers, 143 weavers, 500 public cooks, 59 public baths, and 19 armourers. In regard to the last, | may be remarked that the ancient celebrity of Damascus sabres has very much declined, but they still bear a good name. Saddlery, cabinet-work, jewellery, and silk, are now the staple manufactures. Foreign trade is carried on, by the great Mecca caravan, which, in peaceable times, departs once a year; the Bagdad caravan, which usually performs 2 or 3 journeys a year ; the Aleppo caravan, 2 or 3 times a month and by several small caravans to Beirout, Tripoli, Acre, &c., which arrive and depart daily. Beirout is reckoned the port of Damas: cus. This city is watered by 2 rivers, the Barrada and Fichee, which, alter uniting, divide again into 7 branches, again re-unite, and finally deposit their waters in a lake (Lake of the Meadow), which has no outlet. This abundant supply and natural diffusion of water has rendered the ... of Damascus very fertile. the inhabitants do not remember a }*. of scarcity; wheat, barley, hemp, with every kind and variety of fruit, are produced in almost unlimited abundance, and the gardens, or enclosures, form a forest of trees, and a labyrinth of hedges, walls, and ditches, of more than 21 m. in circ. The natives speak with delight of the beauty of their home, especially as seen from the hills behind Salahieh, a large village on the N.; but according to Dr. Richardson (ii. 481.), the scenery is inferior to that scen from the summits of Highgate, Hampstead, and Richmond hills. The climate of Damascus is mild: the summits of the Anti-Libanus are covered with perpetual snow, which sometimes falls in, the city. The }. are said to enjoy good health, but blindness is frightfully prevalent, and leprosy, fever, and dropsy, are common. The plague, however, is almost unknown, and the ordinary duration of life is said to be from 70 to 80 years, but that, no doubt, is exaggerated. amascus is very ancient : it is mentioned in Gen. xiv. 15. as existing 1913 years h.c., and was then, as subsequently, probably the capital of an independent Syrian kingdom. It was subdued by David (2 Sam. viii. 6.), but recovered its independence, if not earlier, at least during the reign of Solomon. (1 Kings, xi. 24.) It

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other mosques. ddison (ii. 151.), ii. 224.)

