Page images
PDF
EPUB

This last sentiment cannot refer to his previous allusion to Neoptolemos in this ode, which would not justify the phraseology τρίς τετράκι τ'; but means that it is better to say something fresh about his death than to repeat stale praises about his life.

Mr Holmes in his Thesis gives the following account of the contents of this elaborate poem.

“The threads we have traced are seven. The clue of the first was family history, that of the second Aegina, that of the third Neoptolemos, that of the fourth the poet's self-vindication, that of the fifth the apology to Sogenes, that of the sixth and shortest Zeus, that of the seventh Heracles.

“My next duty is to shew on what principle these are woven together. The best of these odes may usually be regarded as made up of mighty strands which are themselves composed of minor threads. The larger strands as a rule are three in number, which I will name concisely thus, with reference to their material, (1) Domestic, (2) Mythological, (3) Philosophical. The 7th Nemean ode contains a fourth strand which I will call (4) Polemical.

“I. The Domestic: minor threads in this ode; the victor's name, family, and city: details respecting his family (allusions to his intended competition in the Pythian games [C. A. M. F.]).

“II. The Mythological : minor threads in this ode: prayer to Zeus, prayer to Herakles, history of Neoptolemos, allusion to the Nymph Aegina distinct from the island (and to the connection between the house of Aeakos and Hêrakles (C. A. M. F.]).

“III. The Philosophical : minor threads : (1) the poet alone can immortalise the hero: (2) human fortunes have countless varieties by the stern dispensation of fates, but death is the universal leveller : [(3) the record of athletic victories is more trustworthy than epic histories of heroes, v. 23, 49, 62: (4) it is implied that the noble can bear to have their failures and demerits mentioned (C. A. M.F.) :] (5 [3, Holmes]) friendship in close vicinity is among the choicest of human blessings.

“IV. The Polemical: self-defence of the poet, who desires to clear himself of the charge of having spoken calumny."

The recurrence of ideas in this ode is remarkable, e.g., vv. 6, 54; 19, 30 f.; 11–16, 77–79; 52 f., 104 f., and the return to Neoptolemos at the end of the ode.

Στρ. α'.

'Έλείθυια, πάρεδρε Μοιρών βαθυφρόνων,
παι μεγαλοσθενέος, άκουσον, "Ήρας, γενέτειρα τέκνων

άνευ σέθεν
ου φάος, ου μέλαιναν δρακέντες ευφρόναν

τεάν αδελφεάν έλάχομεν αγλαόγυιον "Hβαν. 5 5 αναπνέομεν δ' ουχ άπαντες επί ίσα

είργει δε πότμω ζυγένθ' έτερον έτερα. συν δέ τιν
και παίς και Θεαρίωνος αρετά κριθείς
εύδοξος αείδεται Σωγένης μετα πενταέθλοις.

'Αντ. α'. πόλιν γάρ φιλόμολπον οικεί δορικτύπων το Αιακιδάν μάλα δ' εθέλοντι σύμπειρον αγωνία θυμόν αμφέπειν.

15

ΙΟ

1. 'Έλείθυια.] Also Ειλείθυια and 'Ελευθώ = The Deliverer,” clearly akin to ελεύθερος, of which the etymology is uncertain. Cf. perhaps έριθος, a free labourer.'

Μοιράν.] For their attendance at births cf. ΟΙ. . 26, έπει νιν (Πέλοπα) καθαρού λέβητος έξελε Κλωθώ, VI. 41, τα μεν ο Χρυσοκόμας | πραύμητίν τ' 'Ελείθυιαν παρέστασέν τε Μοίρας.

2. Cf. Hes. Theog. 922, ή δ' (Ήρα) "Ηβης και "Αρηα και Ειλείθυιαν έτικτεν.

3. δρα κέντες.] Cf. Ρyth. II. 20. This is the participle of the gnômic aorist, cf. Nem. 1. 62.

4. αγλαόγυιον.] Is this epithet causative “bestowing victorious limbs' (cf. Ol. xiv. 3 note)?

5. αναπνέομεν.] Rendered live, or 'aspire,' but is it a metaphor from running and other exercises, 'gather breath for equal efforts,'cf. Nem. VΙΙΙ. 19 ? For • live' Cookesley quotes Soph. Aiar, 415, αμπνοές έχoντα, “while alive.'

