« PreviousContinue »
Principal Griffiths, vice-chancellor of the University of THERAPEUTIC BACTERIAL INOCULATION.' Wales, presided, and in his opening address submitted the points which it was most important that the conference ALTHOUGH the majority of diseases are produced should decide. Briefly they were these : What were the directly or indirectly by the invasion of microbes, it real demands of the Principality, and how far were they has come to be generally recognised that the soil in which me! by existing institutions? Was Wales to import the they grow plays a cardinal part in determining the ultimate shortage of teachers, or to increase her own production effect or fate of the microbe. The finding of a pathogenic In what manner could the schools be best utilised as train- microbe, and even the accessory disposing factors of a ing grounds without injuring the schools and should disease, are, however, after all only the beginnings of the local education authorities undertake the training of greater problem which is the end and aim of all medical senadary teachers? To these questions no uncertain science, viz. the cure of the disease. answer was suggested, although the conference abstained To attack the causal agent is manifestly a solution of from passing formal resolutions until an opportunity had the problem, and this was the method originally advocated been accorded the members to consider the verbatim report, by Lister, who may be regarded as the founder of the which it was decided to publish at an early date.
doctrine of the æetiological curative principle. Experience At the second session Mr. Lloyd George, M.P., presided, has, however, shown that the attempt to destroy by means and a paper was read by Lord Stanley of Alderley, chair- of ordinary chemical poisons the microbes in the living body man of the Anglesea Education Committee, and late chair- is fraught with danger, for long before the protoplasm of man of the London School Board, on “ The Point of View the microbe is destroyed the cells of the body are irreparably of the Local Authorities.” The debate was opened by Mr. damaged. Internal antiseptic therapy is a thing of the S. J. Hughes, county alderman of Glamorganshire. Both Lord past. Today we must rely on the stimulus produced by Stanley and Alderman Hughes emphasised the paramount bacteria in the body whereby the cells of the latter elaborate importance of training for the elementary school teacher.
substances which are antagonistic to these same bacteria. In summing up the debate, Mr. Lloyd George replaced the These substances-germicidal in the widest sense of the sword by the trowel, and emphasised the need for addi-worddiffer considerably in their mode of action. Some tional accommodation and for subsidising the buildings and neutralise the bacterial poisons, others produce a solution the staffs. Enthusiasm was required, he said, to meet the increased burden on the rates, but he believed that the Metchnikoff claims that the destruction takes place by a
-a lysis of the bacteria. In other cases, again, enthusiasın would be forthcoming. At this stage the only resolution of the conference was passed. This was moved
kind of digestion in the interior of certain cells of which be Principal Griffiths, and asserted " That it is the duty of
the chief representatives are the wandering corpuscles of
the blood. the Principality to undertake the training and supply of leachers sufficient to meet the requirements of the Princi- prophylaxis dates from the time of Edward Jenner, whose
The inoculation of a living microbe for the purposes of pality." At the third session, which was presided over by Sir
work was widely extended by Pasteur. It is not even John Gorst, " The Special Aspects of the Problem of the necessary to use living bacteria, dead bacteria being likeTraining of Elementary Teachers " was considered, a paper
wise capable of conferring immunity. In any case, with being read by Mr. T. John, vice-president of the National the exception of diphtheria
antitoxin, previous attempts have Cajon of Teachers. The experiments already being tried in
aimed at prevention rather than cure. The authors of the the utilisation of the intermediate schools of Wales for the papers before us are the first who have utilised bacterial training of pupil teachers were described in detail, but the inoculations as a curative agent. Dr. A. E. Wright, late general opinion of the conference was unmistakable that professor in the Army Medical School, is already widely any half-time system should be a temporary expedient only.
known for his method of the preventive inoculation against As regards the question of the concurrent instruction of
typhoid fever-a method which is admitted to have led to pritrary and secondary teachers, it was agreed that it is a marked diminution of this disease in the British Army. Tiecessary for the separation of the primary teacher's pro
His most important work, however, has been the discovery fessional training from his general education, and that
of therapeutic inoculation. To introduce bacteria into an under certain conditions it is possible and desirable that
individual already infected with the same bacteria would primary and secondary students should be trained together.
at first sight appear to be a paradox, but the results obtained The important question of the further training of those justify the means. By the invention of accurate methods of acting teachers whose qualifications are incomplete was testing the effects produced in the body by the inoculations, introduced by Mr. Badger, director of higher education Dr. Wright has been able to demonstrate that the elaborfor Monmouthshire.