then became the capital of the kingdom of Ben-hadad and his successors (1 Kings, xv. 18.), and remained so till its subjugation by Tigleth-Pileser, about 742 E. c., a little before the downfall of its rival Samaria. (2 Kings, xvi. 9.) From this time it followed the fortunes of the rest of Syria, falling successively under the power of the Persians, Greeks, and Romans. As a Roman city, it attained great eminence, and figures very conspicuously in the history of the apostle Paul. (Acts, ix.) Damascus was taken by the Saracens in 632, after a siege of 7 months, and was for many years the cap. of the khalifate. It was unsuccessfully besieged by the crusaders in 1148, captured by Timour Bec or Tamerlane in 1400, and destroyed by an accidental fire in the fol. lowing year. In 1516 it fell into the hands of the Turks, who retained it till 1832, when it was captured by Ibrahim Pacha, in whose hands it now remains. Damascus is remarkable as being the only city of the East which has not dwindled from its former greatness. Its pop. seems to be as great now as ever; while Babylon, Nineveh, Palmyra, &c. have wholly vanished, and Antioch, Aleppo, &c. are, as it were, the shadows only of their ancient glory. amascus is one of the sacred cities of the Mohammedans, and its inhab. have the character of being the most intolerant and fanatical of all the prophet's sollowers. Till within these 6 years, the appearance of a Frank costume was the signal for a riot. Christians and Jews were alike prohibited from riding any beast but an ass (in 1807 even this was forbidden); and the appointment of an English consul in 1831 caused an insurrection, which lasted several months. The conquests of Ibrahim Pacha have produced a great change, if not in the feelings of the people, at least in their mode of exhibiting them. Christians of all sects and Jews walk in procession, openly rejoicing in the avowed protection of the present government, exposed only to the impotent threats of those who, retaining the will, have lost the wer to annoy them. In spite, however, of their general ntolerance, most travellers bear honourable testimony to the hospitality of the Damascenes. (William of Tyre, p. 303. et seq.; , Adrichomius, Ter. Sanc., pp. 81–84. ; Abul-Feda, Tab. Syr., pp. 100. 171; ; Maundrell, pp. 164-179. ; , Polney, ii. 226-232; Ali Bey; ii. 264— 282. ; Richardson, ii. 460–497. ; Michaud et Potojolat, Cor. d’Or, vi. 148–235. ; Robinson, ii. 217–230. ; Hogg, ii. 1–80. ; Addison, ii. 92–196.) DAMAUN, a marit. town of Hindostan, prov. Gujrat, belonging to the Portuguese, 82 m. N. Bombay, and 45 in. §§§ Surat; lat. 200 25° N., long. 72° 58' E. Pop. 6,000.? It stands on the banks of a small river, which in spring tides, during the S.W. monsoon, has from 18 to 20 ft. water. The buildings of the town are mostly whitened, and give it a handsome appearance from the sea: its walls are incapable of defence, and its streets narrow and dirty. It contains several churches and convents, and a Parsee temple, in which it is affirmed a sacred flame brought from Persia has been kept up for 1,200 years. It has a roadstead, where vessels lie 3 m; off shore in 8 fathoms water. Damaun is most celebrated for its docks and ship-building: its ships wear well, and sail well before the wind, but some time since they were too short for their breadth, so that they laboured in a head sea. Damaun was taken by the Portuguese in 1531. and has belonged to them ever since. (Hamilton's E. I. Gaz., i. 479. ; Dict. Géographique.) DAMA UN, a large distr. of Assohanistan, now subordinate to the Maharajah of the Punjab, but formerly belonging to Caubul; between lat. 31° and 34° N., and long. 69° 30' and 7.29 E., bounded S. by Sungur, in Sinde, W. by the Solimaun Mountains, N. by the salt * diverging from the latter, and E. by the Indus. long the banks of the latter the country is a plain bare of grass, the soil o, composed of the slime deposited by the river, by which it is regularly inundated ; in the S. parts, especially, a good deal of this flat ground is overspread with low, thick tamarisk jungles, abounding in wild boars, hog deer, and game of all sorts. Round the villages large woods of date trees are often seen, but no other trees of any size: where there is cultivation the country is rich, but by far the greater part of it is waste. The central parts are composed of arid sandy plains, divided by hill-ranges, and depending entirely upon rain for cultivation: the more uneven country skirting the W. mountains is more fertile, and produces wheat, bajree, jowaree, and other Indian grains. The winter in Damaun is cooler than in Hindostan, but the heat of summer is extreme. This distr. is inhabited by various turbulent clans, principally Juts and Belooches, living in rpetual contention with each other, and who, havin an at a distance from the seat of government, ...i never rendered much more than a nominal obedience to the Caubul sovereign. Some of the Damaum tribes are nomadic, others fixed agriculturists, and many are honords, the country in imany parts yielding good pasture land. (Elphinstone's Caubul, i. 53–72 ) DAM IETTA, a town of Lower Egypt, the third in rank, pop., and importance in the o on the E. bank of the branch of the Nile bearing its name, 6 m. S. from its mouth (the anc. Phatmiticum Ostium), 80 m. E. Rosetta, and 97 m. N.N.E. Cairo. Lat. 319 25° 43° N., long. 31° 49' 30" E. Pop. has been stated at 30,000; but this is probably much overrated. The inhab. are principally natives of Egypt, with a few Syrians and Levant Greeks. A bend in the river gives to the town a somewhat crescent shape. It is irregularly and ill built ; though there are some good mosques, several bazaars, and some marble baths. Some of the better sort of houses, which are of brick, have terraces and pavilions; and such as are near the Nile, have little ports, whence to embark on the water ; but there are no open spaces, nor buildings, worthy of much notice, and, generally speaking, it is but a collection of miserable mud hovels. The Pacha has lately established a school for infantry officers, with 400 pupils; as well as an extensive collection of buildings for drying, husking, and cleaning rice, some mills, and a cotton factory. The latter supplies a great deal of coarse cotton cloth, which forms the wear of the labouring classes. The bar at the mouth of this branch of the Nile prevents the access of any large vessels to the town ; so that merchant ships have to lie outside the bar, and load and unload by means of small Greek craft, Egyptian djerms, and other vessels of from 30 to 60 tons burthen. But, despite these difficulties, Damietta, previously to the sway of Me: hemet Ali, had a considerable trade : his commercial system has, however, transferred the greater part of it to Alexandria. Its chief article of export is the rice rown in its neighbourhood, which is the best in Egypt. ried fish of the Lake Menzaleh, dates from the numerous plantations round the town, with coffee, beans, and linen, are the other principal articles of export. Most European nations still retain vice-consuls here. It has a governor, and a municipal administration similar to that of Cairo and Alexandria. DAMIETTA (Old) (anc. Thamaitis), from which the present town originated, stood about 4 m. to the N., where some of its ruins are still distinguishable. Under the Saracens, it was one of the most commercial and wealthy towns of o . It was thrice taken by the Christians;—by Roger, king of Sicily; by John of Brienne, and the crusaders; and by Louis IX. of France in 1249. Louis being soon after made prisoner by the Saracens, the town was delivered up for his ransom ; upon which, the Saracens, to prevent future attacks, partially blocked up the mouth of the river by sinking vessels laden with stones in the channel ; and having levelled Thamaitis with the ground, forced its inhabitants to remove to the present town. (MS. Account of Damietta ; Dict. Géo §o.” DANTZIC (Germ. #|. ol. Gdansk), an imortant commercial city, sea-port, and stronghold of the russian states, Prussia Proper, cap. reg. and circ. of same name, on the left bank of the Vistula, about 3 m. from its mouth ; lat. 54° 20' 48" N., long. 18° 38' E. Pop. (er. military) in 1834, 55,400; in 1838, 56,257.