6. είργει.] Schol. διακωλύει, restrain, check.' For we beneath the yoke of Destiny by divers

checks are severally held.' Cf. Nem. VI. 2. For υγέντ' cf. Soph. Phil. 1025, κλοπή τε κανάγκη υγείς, Εur. Ηel. 255, τίνι πότμω συνεύγην και

7. και.] “Even so, in spite of lets and hindrances.

αρετα κριθείς.] Adjudged to victory,'i.e. by the judges at Nemea. Mezger explains 'chosen by destiny to be a victor.' Thus åpetê is a dative of end or direction (termini). Or should we interpret chosen by destiny because of his merit (to be glorious theme of song) he is the glorious theme of song'-a dative of cause? Dissen, virtute distinctus as a dative of 'side, aspect, regard, or property,' Madv. § 40. He compares Soph. Phil. 1425, αρετη τε πρώτος έκκριθείς στρατεύματος. Don. Compares the use of κριτός, Ρyth. IV. 50, Isth. vii. 65. The Schol. interprets by έκκριτος γενόμενος. Cf. Nem. IV. 2, note on κεκριμένων.

10. μάλα, κ.τ.λ.) • And right glad are they to foster a spirit conversant in contests.' For åupérrel cf. Ρyth. IX. 70, 1ΙΙ. 51, 108, where the object is a person, while infra,

[ocr errors]

ει δε τύχη τις έργων, μελίφροναιτίαν ροαισι Μοισαν ένέβαλε τα μεγάλαι γαρ αλκαι σκότον πολύν ύμνων έχοντι δεόμεναι * έργοις δε καλούς έσοπτρον ίσαμεν ενί συν τρόπο, 20

v. 91, here and Isth. III. 77 the object is an attribute of the subject.

The Schol. is wrong in suggesting that the reason for their zeal is because Pêleus had invented the pentathlon, as αγωνία refers to all kinds of contests. For the dative with oúl telpov Dissen quotes Od. III, 23, ουδέ τί πω μύθοισι πεπειρημαι πυκινoίσι, and explains the dative as giving the force of making trial of one's self in an occupation,' not merely, 'trial of the occupation,'cf. Lat. jure peritus. This explanation does not apply to Il. xv. 282, ilστάμενος άκοντι, which is an insuftcient quotation. The passage is Αιτωλών όχάριστος, επιστ. μεν άκ., εσθλός δ' εν σταδίης αγορη δε έπαυροι Αχαιών|νίκων, κ.τ.λ. With άκοντι Some supply μάχεσθαι or βάλλειν, while others compare Lat. sciens fidibus (see Paley's note). But év σταδίη, αγορή which follow show that we should render “far the noblest of the Aet., in skill in the spear-throwing, in bravery, in the press of war, while in assembly few of the Achaeans would surpass him, &c.'; so that äkorti qualifies όχάριστος as much if not more than επιστάμενος. The preposition in oújtrelpov seems to me to account for the dative αγωνία, the sense being 'essaying trial in connection with contests.'

11. TÚX?.] For ei with subj. cf. my note on Pyth. viii. 13.

For ruyxávw=EotvXéw cf. Ol. II. 51, το δε τυχεϊν | πειρώμενον αγωνίας παραλύει δυσφρoναν, Ρyth. III. 104, γρή προς μακάρων τυγχάνοντευ tráoxenev, infra, v. 55. Pindar uses έργων, έρξαις with reference to contests four times out of nine in.

stances (eight participles), eprua always so, èpyov often so.

μελίφροναιτίαν.] “A delightsome motive,' causing them to flow freely. For poaîo. cf. infra, v. 62, and Isth. VI. 19, κλυταϊς επέων ροαίσιν.

12. évébale.] For the gnômic aorist in hypothetical constructions cf. Goodwin § 51, Remark. The metaphor seems to be from throwing some herb or other object of worth into a scanty spring with an incantation to procure an abundant flow of water. The idea is recalled infra, vv. 61, 62.

åkal.] Distributive— feats of endurance.' Pindar uses álxà in reference to the pentathlon, pankration, wrestling and boxing.