ation of protective substances follows a general law, The relations between the various qualifying examina- characterised at first by a negative phase and followed by tions were considered, and there was practical unanimity a positive phase in which the protective substances in the that matriculation should be a condition of entering the blood are increased in quantity. primary training departments of the three university col
In a series of papers he has likewise shown that in soleges of Wales.
called phagocytosis there is really a cooperation of the cells Mr. Humphreys Owen, M.P., chairman of the Central and fluids of the body, and that in the latter there are subWelsh Board, presided over the fourth session, which was stances-opsonins—which in some way or other act upon devoted to the Special Aspects of the Problem of the microbes and prepare them for subsequent destruction Secondary Training."' Two papers were read, by Miss E. P. by the leucocytes. This opsonic type of immunity is applicHughes, fate principal of the Cambridge Training College able to a number of diseases, but the present researches for Secondary Teachers, and Mr. Trevor Owen, Swansea, show that the mere presence of these opsonins is not who acted as the official spokesman of the Association of sufficient to induce immunity. They must be in the proper Welsh County Schoolmasters. The conference was decidedly place and at the required time if they are to exert their of opinion that secondary training should be post-graduate action, and a great deal of art is required on the part of and completely differentiated from the degree course, but the inoculator to create the most advantageous conditions that the training college should be essentially attached to for his patient. The methods advocated by Prof. Wright the university college. Representatives of the Association are so new that it is difficult to foresee how far they may go, of Assistant Masters also addressed the conference and but the striking curative results obtained justify one in endorsed the views expressed by the readers of the papers. prophesying that the time is not so very far distant when
There can be no doubt that the ultimate result of the the abilities of the physician will be judged by his successes synferrace will be far-reaching and beneficial. The inter- as an immunisator, for it must not be imagined that change of Ideas always makes for good, and it is not too much to hope that from the deliberations there may be
1 "On the Action exerted upon the Staphylococcus pyogenes by the
Human Blood Fluids, and on the Elaboration of Protective Elements in devissi a scheme which will be workable for all parts of
the Human Organism in response to Inoculations of a Staphylococcus the Priocipality, and will in time produce a supply of fully Vaccine." By Dr. A. E. Wright and Capt. Stewart R. Douglas, 1.M.S. trained teschers of all grades, which, like her system of (Proc. Roy. Soc., September, 1904). secondary education already established, will be a lasting Fluids, and on the Elaboration of Protective Elements in the Human
"On the Action exerted upon the Tubercle Bacillus by the Human Blood and tangible proof of the enthusiasm of the Welsh people Organism in response to Inoculations of a Tubercle Vaccine." By the for education.
same Authors (Proc. Roy. Soc., September, 1904).
immunisation consists in the subcutaneous inoculation of markable research by Prof. Oliver and Dr. Scott, their some mysterious bacterial fluid prepared in the laboratory. main conclusion was confirmed in an unexpected manner On the contrary, it is a complex process, and it is only by the discovery, on the part of Mr. Kidston, of the seed with the help of accurate scientific measuring methods that of another genus of the same group, Medullosa, of which the physician will be able to gauge whether he is helping an account has also appeared in the Philosophical Transor injuring his patient.
B. actions. In this case the pedicel of a large seed, of the
type known as Rhabdocarpus, was found to bear pinnules
identical with those of the frond Neuropteris heterophylla, PALEOZOIC SEED PLANTS.
the foliage of a Medullosa.
Here absolute continuity, an extremely rare circumIT may be doubted if those who are not directly concerned with the study of the vegetable kingdom appreciate reproductive organ.
stance among fossil plants, exists between a foliar and a the full significance of the distinction which the botanist maintains between plants of seed-bearing and spore-bearing exists, but space forbids any notice here. Attention mas
Further evidence, but more inconclusive and indirect, also habit. For this reason the recent and important discoveries
however, be directed to an interesting and suggestive comproving that the seed-bearing habit existed among more
munication published by M. Grand'Eury in the Comptes than one group of Palæozoic vegetation, discoveries which
rendus during the present year on the same subject. will form a historical landmark in the study of fossil plants,
The discoveries under discussion have made it clear that inay not attract the attention which is their due outside
at least two genera of the Cycadofilices possessed the seedthe circle of workers on recent and fossil botany.
bearing habit, and evidence is also available which suggests The seed-bearing habit is, from many points of view,
that Lyginodendron and Medullosa did not stand alone in regarded as a far higher stage in plant evolution than that
this respect. attained by any known member of the vegetable kingdom
Prof. Oliver and Dr. Scott have concluded that "the in which the fertilised megasporangium remains without
presence in the Palæozoic flora of these primitive, Fernany integument of the nature of a seed-coat. So far, the
like Spermophytes, so important as a phase in the history botanist has associated the seed habit with two classes of
of evolution, may best be recognised by the foundation of plants, the gymnosperms (Coniferæ, Cycadeæ, &c.) and
a distinct class which may suitably be named Pteridothe angiosperms or flowering plants, and with these 'alone.