It is traversed by the small rivers Motlau and Rodaune, and is very strongly fortified. . It is ill built, and the streets are narrow, irregular, and gloomy. The cathedral church of St. Mary is the principal public |# it was finished in 1503, and has a fine brass font and a magnificent picture of the last judgment. The town-house, arsenal, and the Arthushof or exchange, also deserve notice. There are 15 Lutheran churches and chapels, 4 Catholic churches and a chapel, 2 synagogues, an English church, &c., with several monasteries and convents. It has a gymnasium, two grammarschools, and many inferior schools, with schools of navigation, midwifery, and commerce; a school of arts and trades, a good public library, an observatory, a museum, a society of natural, philosophy, &c., an orphan and on 6 hospital, a large workhouse, and various hospitals. Within the last few years a number of friendly and charitable societies have been established. Dantzic is the seat of the provincial authorities, of a court of appeal for the circle, a council of admiralty, a tribunal .."commerce, a provincial board of taxation, &c. It has a vast number of distilleries and breweries, the latter of which produce the black-beer in such general demand; it has also large establishments for grinding flour, with dye-works, sugar-refineries, and manufac. tures of fire-arms, tobacco, silks, vitriol, &c., and some jewellery business. The harbour, called Newfahrwasser, is at the mouth of the river; but vessels drawing 8 or 9 ft. come up to the city. Being the emporium of the extensive and fruitful countries traversed by the Vistula and its affluents, Dantzic has a very extensive commerce; and is at the head of all the corn-shipping ports, not of Europe only, but of the world. Wheat forms the principal article of export; it is of the best quality, and very large quantities are exported, as many as 500,000 quarters having been shipped in a single year. There is also a large exportation of flour, rye, barley, pease, and oats, with timber inferior only to that of Memel, linseed and rapeseed, staves, pearl ashes, bones, zinc, flax and hemp, linens, feathers, beer and spirits, wool, &c. The principal articles of import consist of woollens, cottons, and other manufactured goods, colonial produce, dye-stuffs, wine, oil, spice, fruit, salt, furs, &c. The usual depth of water at the river's mouth is from 13 to 14 ft. ; but in the roads, which are protected by the long, low, narrow tongue of land called the Heel, there is good anchorage for ships of any burden. The greater part of the trade of Dantzic is in the hands of foreigners, particularly the English. In 1834, there belonged to the port 60 ships of the burden of 13,292 Prussian lasts; and during the same year 359 foreign ships (of which 38 were British) arrived at, and 361 cleared from, the port. The granaries for storing the corn brought down the Vistula are generally seven stories high ; and these, with the warehouses for linens, ashes, hemp, &c., are all situated on a small island surrounded by the Motlau. They are, or recently were, guarded by o dogs. During the year 1839, the exports of corn, flour, and seeds, from Dantzic, were as follows:–

