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atque induit.

de his rebus in senatu agere possemus. itaque postridie frequenti senatu Catilinam excitavi atque eum de his rebus iussi, si quid vellet, quae ad me adlatae essent, dicere. atque ille, ut semper fuit apertissimus, non se purgavit, sed indicavit

tum enim dixit duo corpora esse rei publicae, unum debile, infirmo capite, alterum firmum, sine capite : huic, si ita de se meritum esset, caput se vivo non defuturum. congemuit senatus frequens neque tamen satis severe pro rei indignitate decrevit; nam partim ideo fortes in decernendo non erant, quia nihil timebant, partim, quia timebant. tum erupit e senatu triumphans gaudio, quem omnino vivum illinc exire non oportuerat, praesertim cum idem ille in eodem ordine paucis diebus ante Catoni, fortissimo viro, iudicium minitanti ac denuntianti respondisset, si quod esset in suas fortunas incendium excitatum, id se non aqua, sed ruina restincturum. XXVI. his tum rebus commotus, et quod cum 52 gladiis in campum deduci Catilinam sciebam, descendi cum firmissimo praesidio fortissimorum virorum et cum illa lata insignique lorica, non quae me tegeret-etenim sciebam Catilinam non latus aut ventrem, sed caput et collum solere petere—, verum ut omnes boni animadverterent, et, cum in

xxvi. 52.

apertissimus) in bad sense, 'unabashed as ever,' cf. Phil. II. § 111, disertissimum cognovi avum tuum, at te etiam apertiorem in dicendo.

induit] sc. in laqueos. 2. cf. II in Verr. v. $ 73, at quemadmodum ipse se induit priore actione! $ 166, sua confessione induatur ac iuguletur necesse est.

unum] the senatorial party. infirmo capite, sc. the consuls, and in particular Cicero. alterum, the “people's party,' or 'opposition.'

decrevit] what, we know not. Cicero seems to have desired the early bestowal of the power of life and death by the decree videant consules etc., cf. on § 6. This was not done until Manlius had raised the standard of revolt in Etruria. Sall. Cat. 29.

nihil timebant] i.e. they thought the danger exaggerated. timebant,

were nervous, and hence irresolute.

erupit] cf, in Catil. 11. § 1, abiit, excessit, evasit, erupit.

in eodem ordine) in the Senate.

restincturum] so Sall. Cat. 31 fin., incendium meum ruina restin. guan.

cum gladiis] ‘sword in hand.' cf. Phil. II. $ 112, cur homines omnium gentium maxime bar. baros, Ityraeos, cum sagittis deducis in forum?

descendi] for fact cf. in Catil. 1. $11. insigni] 'conspicuous.'

lorica] for Cicero's breastplate on this occasion cf. Plut. Cic. 14. Dion Cassius, XXXVII, 29.

caput et collum] He has already called him gladiator, $ 50.

animadverterent] Plutarch says that he shifted his tunic, so as to shew the breastplate, του δε θώρακος, επιτηδες υπέφαινε τι,

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metu et periculo consulem viderent, id quod est factum, ad opem praesidiumque concurrerent. itaque cum te, Servi, remissiorem in petendo putarent, Catilinam et spe et cupiditate

inflammatum viderent, omnes, qui illam ab re publica pestem 53 depellere cupiebant, ad Murenam se statim contulerunt. magna

est autem comitiis consularibus repentina voluntatum inclinatio, praesertim cum incubuit ad virum bonum et multis aliis adiumentis petitionis ornatum. qui cum honestissimo patre atque maioribus, modestissima adulescentia, clarissima legatione, praetura probata in iure, grata in munere, ornata in provincia, petisset diligenter et ita petisset, ut neque minanti cederet neque cuiquam minaretur, huic mirandum est magno adiumento

Catilinae subitam spem consulatus adipiscendi fuisse ? 54 nunc mihi tertius ille locus est reliquus orationis, de ambi

tus criminibus, perpurgatus ab his, qui ante me dixerunt, a me, quoniam ita Murena voluit, retractandus: quo in loco C. Postumo, familiari meo, ornatissimo viro, de divisorum indiciis et de deprehensis pecuniis, adulescenti ingenioso et bono, Ser. Sulpicio, de equitum centuriis, M. Catoni, homini in omni virtute excellenti, de ipsius accusatione, de senatus

consulto, de re publica respondebo. 55 XXVII. sed pauca, quae meum animum repente moverunt, prius de L. Murenae fortuna conquerar. nam cum saepe

53. magna est] has great weight $163, Scaevolae dicendi elegantia, etc. =multum valet.