spermeæ. This suggestion would seem to be a happy It has not been suspected that members assigned to other
one, even though it may eventually involve the absorption groups, including the great race of vascular cryptogams
of the whole group now familiar as the Cycadofilices. (Pteridophyta), had at any period in their evolution attained
In connection with these researches of Prof. Oliver, Dr. to this high status. Yet such has recently been shown to
Scott, and Mr. Kidston, many further points of interest, be the case.
and in some cases of criticism, might be discussed, but it It is interesting to notice that these discoveries have been
must suffice here to direct attention to one or two valuable mainly due to the British school of palæobotany. Although
clues which these discoveries afford. The phylogeny of the it has been known for a long period that remains, obviously
cycads, a race with a great past, and still existing though of the nature of seeds, occur here and there in the sand
in greatly diminished numbers, is in its main outlines now stones and shales of the Carboniferous period, Carruthers
clear. There can be little doubt that the cycads are was the first to suggest, in 1872, that some of these fossil
sprung from this same pteridospermous stock, which in its seeds may be attributed to the genus Cordaites, an extinct
turn originated from a truly fern-like ancestor. race, of gymnospermous affinities. This conclusion was sub
In the investing envelope of the young seed of Lagenosequently confirmed by Geinitz, Grand'Eury, Renault, and
stoma, which Prof. Oliver and Dr. Scott have spoken of other Continental botanists, who have greatly extended our
as the “ cupule," it is not improbable that homologies may knowledge of this Palæozoic type.
eventually be recognised with protective structures existUntil recently Cordaites has remained the solitary
ing among members belonging to other lines of descent, Palæozoic genus which was known to have attained the
which may have great value as a contribution to other seed-bearing habit.
phylogenetic problems. In 1901, however, Dr. Scott published a full description
In conclusion, the existence of the seed-bearing habit of a Carboniferous cone, Lepidocarpon, of undoubted lyco
among certain members of three out of the six great groups podian affinities, where integumented megasporangia are of Upper Palæozoic times raises the interesting speculation found when fully mature, and in which each sporangium
whether other groups may not eventually be found to have contains a single embryo-sac. It has thus become clear
attained to the same status. The Calamites, the reprethat in the history of the lycopodian stock the evolution of
sentatives of the Equisetales, are at present above any real seed-bearing members had taken place. More recently other suspicion in this respect, yet it would now be hardly surevidence has accumulated which not only confirms this con
prising if further discoveries revealed the existence of seedclusion, but tends to show that Lepidocarpon did not stand bearing members in this group, although it is by no means alone among lycopods in this respect.
safe to assume that the seed-bearing habit must necessarily It is to discoveries still more recent of a similar nature, have existed in any group.
E. A. N. ARBER. but affecting other lines of descent, that special attention may be directed. They are concerned with a synthetic type of Upper Palæozoic vegetation of great interest, which has
ANTHROPOLOGICAL NOTES. become widely known under the name Cycadofilices. More than one genus of this group has now been shown | THE Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist for October to have reached the seed-bearing status.
contains, as is usual with this journal, interesting and The credit of the first discovery of this nature is due to well illustrated articles, among which may be noted one Prof. Oliver and Dr. Scott, who recently published a on “ the funambulist, or rope-walker, by Mr. Arthur full account of the seed and the evidence for its attribution Watson; some Norman and pre-Norman remains in the in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Dove-Dale district, by Mr. G. le Blanc Smith ; medallic The more important conclusion of these authors may be portraits of Christ in the sixteenth century, by Mr. G. E. briefly summarised as follows. It has been found that a Hill; a carved bone of the Viking age, by Mr. J. Romilly seed, already recorded by Williamson as Lagenostoma Allen. Lomaxi, was borne by the fossil plant known as Lygino- All who are interested in primitive technology will welcome dendron. The two have not been found in continuity, but the new instalment of Dr. Walter E. Roth's monograph on the evidence for this conclusion, although in the main in- North Queensland ethnography. Bulletin No. 7 deals with direct, is none the less conclusive. The chief point lies in domestic implements, arts, and manufactures, and is illus. the identity of the glandular structures found on an organ
trated by twenty-six plates containing 250 figures. Dr. termed the “ cupule," which envelops the seed, with those Roth not only describes the objects in daily use of the already known to occur on the stems, petioles and pinnules Queensland blacks, but, what is of very much greater imof Lyginodendron, which are peculiar to this genus among portance, he usually describes how and of what they are Carboniferous plants.