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Taking the last at 10} imp, quarters, this would give, exclusive of flour, an export of 412,403. Quarters of wheat, which cost, free on board, from 45s. to 55s. a quarter. Of this amount, 37,197 lasts, or 384,369 quarters, and no fewer than 44,426 barrels of flour, were shipped for England. The grain in warehouse at Dantzic' on 31st December, 1839, amounted to 13,809 lasts; of which 7,010 were wheat. During the same year, there were exported 8,719 cwt. ship-bread ; 15,952 cwt., salted meat; 30,885 casks of black-beer; about 6,000 barrels of ashes; 37,897 cwt. Zinc, and 19,050 cwt. bones; besides vast quantities of timber. The export of corn from Dantzic in 1838 was still more considerable.

The notious current in this country as to the extreme low price of wheat in Dantzic, have no good foundation: No considerable demand from abroad can be met without resorting for supplies to the markets in the S.part of Poland and Galicia, from 500 to 700 m. inland. The corn is thence brought to the city by water in flat-bottomed boats suited to the navigation of the rivers; but, owing to the uncertain supply of water in the rivers, their usual shallowness, and the difficulty of their navi

o, its conveyance is both very tedious and expensive.

Mr. Consul Gibson, who had the best means of acquiring accurate information, estimated the expense of con#. wheat and rye thither, including the duty at Thorn and the charges of turning on the river, till put !. granary at Dantzic, according to the distance, as oilows :

4. d. s. d. If from the upper vinces on the Bug, a distance of from 700 to 500 m., per quarter - - 9 2 to 7 to From the provinces of Cracow, Sendomir, and Lublin, 5*0 to 350 m. - - - 6 6 - 5 4 Froin Warsaw and its neighbourhood, about 240 m. 4 9 – 3 11 From Wlaclaweck and its neighbourhood, about 140 m. - - - - 4 2 - 3 5 From Graudentz, a distance of about 70 m., there being in this case no duty at Thorn, and when not turned on the river - - - 0 10 - 0 9

It is essential, however, to observe that these are the ordinary, charges; and that they are very decidedly higher when there is any unusual demand for exportation, that is, when there is a demand for 200,000 quarters and upwards.