54. locus] the third head. cf. praesertim cum] cf. on § 44. § 11. incubuit ad] has lent its force to. perpurgatus] cleared up, with cf. $ 59, incumbenti ad eius perniciem, a side allusion to exculpating Mu. ad Att. I. 19. 4, ad voluntatem per

T. well cf. de Div. II. § 2, ferendae legis incubuerat.

per purgatus est is locus a nobis quinaliis] besides his being good.

a me, not mihi, for uniThe adiumenta are set forth shortly formity, as in pro Planc. $ 8. in the next sentence.

de equitum centuriis] cf. on $ 73. in iure] $ 41. in munere, $S 37, de senatus consulto] § 67. 38. in provincia, $ 42.

de re publica} concerning our coun. et ita petisset] cf. de imp. Gn. try's interests, in SS 74 foll. or with Pomp. § 10, dicam alio loco et ita H. 'the political situation.' dicam.

cum iudicarem,...tum minanti] a hit at Sulpicius' threats sum adfectus] the former verb in the of prosecuting him.

subj. to express a comparison be. minaretur) as Sulpicius did, and tween the general and particular lost himself many votes. H.

case. Madv. § 358 obs. 3. cf. de Catilinae-consulatus] so Brutus Nat. D. i. 1.

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rena.

que libris.

xxvii. 55.

quae 56

antea, iudices, et ex aliorum miseriis et ex meis curis laboribusque cotidianis fortunatos eos homines iudicarem, qui remoti a studiis ambitionis otium ac tranquillitatem vitae secuti sunt, tum vero in his L. Murenae tantis tamque improvisis periculis ita sum animo adfectus, ut non queam satis neque communem omnium nostrum condicionem neque huius eventum fortunamque miserari : qui primum, dum ex honoribus continuis familiae maiorumque suorum unum ascendere gradum dignitatis conatus est, venit in periculum, ne et ea, quae relicta, et haec, quae ab ipso parta sunt, amittat, deinde propter studium novae laudis etiam in veteris fortunae discrimen adducitur. cum sunt gravia, iudices, tum illud acerbissimum est, quod habet eos accusatores non qui odio inimicitiarum ad accusandum, sed qui studio accusandi ad inimicitias descenderint. nam ut omittam Servium Sulpicium, quem intellego non iniuria L. Murenae, sed honoris contentione permotum, accusat paternus amicus, C. Postumus, vetus, ut ait ipse, vicinus ac necessarius, qui necessitudinis causas complures protulit, simultatis nullam commemorare potuit; accusat Ser. Sulpicius, sodalis filius, cuius ingenio paterni omnes necessarii munitiores esse debebant; accusat M. Cato, qui quamquam a Murena nulla re umquam alienus fuit, tamen ea condicione erat in hac civitate natus, ut eius opes et ingenium praesidio multis etiam alienissimis, exitio vix cuiquam inimico esse deberent.

iudicarem] discussed later in de and cf. pro Mil. $ 78. The sing. Off. 1. SS 70, 71.

inimicitia seems only used in good non queam] the regular form of prose as an abstract philosophical the first person in Cicero. Freund cf. II in Verr. IV. § 89, pro Mil. honoris contentione] See on § 11. $ 77. so in third pers. pl., Tusc. D. sodalis filius] His father had beII. & 65.

longed to some collegium with Munostrum] ‘us statesmen.'

rena, and such sodales were ordieventum]the result of his public life. narily expected to support each primum...deinde] The two things other. Also the son was expected to are the same. Z. well cf. auct. ad take the same course as his father. Herenn. iv. $ 54, expolitio est, quum accusat] This repetition is called in eodem loco manemus et aliud atque åvaøopa', cf. that of negat $ 74, nolite aliud dicere videmur.

$ 80, Verres II in Verr. II. § 26. continuis] cf. § 15.

munitiores] sc. rather than atrelicta] Before this word H. in- tacked. serts ei.

praesidio...exitio] Roby Lat. Gr. 56. odio inimicitiarum] gen. of II. xxy-lvi. possession or relation. See on § 1, etiam alienissimis] cf. SS 8, 45.

term.

57 respondebo igitur Postumo primum, qui nescio quo pacto

mihi videtur praetorius candidatus in consularem quasi desultorius in quadrigarum curriculum incurrere. cuius competitores si nihil deliquerunt, dignitati eorum concessit, cum petere destitit: sin autem eorum aliquis largitus est, expetendus amicis est, qui alienam potius iniuriam quam suam persequatur.

DE POSTUMI CRIMINIBUS.

DE SERVII ADULESCENTIS.