made. Of especial interest and importance is his descripWithin a few months of the earlier record of this re- tion of the manufacture of stone implements. He says :
* I am afraid that too much importance has been hitherto New buildings of the Borough Polytechnic Institute, inattached to the differentiation of stone-celts into axes, adzes, cluding buildings for engineering, building trades, domestic wedges, scrapers, &c. : the savage certainly does economy, &c., are to be opened as we go to press by Mr. recognise the fine distinctions embodied on the labels J. W. Benn, M.P., chairman of the London County Council. attached to these articles in an ethnological museum. ... The actual manufacture of a celt is now a lost art in Queens
LORD Reay will deliver the prizes at the Northampton land. . . . The original celt in its simplest form is a water
Institute for the session 1903-4 on Friday, December 9, at worn pebble or boulder, an adaptation of a natural form ;
8 o'clock. The prize distribution will be followed by a otherwise, it is a portion removed from a rock, &c., in situ,
conversazione, which will be continued on Saturday,
December 10. either by fire, indiscriminate breakage or flaking. A record of a careful excavation of Jacob's Cavern,
Dr. Frederic Rose, His Majesty's Consul at 'Stuttgart, McDonald County, Missouri, by Messrs. Charles Peabody
and the author of a series of diplomatic and consular reand W. K. Moorehead, is given in Bulletin i., department ports on technical instruction in Germany, has been elected of archæology, Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. The
assistant educational adviser to the Education Committee implements are of well known types, and nothing suggestive of the London County Council. of Palæolithic culture was discovered ; it is possible that The committee in charge of the fund for the developthe cave-dwellers were different from the Osages and from ment and better equipment of the science schools in Trinity the lower Mississippi tribes. The paper is illustrated by College, Dublin, has announced that 15,8861. has now been eleven plates. The Phillips Academy is to be congratulated subscribed towards the 78,00ol. necessary for the annual on its activity.
up-keep of the new schools. It will be remembered that An interesting and well illustrated résumé of the recent Lord Iveagh offered to provide the sum of 34,000l, required archæological discoveries in Crete is given by M. S. to erect the new buildings if the amount required for upReinach in l'Anthropologie (Tome xv., Nos. 3-4, p. 257). | keep were obtained by public subscription. The committee, The author tentatively proposes the following chronology in making an earnest appeal for further subscriptions, points of the development of the Cretan civilisation :-(1) 4500 (at out that the next most urgent need of the university is the least) to 2800, Neolithic period. Black pottery, with angular development of the school of botany and plant physiology. designs and no spirals ; numerous stone vessels; no metal ; rudimentary figurines of burnt clay. (2) 2800 to 2200,
It may be taken as indicative of the widespread interest period of Kamares or Minoan I. About 2800 first certain in higher education among the Welsh people that large sums contact with Egypt (twelfth dynasty); introduction of copper
of money are contributed in a great number of small amounts and bronze into Crete ; painted pottery derived from Neolithic
towards the expenses of the university colleges. For pottery. (3) 2200 to 1900, period of transition or Minoan II. instance, in the preliminary list of subscriptions, paid or Building of first palace. Continuation of relations with unpaid, towards the permanent buildings fund, published Egypt and commercial dealings with the islands of the
in the calendar of the University College of North Wales Arhipelago, notably with Melos. (4) 1900 to 1500, culmin
for the session 1904-5, we notice that more than 6500l. is anon of the period of Kamares or Minoan III. Building
made up of amounts under five pounds, and, in addition to of the second palace; great development of ceramics,
this, there are more than two hundred gifts of five guineas glyptics, and painting. An artist of Knossos went to
or five pounds. The total amount of subscriptions up to Phylakopi, in Melos, and executed the "fying-fish fresco";
the present towards the permanent buildings fund reaches the linear Cretan writing occurs on Melian pottery. An
27,1901. insular confederation (?) took possession of Knossos and The Education Committee of the County Council of the there established a new dynasty (?). (5) 1500 to 1200, West Riding of Yorkshire arranged last summer for the Mycenaan period. Ceramics with zoomorphic and curvi- attendance of a group of art-masters from the schools in linear designs. The centre of civilisation passed to the their administrative area to attend for six weeks at the Peloponnesos; decadence and abandonment of the palace. School of Industrial Arts, Geneva. The committee has now The last king of the Minoan dynasty, Idomeneus, left Crete published extracts from the report received from the about 1200 for Italy, and founded Salentium ; shortly after- administrator of the Geneva school on the work of the Yorkwards the Dorians conquered Crete, and the island entirely shire teachers, and a summary of the reports submitted by retrogressed into barbarity.