The Bug has many windings, and its navigation, which is slow and difficult, can only be attempted in the spring, when the water is high. It is the same, though in a less degree, with some of the rivers that fall into the Vistula before it reaches Warsaw ; and towards Cracow the Vistula itself is frequently unnavigable, especially in dry seasons, except in spring and after the midsummer rains, when the snow melts on the Carpathian Mountaints. In 1832, the navigation of the Polish rivers was more than usually bad. The corn from the upper provinces did not reach Dantzic till from two to four months later than usual, and was burdened with a very heavy aduitional expense. The fact is, that the supplies of grain at I)antzic depend quite as much on the abundance of water in the rivers, or on their easy navigation in summer, as on the goodness of the harvests. “There are,” says Mr. Jacob, “two modes of conveying wheat to Dantzic by the Vistula. That which grows near the lower parts of the river, comprising Polish Russia, and part of the prov. of Płock, and of Masovia, in the kingdom of Poland, which is generally of an inferior quality, is conveyed in covered boats, with shifting boards that protect the cargo from the rain, but not from ilfering. These vessels are long, and draw about 15 nches water, and bring about 150 quarters of wheat; they are not, however, so well calculated for the upper arts of the river. From Cracow, where the Vistula rst becomes navigable, to below the junction of the Bug with that stream, the wheat is mostly conveyed to Dantzic in open flats. These are built on the banks, in seasons of leisure, on spots far from the ordinary reach of the water, but which, when the autumnal rains, or the melted snows in spring, fill and overflow the river, are easily floated. These flats, which are very rudely constructed, usually carry down from 180 to 200 quarters; but though they only draw from ten to twelve inches water, they are frequently grounded.” During the period from 1770 to 1819, the average price of wheat at Dantzic was 45s. 4d. a quarter. The demand was very limited from 1820 to 1829, and the price o low. The same cause reduced the price rom 1832 to 1837; but whenever there is any considerable demand for Dantzic wheat, or for 150,000 quarters and upwards, the price invariably amounts to from 40s. to 50s. or 55s, a quarter. We incline to think that from 40s. to 45s, a quarter would be about the average price of wheat in Dantzic in ordinary years, were the British ports always open under a fixed duty of 5s. or 6s. a quarter. It is, at all events, abundantly certain that its price would not be under 40s, a quarter. But taking it at only 38s., if we add to this 10s. or 12s. as the cost of conveying a quarter of wheat from Dantzic to London, and putting it into ranary here, including insurance and profit, and 5s. or for duty, it is immediately seen that it is the greatest imaginable error to suppose that our agriculturists should be sensibly injured by the importation of Dantzic wheat. Under the circumstances supposed, it could not, in ordinary years, be offered for sale in this country for less than from 55s. to 58s. a quarter, a price more than sufficient to insure the continued progress of British agriculture. Dantzic was probably founded in the 10th century. It was o by the knights of the Teutonic order in 1310, and was held by them till 1454, when it emancipated itself from their yoke, and became a free indeendent state, under the protection of Poland. For a engthened period Dantzic was a principal member of the Hanseatic {... and had under it several dependent cities. During its independence, the citizens were engaged in frequent contests with the Poles, Swedes, &c.; and, notwithstanding the protection of England, Holland, and Prussia, Peter the Great exacted froin them considerable contributions. The pretension of Dantzic to the exclusive navigation of the Vistula, or to demand a toll from such ships as passed in and out of the river, was at all times submitted to with reluctance. After the first partition of Poland in 1772, Frederick the Great, having acquired a large accession of territory on the Vistula, approaching almost to the gates of Dantzic, claimed for his suojects the right to the free navigation of the river. This having been refused by the Dantzickers, gave rise to some acts of hostility, and to lengthened negotiations. These, however, were cut short in 1793 by the second partition of Poland, when Dantzic was assigned to Prussia. During the late war, the city was occupied for several years | a French garrison, and suffered much from the hostilities and exactions to which she was exposed; but since the peace of 1815 she has recovered much of her ancient prosperity. The fortifications have been also greatly strengthened and improved, and magnificent works have been constructed, by which the whole adjacent territory may be laid under water. During the Independence of Dantzic, there were attached to it the Worder, or alluvial island formed by the Vistula and the Motlau, and the Frische Nehrung, or long narrow tongue of land between the Frische # and