58

XXVIII. venio nunc ad M. Catonem, quod est firmamentum ac robur totius accusationis, qui tamen ita gravis est accusator et vehemens, ut multo magis eius auctoritatem quam criminationem pertimescam. in quo ego accusatore, iudices, primum

57. desultorius] sc. equus, a horse trained for the performance of the desultor in the circus. This person usually had two horses under command, Propert. V. (IV.) 2. 35, eius traicit alterno qui leve pondus equo, cf. Liv. XXIII. 29. These performances rank below the quadrigae, so that what Cicero means is, that Postumus, a candidate for an office inferior to the consulship, had better have left candidates for the latter to settle their own affairs. cf. also Suet. Julius 39, Liv. XLIV. 9.

dignitati etc.] Either they did not bribe, in which case Postumus has confessed their superiority; or they did, and then what a hearty friend is he who avenges the wrongs done to a friend rather than those done to himself; the point of the banter is that Postumus had better have taken his late defeat good-humouredly.

amicis) sc. he must be a very useful friend; irony, as he was hard on Murena, cf. § 56. So Z. after MS. Lag. 9, better than amicus. H. after O. Heine now reads amicus ei, i.e., Postumus needs another Postumus.

SERVII] sc.criminibus. These titles are added by Cicero himself, like those in pro Fonteio $ 20. Pliny

the younger, Epp. I. 20. 7, says, testes sunt multae multorum orationes et Ciceronis fro Murena, pro Vareno, in quibus brevis et nuda quasi subscriptio quorundam criminum solis titulis indicatur; ex his apparet illum permulta dixisse, cum ederet, omisisse.

xxviii. 58. quod] When an obser: vation is appended to an idea already sufficiently defined, the relative is accommodated to the substantive which follows, cf. Madv. $ 316: add Phil. V. § 39, II. § 54 and Prof. Mayor's note.

firmamentum ac robur] so de imp. Gn. Pomp. § 10.

tamen] The editors leave this unnoticed; I believe that it requires some such explanation as the following: auctoritatein refers to gravis, and criminationem to vehemens: ita ...ut, as often, =‘though'... 'yet,' cf. ad Att. V. 9. 2, hoc tibi ita mando ut dubitem an etiam te rogem ut..., while giving you this commission, I still am in doubt whether to go further and ask you to'... The sense of this passage will then be ‘while as a prosecutor he is both weighty and energetic, still I feel far more afraid of the weight he may carry than of the charges he brings,' cf. on abrogarim $ 5.

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illud deprecabor, ne quid L. Murenae dignitas illius, ne quid exspectatio tribunatus, ne quid totius vitae splendor et gravitas noceat, denique ne ea soli huic obsint bona M. Catonis, quae ille adeptus est, ut multis prodesse possit. bis consul fuerat P. Africanus et duos terrores huius imperii, Karthaginem Numantiamque, deleverat, cum accusavit L. Cottam. erat in eo summa eloquentia, summa fides, summa integritas, auctoritas tanta quanta in imperio populi Romani, quod illius opera tenebatur. saepe hoc maiores natu dicere audivi, hanc accusatoris eximiam vim plurimum L. Cottae profuisse. noluerunt sapientissimi homines, qui tum rem illam iudicabant, ita quemquam cadere in iudicio, ut nimiis adversarii viribus abiectus videretur. quid ? Ser. Galbam-nam traditum memoriae est 59 -nonne proavo tuo, fortissimo atque florentissimo viro, M. Catoni incumbenti ad eius perniciem populus Romanus eripuit? semper in hac civitate nimis magnis accusatorum opibus et populus universus et sapientes ac multum in posterum prospicientes iudices restiterunt. nolo accusator in iudicium potentiam adferat, non vim maiorem aliquam, non auctoritatem excellentem, non nimiam gratiam : valeant haec omnia ad salutem innocentium, ad opem impotentium, ad auxilium calamitosorum, in periculo vero et in pernicie civium repudientur. nam si quis hoc forte dicet, Catonem descensurum ad 60

tribunatus] He was tribunus desig. natus.

bis consul] B.C. 147 and 134. P. Corn. Scipio Aemilianus Africanus minor. See Mommsen, bk. IV. C. I.

duos terrores] so called also in de Rep. I. $ 71, Velleius, II. 4. 5.

L. Aurel. Cotta] consul in B.C. 144, in the Brutus § 82 we are told that he was thought a veterator, probably in reference to his oratory; but he is said to have bought his acquittal.

tenebatur] was maintained, upheld, cf. § 83, totam rempublicam vos in hac causa tenetis, de Nat. D. II. $ 31.

dicere audivi] cf. Mady. § 395

cadere] should lose his case, cf, causa cadere in $ 9.

abiectus] overthrown, struck down, cf. in Catil. II. § 1, se perculsum atque abiectum esse sentit.

59. quid?] so $ 33. cf. Mady. § 479 d, obs. 1.

Ser. Sulpicius Galba] who as prae. tor in Spain B.C. 151 had treacherously massacred 30,000 Lusitanians, Suet. Galba 3. For his oratorical power, his trial and acquittal, cf. Brutus § 89, de Orat. 1, § 227.

incumbenti ad] cf. on $ 53, and add in Catil. iv. § 4, incumbite ad salutem reipublicae.

potentiam] with inferiors, gratiam, with superiors in rank, standing, etc. cf. pro Caec. $ 73, quod neque inflecti

obs. 5.

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