13. Note the involved order, ύμνων and έχοντι being transposed. . Dissen quotes Eur. Frag. inc. II., 7 ευλάβεια σκότον έχει καθΕλλάδα, for the phrase.

14. έσοπτρον.] Observe that even the victor himself cannot appreciate his own exploit without the poet's aid. The spread of his fame reacts on his own mind and poetic treatment reveals to him an elevated and idealised representation of his achievements and position. Cookesley aptly quotes Hamlet, Act iii. 2, • Anything so overdone is from the purpose of playing, whose end both at the first and now, was, and is, to hold, as 't were, the mirror up to nature; to show virtue her own feature; &c.' Elsewhere Pindar speaks of the immortality conferred by verse; here he speaks of immediate distinction.

ενώ συν τρόπο.] “On one condition only,' lit. 'in connection with one way.'

a

15 εί Μναμοσύνας έκατι λιπαράμπυκος
εύρηται άποινα μόχθων κλυταϊς επέων αοιδαίς.

'Επ. α'. σοφοί δε μέλλοντα τριταίος άνεμον

25 15. Cf. OI. XIV. 20 for έκατι “by no more than that gmula and not favour of.' Mnemosyne was βλάβη is the exact prose correlative Titanid, daughter of Uranos and of κέρδος. He says κέρδος and ζημία Gaea, mother of the Muses by are properly opposed to one another: Zeus. Hêsiod, Theog. 915, calls her Plato, Hipparch. p. 226, Ε: κέρδος daughters χρυσάμπυκες, cf. Ρyth. δε λέγεις ενάντιον τη ζημία, Comp. ΙΙΙ. 89.

Plato, Legg. VIII. p. 835, B: Méya 16. εύρηται.] ΜSS. εύρηται τις τη πόλει κέρδος ή ζημίαν αν φέροι; the pronoun being clearly an incor- and see Aristot. Ethic. Nicom. v. porated gloss intended to show that 4: καλείται δε το μεν ημία, το δε the verb was the subj. mid. not the κέρδος. Isocr. Nicocl. p. 37, Β: το perf. pass. For tis understood cf. μεν λαβείν κέρδος είναι νομίζετε, το δ' Soph. Ο. Τ. 314, άνδρα δ' ωφελεϊν αναλώσαι ημίαν. That βλάβη was αφ' ών | έχοι τε και δύναιτο κάλλιστος not a synonym for śmula in this πόνων, Ο1. VΙ. 4.

antithesis appears from Xenoph. κλυταις.] Through glorifying Cyrop. II. 2 8 12: μήτ' επί τω εαυstrains of verse.' For causative use των κέρδει, μήτ' επί ζημία των of adjective cf. Ol. 1. 26, vi. 76, xi. ακουόντων, μήτ' επί βλάβη μηδεμιά, 4, Ρyth. IV. 81, 216, ΙΧ. 11, Nem. Comp. Cyrop. 111. 18 30 : φύλαξαι μη VIII. 40.

ημάς αποβαλών, σαυτόν ζημιώσης 17. • Wise pilots know that a πλείω ή ο πατήρ ηδυνήθη σε βλάwind is due in three days, nor are ψαι.' they injured through greed of gain,' That gnuía is not the only corre

- misled under the influence of lative to képdos is proved by Hes. gain’: for υπό κέρδει cf. Hes. Theog. W. and D. 352, κακά κέρδεα ίσ862-866, τέχνη ύπ' αιζηών and άτησιν. To support his ingenious τηκεται υφ' Ηφαίστου παλάμησιν. Conjecture από-βάλον Don.does not

Don. seems right in objecting to cite any instance of αποβάλλω=jacDissen’s υπόβλαβεν as not occurring turam facio used absolutely, nor do elsewhere, and, as he did not see I see why “the tmesis obviates any • what would be the meaning of objection' on this score. From such a compound here, and still less σοφοι (υ. 17) to νέονται (υ. 20) is a how any emphasis would fall on parenthesis. the preposition so as to justify a The meaning of this passage is tmesis,' he alters the Triclinian variously explained. Dissen takes υπό-βάλον to από-βάλον. But the it to signify that it is wise to pay Vatican BXáßev is supported by the for a poet and chorus at once, but Medicean λάβεν and gives good the Képdel applies more to the sense, and moreover, though it has skippers who might, if greedy of a more general sense than the è sm- gain, stay in harbour shipping uicono av of the Schol. and is there. more cargo till the fine weather fore not synonymous therewith, yet was over, than to the victor and might well be interpreted by the his father. The simile seems merely more narrow and technical term. to indicate the danger of trusting Don's last two quotations prove