the sea. The former is very fertile, but the latter consists principally of sand. (Busching, Geog. ii. 907. ed. 1786; Zedlitz's Statistics of Prussia, ii. 466. in Germ. ; Private Information.) DANUBE (an, Danubius, and in the lower part of its course Ister, Germ. Donau, Hung. Duna), a celebrated river of Central and S.E. Europe, being, though | inferior in point of size to the Wolga, in every other respect the first among European rivers. Its general | course is from W. to E. ; it extends between long. 8° 10' and 29° 40' E., its extreme S. Pot of lat. bein 49° 2', and its extreme S. point 43° 38' N. Its to course from its source to its mouths, on the W. shore of the Black Sea, is from 1,750 to 1,800 m. ; during which it ses through the territories of Baden, Wirtemberg, Bavaria, and the Austrian empire, and divides Turkey from Wallachia, Moldavia, and Russia. It is said to | reocive 30 navigable and a vast number of inferior tributaries, the principal being the Isar, Inn, Drave, Save, Theiss, Morava, Sereth, and Pruth. The cities of Ulm, Ratisbon, Passau, Linz, Vienna, Presburg, Comorn, Gran, Waitzen, Buda, Pesth, Peterwardein, Neusatz, Semlin, Belgrade, Semendria, Widin, Nicopoli, Sistow, Rustchuk, Silistria, Brahilov, and Galacz, are situated upon its banks. The basin of the IDanube and its tributaries has been estimated to comprise about 1-13th part of the entire surface of Europe. (Dict. Geog.). It is bounded S. by the Alps, and the Balkhan ; and on the N. at first by the Black Forest and some minor alpine ranges, and asterwards by the Bohemian Forest" and Carpathian mountains. It includes the o: of Bavaria, Hungary, and Turkey in Europe; and the course of the Danube has been generally considered under three grand divisions, each embracing one of these plains. As this division is not o natural but convenient, we shall adhere to it in the following statements. The Danube originates in two streams, the Bregach and the Bregé, which have their sources on the E. declivity of the Black Forest, in the grand duchy of Baden, in about 48° 10' N. lat., and 8° 15' E. long. These streams having united at Donaueschingen, where they are augmented by a spring sometimes regarded as the head of the river, the united stream takes the name of the Danube. It thence proceeds at first S.E., but afterwards in a N.E. direction as far as Ratisbon, near which city it attains its extreme N. lat. It then runs again in a S.E. direction to about long. 15°, and from that point mostly E. to Vienna, where the first division of its course may be said to terminate. Within this division it receives on the right hand the streams of the lller, Gunz, Mindel, Lech, Isar, Inn, Traun, Ens, &c.; many of which are navigable for a considerable distance. Its affluents on the opposite side are, on the contrary, generally small ; and indeed, throughout the whole upper half of its course, the principal tributaries of the Danube (excepting the Theiss) are from the S. or right side, while in the lower division, those from the N. or left side are by far the most considerable. It receives, however, from the N. in the first division of its course, the Sulz, Altmühl, Naab, and Regen, all of which are navigable streams. At its source the Danube is 2,178 ft. above the level of the sea, and runs through an o country to Ulm, where its elevation is 1,532 ft. From Donauwörth to Passau it traverses the Bavarian plain; its height above the sea being at the former 1,125 ft., and at the latter 836 ft. At Passau it leaves the Bavarian dom., and thence to Vienna, intersects a second mountainous region. At Linz its elevation is 735 ft., and at Vienna 512 ft. At Ulm, the Danube first becomes navigable for flat-bottomed vessels of from 60 to 100 tons burden, though its depth othere measures little more, than 7 ft., and its breadth little more than 100 ft. Through the Bavarian plain its average depth is 10 ft. This increases considerably when it becomes again enclosed between the mountains at Passau ; but above Vienna its navigation is rendered difficult, not only by its general shallowness, but by its rapidity and the frequent rocks, shoals, and whirloocls in its channel. In the second division of its course, the Danube at first runs generally E. to Presburg, next through the lesser Hungarian plain S.E. to its confluence with the Raab, and then E. to Waitzen. At this point it turns S. through the great Hungarian plain, and runs parallel with the Theiss for nearly 23° of lat. to its junction with the Drave, about lat. 45° 30'. Here it turns S.E., in which general direction it continues to Orsova, where it leaves the Austrian dom. ; the second division of its course terminating at the cataract or pass called the “Iron Gate,” about 4 m. lower down. It is within this division that the Danube receives its largest and most important tributaries, including the Raab, Drave, Save, and Morava on its right, and the March, Waag, and Theiss on its left side. At Presburg, its waters are 331 ft., at Buda, 230 ft., and at Belgrade, 2(3 ft. above the level of the sea. From Vienna to the mouth of the Drave, the Danube runs through an expanse of plain country broken only in