the art-masters who studied at Geneva. The teachers seem
to have benefited greatly by their visit, and there can be UNIVERSITY AND
little doubt that a first-hand acquaintance with Continental EDUCATIONAL
methods is of great value to English teachers. One interestINTELLIGENCE.
ing way in which scientific observation may be rendered CAMBRIDGE.--The report of the studies and examinations useful in art instruction comes out in the report of one of syndicate on the previous examination, in which it is the visiting masters, who writes of the Geneva School of proposed that a modern language may be substituted for Industrial Arts that : “ Another very useful adjunct is a Greek or Latin, will be discussed in the Senate House on garden where Nature is allowed to have very much of her December 1.
own way. Here the form and colour of plants and flowers Dr. H. F. Baker, F.R.S., St. John's, and Mr. F. H. and their growth at various stages can be carefully and Verille, F.R.S., Sidney, have been appointed members of leisurely studied.” the general board of studies. Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., has been appointed a manager of the Gerstenberg student
Speaking at the Birmingham Municipal School on ship in moral philosophy for students of natural science.
Tuesday, Mr. Alfred Mosely referred to some lessons taught Mr. Myers has been appointed demonstrator of experi
by the American educational system. He remarked that mental psychology.
America differs from us in an intense belief in educaThe Isaac Newton studentship in astronomical physics
tion, and the realisation by manufacturers of the value of and optics, value 2001. a year for three years, will be vacant
the thoroughly trained college student in their factories. near term. Candidates must be B.A.'s of the university, and
We are face to face with a condition of things which is undrr twenty-five years of age on January 1, 1905. Appli
somewhat alarming. A scientific education has become an carion is to be made the Vice-Chancellor before
absolute necessity if we are to hold our place industrially: January 26.
We have an Empire such as those who have not travelled Additional benefactions to the university, amounting to
do not realise, an Empire teeming with natural resources sume 3500l., have been paid or promised since February of
in every direction, merely awaiting the skilled hands of the the present year. A considerable number are ear-marked
mechanic and farmer to develop them. What we have in for the endowment of a Huddersfield lectureship in special
Canada and our other colonies makes the United States pathology.
pale by comparison, but the United States have learnt to Tao Walsingham medals in biology have been awarded develop their resources, while we have been quarrelling over this sear, one to Mr. R. P. Gregory, fellow of St. John's the village pump. It is Mr. Mosely's intention at an early (ollege for botany), and one to Mr. K. Lucas, fellow of date to approach some of the steamship companies to see irinity College (for physiology).
whether facilities can be arranged for some school teachers
to visit the l'nited States and observe what is done there.
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
collected by the French “ Mission scientifique du Cap
Horn," but were not mentioned by Jullien in his report on LONDON.
the “ Bryozoaires ” of that expedition, published in 1888. Chemical Society, November 3.-Prof. W. A. Tilden,
From this material, which Jullien had presumably not F.R.S., in the chair.-The following papers were read :
handled, Mr. Waters adds twenty-eight species to the Studies on the dynamic isomerism of a- and B-crotonic acids, original list of fifty-six. He gives further particulars in part i. : R. S. Morrell and E. K. Hanson. Preliminary regard to some of those named by his predecessor, and experiments on the freezing points of mixtures of the two points out that eight species established by Jullien had acids furnish no evidence as to the existence of a compound
been already described under other names. He rectifies of a- and B-crotonic acids between 100° and 168°, and between
two erroneous identifications, enlarges the range of dis15° and 71°.9.—The constitution of nitrogen iodide : 0.