to the future instead of realising this, and on the other hand prove such advantages as the present

or

έμαθον, ουδ' υπο κέρδει βάλον

αφνεός πενιχρός τε θανάτου πέρας 20 άμα νέονται. εγω δε πλέον' έλπομαι λόγον Οδυσσέος ή πάθαν διά τον αδυεπή γενέσθ' "Όμηρον

30

Στρ. β'. έπει ψεύδεσί οι ποτανά τε μαχανά σεμνόν έπεστί τι σοφία δε κλέπτει παράγουσα μύθοις.

τυφλόν δ' έχει ήτορ όμιλος ανδρών και πλείστος. ει γαρ ήν 35 25 ε ταν αλήθειαν ιδέμεν, ου κεν όπλων χολωθείς

ο καρτερος Αίας έπαξε διά φρενών affords. The imminence of death θυγάτηρ τε οι σώτειρα...μεγαλόδοξος (vv. 19, 20) is an instance of an Ευνομία, also note on OI. II. 14, άνεμος. I think that the poet alludes Pyth. IV. 48, αιμά οι (?), Nem. X. 29. not merely to promptitude in se- ποτανα μαχανά.] Power of making curing commemoration of the vic- winged.' Cf. note on Pyth. Ι. 41 tory, but to Sôgenes having secured and Pyth. VΙΙΙ. 34, χρέος, (debt of fame already in his boyhood, and praise) έμα ποτανόν αμφί μαχανά, so having made the best preparation Pyth. IX. 92, σιγαλόν άμαχανίαν, for death. .

'Lack of poetic power that bringeth Had Theâriôn suffered from the silence.' For sentiment cf. 01. 1. 28, premature loss of an elder son or 29, Thuk. I. 21. 1. elder sons? So far as the κέρδος 23. σεμνόν τι.] “An air of solemapplies to Theâriôn it includes the nity' which induces belief. For cost of training and competing and έπεστι Dissen quotes Aristoph. Νub. also the anxiety of a fond parent 1025, ως ηδυ σου τoίσι λόγοις σωφρον for his son's safety.

έπεστιν άνθος. 19. θανάτου πέρας | άμα.]

σοφία.] “Poetic skill. Cf. Ρyth. Ι. θανάτου παρά σαμα,' against the 42. metre. Böckh θάνατον πάρα | θαμά κλέπτει παράγοισα.] For suppres(= άμα). Wieseler, Schneidewin sion of object cf. Pyth. II. 17, 'Beand T. Mommsen give the text. guiles us by the seduction of epic • Wend their way together (cf. Il. narratives.' VII. 335) to the bourn of death.' 25. ε.] Refers to τον ανδρών

20. ελπομαι.] Cf. Frag. 39 [33], όμιλον. For ήν with accusative pro1, τί δ' έλπεαι σοφίαν έμμεναι. noun cf. ein with acc. pron. Ol. I. "I believe that the renown of 115, Pyth. II. 96, Isth. 1. 64. CookesOdysseus came to transcend the ley takes é =aútáv, incorrectly citing reality,’ ή πάθαν (πάθεν) being Ο1. IX. 14, αινήσαις ε και υιόν, which equivalent to ή καθ' ά έπαθεν. Old should be interpreted by praising Μss. read πάθαν, new πάθεν.

Opus herself and her son. 21. "Ομηρον.] Probably the 26. ó

καρτ. Αϊ.] Aias the stout Lesser Iliad or the Aethiopis is champion. For gen.όπλων cf. Madν. meant. Cf. on Nem. VΙΙΙ. 23-32. 8 61, Rem. 1, Ιι. Ι. 65, είτ' άρ' όγ

22. οι.] Cf. OI. IX, 15, θέμις ευχωλής επιμέμφεται είθ' εκατόμβης.

MSS.

« PreviousContinue »