a few places, as at Presburg, Buda, and Waitzen. Near the latter it passes through a ravine formed in a chain of mountains, separating the two Hungarian plains. From its union with the lyrave, its S. banks in Slavonia and Servia are usually mountainous, while its N. continue low and marshy as far as Moldova. Previously to its reaching Buda, it is about 700 yards wide ; soon after passing that city it attains a width of upwards of 1,000 yards; and by the time it has arrived at Belgrade it is considerably more than ; of a mile across. (Dict. o From Vienna to Pesth, its bed is sprinkled with rocks, but they are not such impediments to navigation as in the upper portion of its course. Shifting sand-banks, which prevail all down the river as far as Moldova, are greater obstacles; but when the water is tolerably high, they may generally be avoided by good pilotago. (Austria and the Austrians, i. 327.) At Gönyö, 7 m. above Pesth, the Danube first becomes nav for vessels drawing more than from 2 to 24 ft. water. Near Moldova, a mountain range from the Balkhan, and another from the Carpathians, begin to confine the river on either side as far as Gladova in Servia. Throughout this distance, about 80 m., it is greatly contracted in width, abounds with rapids, and is beset with rocks. Near the terinination of this defile, a short distance below Orsova, is the famous pass of the “Iron Gate” (Turk., Demi-Kapi), already alluded to. This is a gorge about 2,000 yards in length, enclosed on either side by a mountain of micaceous slate, a material very difficult to break or blast, through which the river rushes with great velocity, over an inclined plane, with a sall of about 15 ft. a mile. The rocks here divide it into three channels. The centre one is of considerable width, and vessels of 400 tons may pass down it, when the river is very full ; the two others are , but shallow ; and that on the Wallachian or E. side is never used. According to Strabo (vii. 212.), it was here that the Danubius ended, and the Ister commenced ; but there is a great discrepancy as to this point among the ancient au. thorities. In the third division of its course, the Danube runs at first generally S. by E. to Widin; thence its direction is mostly E. by S. to near Sistow, where it attains its most S. lat. ; and from this point E.N.E. to Rassova. It then turns N. to Galacz, and finally runs from this town generally E. to its efflux in the Black Sea, about lat. 459. As far as Galacz, it forms the boundary between Turkey and Wallachia and Moldavia ; and between Galacz and the sea it is the boundary between Russia and Turkey, its principal N. and central mouths being included within the Russian territory. While the Danube is running S. by E., its right bank is mountainous, but the elevated lands soon afterwards recede from its banks, and throughout the rest of its course the river flows through a low plain, which E. of Silistria becomes marshy. In this division it receives on its left side the Schyl, Aluta, Vode, Argis, Jalomnitza, Sereth, and Pruth. Its affluents on the opposite side are much less considerable; the principal are the Isker, Osma, Taban, &c. In its progress through Turkey, the Danube varies in breadth from 1,400 to 2,100 yards; and its average depth is upwards of 20 ft. Ships of large size ascend as far as Silistria. About 50 m. from the Black Sea, it divides into three principal arms, besides giving origin to a considerable lake (Rassein) on its S. side, from which several minor arms proceed. The delta of the Danube is a vast swampy flat, interspersed with lagoons cowered with bulrushes, the resort of vast flocks of water fowl. The N. principal arm of the river (Kilia) and the S. (Edrillis), which forms the boundary between the Russian and Turkish dominions, are shallow and of little value; but the middle one (Sulinch) has from 10 to 12 ft. water over the bar at its mouth. This is said, however, to be gradually filling up from the deposit of mud brought down by the river, which the current has not sufficient strength to clear away, its fall and rapidity being very much diminished during the last 200 m. of its course. Were it not for the rapids between Moldova and Gladova, the Danube would be at all times navigable srom Ulm to its mouth. Great efforts have been made to overcome this interruption ; and it is worthy of remark that the most illustrious of the Roman emperors, Trajan, alive to all the advantages to be derived from the free navigation of the Danube, constructed, with great labour and sagacity, a road along the edge of the Servian side of the river, to facilitate the towing of ships against the current. Some remains of this extraordinary work still exist, with part of an inscription in honour of Trajan. In more recent times, attempts have been made to deepen the channel of the river, and to cut lateral canals in the most dangerous places; but these, owing to the almost insuperable obstacles to be overcome, have had but little success. Looking at the map, the best way would appear to be to cut a navigable canal from opposite Moldova to Berza Palanka, below the “Iron Gate,” which would not only avoid the