tribution for several species, and for six of them calls to Silberrad. In the interaction of zinc ethyl with nitrogen mind that they were first discovered by the Challenger, iodide it was found that trimethylamine was produced. This Mathematical Society, November 10.-Prof. H. Lamb, confirms Chattaway's view that the iodide has the con- president, in the chair.—The council and officers for the stitution NH, : N1,:-The available plant food in soils : ensuing session were elected. They are as follows:H. Ingle. Extraction with a 1 per cent. solution of citric president, Prof. Forsyth; vice-presidents, Prof. Burnside, acid for seven days renders a soil much less fertile, especially | Prof. Elliott, Prof. Lamb; treasurer, Prof. Larmor ; secreat first, but chemical changes in such soil, during the growth taries, Prof. Love and Mr. Grace; other members of council, of the plants, gradually render it again capable of supply- Mr. Berry, Mr. Campbell, Dr. Glaisher, Dr. Hobson, Major ing plant food.—The basic properties of oxygen : compounds MacMahon, Mr. Mathews, Mr. Western, Mr. Whittaker, of the ethers with nitric acid : J. B. Cohen and J. Gateclift. Mr. A. Young.-Prof. Forsyth having taken the chair, Prof. It is shown that with aliphatic ethers unstable compounds Lamb delivered an address on deep-water waves. He reof the type X,O,HNO, are formed.—Note on the influence viewed the theory of the waves produced on deep water by of potassium persulphate on the estimation of hydrogen a local disturbance of the surface. The theory developed peroxide : J. A. N. Friend. It is shown that a secondary independently by Poisson and Cauchy had often been rereaction, represented by the following equation,
garded as obscure, and it had never been interpreted comH,0,+K,1,0,=K,SO,+H,50, +0g,
pletely. The problem has a deeper significance in that it
offers perhaps the simplest example of the propagation of probably takes place in addition to the main reaction.—The
waves in a dispersive medium, and was the origin of the influence of sunlight on the dissolution of gold in aqueous theory of group velocity, which has so many applications potassium cyanide : W. A. Caldecott.—The fractional in various branches of physics. After tracing the history of hydrolysis of amygdalinic acid, iso-amygdalin : H. D. the problem, the author proceeded to disengage the essential Dakin.—The effect of anhydrides on organo-magnesium results of the theory from the clouds of analysis in which bromides, part i., the action of phthalic anhydride on they had been involved; he pointed out the connection of magnesium a-naphthyl bromide : -S. S. Pickles and
the analytical results with the analysis which was used at C. Weizmann.—The combustion of ethylene : W. A. Bone a later date for the investigation of the phenomena of diffracand R. V. Wheeler. The principal results of these experi- tion; he traced the forms of the waves due to a local initial ments are as follows :-(1) there is no preferential com- elevation both at considerable and at small distances from bustion of either carbon or hydrogen ; (2) formaldehyde is the source of disturbance; and he pointed out the significance the most prominent intermediate oxidation product ; (3) of the results when interpreted by means of modern notions there is no separation of carbon or liberation of acetylene. concerning waves of approximately simple harmonic type -The decomposition of methylcarbamide : C. E. Fawsitt.
and the propagation of groups of such waves. Finally, he The decomposition of methylcarbamide by acids is due to a discussed the solution of the problem of waves generated by transformation of the methylcarbamide into methylamine a local and periodic variation of pressure.—The following cyanate, which is subsequently decomposed by the acid.
papers were communicated :--Note on the application of the Position isomerism and optical activity; the methyl and method of images to problems of vibrations : Prof. Volterra. ethyl esters of di-o-, -m-, and -p-nitrobenzoyltartaric acids : It is shown how to obtain by means of the method of images P. F. Frankland and J. Harger. The authors describe
a complete solution of the problem of vibrations of a memthe preparation and properties of the six esters in question. brane, and it is pointed out that although the train of images --The action of nitrogen sulphide on organic substances, may be infinite, yet the number of terms in the solution is part ii. : F. E. Francis and O. C. M. Davis.-Reduction finite.—The zeros of certain classes of integral Taylor's products of ab-dimethylanhydracetr nebenzil, and condensa
series, two papers : G. H. Hardy. The nature of the zeros tion products of benzaldehydes with ketones : F. R. Japp of some particular classes of functions, allied to the exand W. Maitland.-Interaction of sodium phenylglycidate ponential function, is determined with much greater prewith phenylhydrazine : F. R. Japp and W. Maitland.- cision than can be attained by any of the known general a-Benzoyl-B-trimethacetylstyrene : F. R. Japp and W. theorems. If $ (n) is an integer when n is an integer, and Maitland.-Olefinic ketonic compounds : S. Ruhemann. the increase of $(n) is regular and sufficiently rapid, there - A-Oleic acid : H. R. Le Sueur.-Action of magnesium alkyl halides on derivatives of camphor : M. O. Forster. are exactly $(n) zeros of within the circle \x) = $(n).
p(n)! -Sulphonchloroalkylamides : F. D. chattaway.
and their positions can be determined very precisely. In Linnean Society, November 3: - Prof. W. A. IIerdman, the second paper similar investigations are given for other F.R.S., president, in the chair.-Mr. G. Claridge Druce showed specimens of
British grass, Koeleria
is an example.-On the re
(np+Ilan! valesiaca, Gaud., which he had found in the herbarium of ducibility of covariants of binary quantics of infinite order : Dillenius at Oxford, and recently re-found in the original P. W. Wood. The paper contains the conditions that any locality at Brent Down, Somersetshire.—The Rev. John covariant linear in the coefficients of each of 8 binary quantics Gerard, S.J., brought specimens of a proliferous plantain of infinite order should be expressible in terms of products (Plantago major) from the neighbourhood of Clitheroe, of covariants of lower total degrees. The reducibility of Lancashire.--Mr. Frank Crisp brought for exhibition a covariants of degree 4 is determined completely, and certain flower of Schubertia graveolens, Lindl., an asclepiad, which, classes of reducible covariants of degree 8 and weight deprived of its corolla and with a portion of its calyx cut > (28-1-- 1) are discussed.-The linear difference equation away, viewed from the side, presented the genitalia in the of the first order : Rev. E. W. Barnes. The questions to shape of a skull.-A note on some points in the structure of be considered relate to the existence of solutions, their the gill of the Ceylon pearl-oyster : the President.-Notes analytical expression, and their place among transcendental on the " sudd" formation of the Upper Nile : A. F. functions. These questions are discussed from the point of Broun. The author gives a list of the plants forming view of the theory of functions of complex variables, the the mass of vegetation, which, favoured by the silt arguments of the functions which occur in the difference brought down by the White Nile, helps to block the equations being assumed to be complex.-Curves on a shallow channels.—Bryozoa from near Cape Horn: A. W. conicoid : H. Milton-Remarks on alternants and conWaters. The paper deals with specimens which were tinuous groups : Dr. H. F. Baker,-Expansions of the
elliptic and Zeta functions of įK in powers of 9: Dr. line forms, which invariably melt at a higher temperature J. W. L. Glaisher.-Examples of perpetuants : J. E. than the glasses from which they were derived. The study Wright.-Two simple results in the attraction of uniform of the melting points of these mixtures, and the analyses wires obtained by quaternions : Prof. Genese.--A theorem of the crystals and glasses, point to the probable existence relating to quotient groups : Prof. Miller.-On certain of both sodium metaborate and a further compound containclasses of syzygies : A. Young.
ing only a quarter equivalent of sodium. Anhydrous borax
itself does not appear be a definite compound; it is almost CAMBRIDGE.
a eutectic mixture of the solid solution of the two above Philosophical Society, October 31.-Annual general mentioned compounds. The glasses appear to be a supermeeting, Dr. Baker, president, in the chair.-Prof. Marshall fused state of the crystals. The familiar colours of borax Ward, F.R.S., was elected president for the session 1904-5. beads seem to be due to the formation of a complex sodium -On the dimorphism of the English species of Nummulites : ion, and can be changed in tint by increasing or decreasing J. J. Lister, F.R.S. The author gave an account of his the amount of alkali present.-Note on the electrolytic preexamination of the characters of three English species of paration of titanous sulphate : W. H. Evans. The results Nummulites, N. laevigata (Brug.), N. variolaria (Lam.), show that a low current density, high concentration, and and N. elegans (Sow.), with respect to dimorphism. It a temperature of about 70° C. are the most favourable for appears that these species, far from invalidating the con- obtaining an efficient yield in this reduction process. Moreclusion that the species of Nummulites are dimorphic, are over, the author has found that the preparation can be in complete accord with it.-A problem concerning wood carried out without the use of any diaphragm to separate and lignified cell-walls : Prof. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. Dr. | the anode from kathode chambers of the cell. W. J. Russell some time ago showed that if a block of wood is laid on a photographic plate, and kept in the dark
DUBLIN. for some time, a photographic image will be found on the Royal Irish Academy, November 14.-Prof. R. Atkinson, plate after ordinary development, although no light has had president, in the chair.-On the discovery of hyæna, access; and he has summarised his numerous and important mammoth, and other extinct Mammalia in a Carboniferous observations in a recent paper in the Philosophical Trans- cavern in the county of Cork : R. J. Ussher.
After reactions. Since resinous woods were found especially active, capitulating the work that has been done in Irish caves, Mr. Russell suggested that some active body of resin-like nature Ussher described an extensive cavern in county Cork, near was the agent concerned, and that hydrogen peroxide was Doneraile, in every portion of which that he has examined, developed. Prof. Marshall Ward's paper describes experi- remains of extinct Mammalia have been found. Mammoths,' ments which were directed to the questions, (1) can this old and young, have been met with in several places; bears photographic contact-method be utilised to obtain images and reindeer were abundant; Irish elk, wolf, and hyæna of thin and microscopic sections of wood ? and (2) what were also found ; the last, identified by Dr. Scharff from a other substances, e.g. in woods devoid of resin, are active? portion of a skull with teeth, is an addition to the Irish The author showed photographs, obtained without light, fauna. These remains were in red sand beneath a floor of of thin sections of many different kinds of wood, and demon- crystalline stalagmite, which was present in the various strated that in most cases resin and allied bodies cannot be chambers and galleries. the active agents. He also showed that a thin section which
Paris. gives a very faint image, or even no recognisable image at all, if used dry and untouched, may give a very deep one
Academy of Sciences, November 7.-M. Mascart in the il soaked in a weak solution of tannin, gallic acid, pyro
chair.-Researches on the desiccation of plants and vegegallol, &c., and then dried before being placed on the plate.