rapids, but shorten the distance, by avoiding the great bend of the river by Orsova. But the nature of the ground is said to oppose insurmountable obstacles to such a project, though probably it would admit of the construction of a road. The Hungarian government has lately constructed an excellent and very expensive road from Moldova to Orsova, along the left bank of the river. Unfortunately, however, it terminates above the “Iron Gate: '' and passengers going down the river, unless when it is sufficiently high to admit of flat-bottomed boats going through the “gate,” have to be serried over to the Servian side of the river, where, after a

land journey of about 8 m., they re-embark. Those ascending the river have also to cross at Orsova. The 1)anube abounds with islands. They are espe

cially numerous and large in the middle part of its course. The Great Schütt isl. extends between two arms of the river, from Presburg to Comorn, a distance of 64 m. The Czepel and Marguta isl., below Buda, formed in a similar way, are also of considerable size. The Danube has been said to wind more than other European rivers; this is of...; the case in its progress S. through the great Hungarian plain. It is also cme of the swiftest rivers in Europe ; its rapidity is such as in some places to render any navigation against its current in possible, except by the agency of steam. According to Mr. Quin, it rushes through the “Iron Gate” at the rate of not less than 8 m. an hour (i. 210.); but it is clear that the velocity must vary materially with the volume of water. This rapidity has prevented the erection in modern times of any stone bridge on the Danube below Ratisbon ; nor was there a permanent bridge of any other kind below Linz reviously to the commencement of that now, we believe, n the course of construction at Buda. There are flying bridges at Presburg and Comorn, and bridges of boats at Pesth and Peterwardein: beyond the latter place no direct communication between the opposite banks exists. In antiquity, however, it was very different. About 3 m. below Gladova, Trajan constructed his famous bridge, the remains of which are still visible, and form one of the most interesting and remarkable monuments of the most brilliant, ara of imperial Rome. This great structure consisted of 20 or 22 stone piers, with wooden arches. The greatest depth of the river is here 18 ft., and the length of the bridge between the pillars or buttresses that still remain on either bank was about 3,100 English feet. (Paget, ii. 136.) But the breadth of the river is less than this ; is said at present not to exceed 2,800 feet. (Murray.) This, in fact, is one of the widest parts of the river ; and was no doubt selected for the site of the bridge partly on account of the ample channel that was thus afforded to carry off the sudden floods to which the river is subject: its bed is here also sound, and its depth less than in most other parts. When lowest, the heads of some of the piers are seen above the surface of the water. This noble work was destroyed by Adrian, the successor of Trajan, lest the barbarians should overpower the Roman troops in Dacia, and make use of the bridge to invade the empire. (Eutrop in Adrian.) But it was not Adrian, but Aurelian, who abandoned Dacia. The steam navigation of the Danube is of paramount importance. This undertaking was first actively commenced by Count Szechenyi, who, in 1830, established a joint stock company for the Å. of which he was the managing director. The Austrian government soon afterwards took up the scheme, greatly enlarged the plans of the company, granted it a charter for the exclusive navigation of the river for 15 years (which has been since extended to 25), and accorded it the privilege of drawing, gratuitously, the necessary supplies of coal from the imperial mines of Moldova, on the banks of the river. The first steam-boat was launched on the Danube, at Vienna, in 1830. The company, in 1839, possessed 10 steam-vessels plying between Presburg and Constantinople, the largest of which, the Eros, used between Pesth and Drenkova, was 173 ft. in length, 25 ft. across, and of 525 tons burden. In 1839, 4 relays of steam-boats conveyed goods and ngers to from Presburg to the Ottoman capital, running continuously from the former place to Pesth; Pesth to Moldova, Gladova to Galacz ; and from Galacz to the end of the journey. Some small iron boats, drawing but little water, have been built to run between Presburg and Vienna. From Moldova to Gladova, a distance of about 50 m. by land, travellers and luggage are mostl conveyed by the new road already alluded to on the le o: of the river, thus avoiding the rapids and “Iron late.” The success of the Austrian Steam Navigation Company led to the formation, in 1836, of a Bavarian company, which, in 1839, had two steamers plying between Ratisbon and Passau, or Linz. The barges and ordinary packet-boats on the Danube, are unwieldy flat bottomed boats, covered with sheds of rough planks : the rafts in use are large and clumsy fabrics of the rudest kind; sails are unknown on the Ipper Danube ; and the boats are *ś only by paddles. Passage x 2

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