table tissues : final equilibrium, under average atmospheric A striking result is obtained if such solution is streaked
conditions : M. Berthelot. The rate of loss of moisture across the section; the treated streak or figure comes out
is proportional at any instant to the quantity of water redeep black on a pale ground-work of the part untreated.
maining in the plant. A further amount of moisture is Xylol, clove oil, tannic acid, and some other bodies are also
driven off at 110° C.-On the absolute desiccation of plants active. The author thinks that a careful comparative in
and vegetable materials : period' of artificial desiccation. vestigation of all kinds of woods might lead to important Reversibility by atmospheric moisture : M. Berthelot. On results regarding that very difficult question, the constitu
the preparation in a state of purity of boron trifluoride and tion of lignified cell-walls.-The pine-apple gall of the
silicon tetrafluoride, and on some physical constants of these spruce : note on the early stages of its development: E. R.
compounds : Henri Moissan. The boron fuoride was preBurdon. The galls are caused by certain Aphidæ belong pared in two ways, by heating a mixture of boric anhydride ing to the genus Chermes. The insect drives its proboscis
and calcium fluoride with sulphuric acid, and by direct into the bud, and sets up an irritation which results in the synthesis from boron and fluorine. After purification, the young shoot becoming modified into a gall. The early gas was frozen by liquid air, foreign gases pumped off, and
the solid allowed to volatilise. The boron fluoride melted stages of the gall take place whilst the shoot is still enclosed in the winter bud scales. The cells are forced into pre
- 127° C. and boiled – 101°. Silicon fluoride, cocious growth, and a parenchymatous tissue, consisting of
ied in a similar manner, melts at -97°, and passes swollen cells with vacuolated protoplasm and enlarged
into the gaseous state without melting. The experiments nuclei, is formed. The chlorophyll, tannin, resin, resin
establish the physical identity of BF, and Sif, prepared canals, and secretory cells all disappear, but an abundant synthetically with the compounds prepared by the ordinary supply of starch is laid down which may possibly arise as
chemical methods.-On the nature of charriage : Ed. Suess. the ultimate product of the disintegration of the tannin.
-Remarks by Michel Lévy on the preceding paper.-On The chromatin network of the nuclei becomes aggregated
a hyperelliptic surface : M. Traynard.-On the compleinto wart-like nucleoli. The mitotic figures appear to be
mentary geodesic triangulations in the higher parts of the of the usual somatic type, and no indication of heterotypical
French Alps : P. Helbronner.-On a new mode of con
The helices demitoses has yet been found. There is reason for believing structing aërial helices : Ch. Renard. that the ultimate cause is an injection by the insect, and
scribed are 2.5 m. in diameter, and are perfectly rigid when that this injection will cause a gall growth only when it
rotated by power, although their weight is only 3 kilograms. acts on embryonic tissues which are not confined by other
-On explosions in boilers: L. Lecornu.—Retrograde lignified or cuticularised tissues.-On certain quintic sur
diffusion in electrolytes : E. Bose. The author points out faces which admit of integrals of the first kind of total
that the results obtained experimentally by Thovert were differentials : A. Berry.
predicted by Abegg and Rose on Nernst's theory.-On the
estimation of temporary radio-activity for its therapeutic MANCHESTER.
utilisation : Th. Tommasina.—The proof of a radioLiterary and Philosophical Society, November 1.-Prof. activity peculiar to living beings, vegetable and animal : W. Boyd Dawkins, F.Å.s., president, in the chair.-On Th. Tommasina.---The action of low temperatures on alkaline borates : C. H. Burgess and A. Holt, jun. The colouring matters : Jules Schmidlin. An alcoholic solution authors found that nearly all the glasses obtained by fusing of rosaniline chlorohydrate shows a clear diminution in the toric anhydride with varying quantities of sodium carbonate intensity of the red colour, and at the same time developes rould be transformed, wholly or in part, into stable, crystal- a fine greenish-yellow Auorescence.—Heats of combustion of