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use. The dimensions are :-length, 9.5 cms. ; breadth,—of the blade, 5 cms.,-near the butt, 2.5 cms. ; thickness, 2 cms.

Figure 9-shows a small polished celt from village Janumpiri (police-station Khunti). It is made of brown æonic tinted rock. The sides are straight and flat and slightly bevelled to meet the convex faces, and taper towards a narrow irregular butt. One of the faces slopes more than the other to form the crescentic blade which is rounded to meet the sides. The dimensions are :-length, 7.5 cms.; breadth,-near the edge, 5 cms.,-at the butt, 1.75 cms. ; thickness, 2 cms.

Figure 10-represents a chisel of soft greyish white schis tose stone from village Bindā (police-station Khūnti). It is partly polished. One of its faces is convex and the other flat but bevelled highly to form the blade which is rounded. The sides are quite irregular but generally taper towards the butt which is thin, narrow and rounded. The dimensions are :length, 8.25 cms. ; breadth,-at the blade, 3.5 cms.,-near the butt, 1 cm.; thickness near the blade, 175 cms.

Figure 11-represents a small polished celt with convex faces well rounded to meet the broad sides. It was found at village Soparōm (police-station Ranchi). Ranchi). The material which is compact gneiss is much weathered and the specimen is thickly covered with a brown coating. The rounded edge formed by the gradual slope of the faces, meets the sides in well rounded corners so as to form a continuous band with the sides. The siles and faces taper towards a fine butt. The dimensions are:length, 6 cms. ; greatest breadth, 2-75 cms.; greatest thickness, 1.5 cms.

Figure 12-represents a thin chisel formed of dark grey silicious schist, from village Chendagutu (police-station Khūn ti). The faces are almost flat, but bevelled towards the edge to form the crescentic blade which is much impaired. The edge makes sharp angles with the sides which are rough and straight but slightly rounded to meet the faces, and converge towards the rough rectangular flat butt. The dimensions are:length, 115 cms.; breadth,-of the blade, 6.25 cms.,-of the butt, 2.75 cms. ; thickness, 15 cms.

Figure 13-represents a thin elongated celt, mostly chipped but slightly polished, made of indurate schist. It was found at Iti (police-station Khunti). The edge which is rounded is broken, being either damaged by use or chipped at the time of manufacturing. The faces are convex, and the sides flat. The butt is rounded. The dimensions are :-length, 10 cms.; breadth,-near the blade, 5.25 cms.,-near the butt, 3.25 cms. ; thickness near the middle, 1.75 cms.

Figure 14-represents a chipped chisel in quite a crude state, only slightly polished, made of dark green compact gneiss. It was found at village Pangura (police-station Khunti). The sides are not symmetrical, one side being straight and the other rounded. The sides taper towards a flat butt unequally disposed between the sides. The faces are nearly flat but slope gently towards the edge which is circular and not at all polished but only pecked. The middle of the edge has been recently broken. The dimensions are:-length, 10.5 cms. ; breadth of the oblique butt, 3.5 cins.; greatest thickness, 2 cms.

Figure 15-represents a well-polished broken celt of dark grey compact gneiss, from village Binda (police-station Khunti). The convex faces slope gradually towards each other anl meet to form the straight sides and rounded edge. The edge and sides meet at well-rounded angles and form one continuous band. A portion of the upper part is broken, and the butt, as it is, is broken and quite irregular. Its dimensions are :length, 7 cms.; breadth,―of the blade, 5.5 cms.,- of the broken butt, 5 cms. ; thickness of the butt, 2 cms.


Figure 16-represents a broad flat-bladed axe of silicious schist, also from Binda (police-station Khūnti). Both the faces are well polished, and slope downwards to form the edge which is broader than the general breadth of the implement. The thick rounded butt meets the flat sides which are almost parallel up to about a quarter of their length from the blade upwards towards the butt. The dimensions are:-length, 9.75

cms. ; breadth,-of the edge, 5.25 cms.,-near the butt, 4 cms. ; thickness, 2 cms.

Figure 17-represents a broken broad-bladed axe of amphibole schist, from village Chendagutu (police-station Khūnti). The polished convex faces slope towards each other to form the crescentic edge, the corners of which are well rounded to meet the sides. The sides are broad but rounded to meet the faces, and appear to taper very slightly towards the butt. The dimensions of the present broken axe-head are-length, 6.5 cms.; breadth,-of the blade, 7.5 cms.,-of the broken butt, 7 cms.; thickness of the butt, 2.5 cms.

Figure 18-shews a crude chisel only slightly polished near the edge and sides, from village Sembua (police-station Khunti). It is made of pyroxine or amphibole schist and is coated with a brownish red decomposition product. The faces are flat and rough, and the sides are of unequal length and unsymmetrical-one of the sides being straight and the other slightly curved. The edge which is crescentic is much impaired, the corners are rounded and so also is the butt which is narrower

than the edge. The dimensions are :-length, 10.5 cms.; breadth,-near the blade, 5 cms,-near the butt, 2.75 cms. ; thickness, 1 cm.

Figure 19-represents a polished rectangular broad-edged axe-head from village Binda (police-station Khunti). It is made of gneissose rock, and is coated with a brownish red decomposition product. The faces which are very slightly convex-almost flat-meet the flat but rounded sides which run almost parallel to each other. One of the faces slope more than the other near the blade and form the crescentic edge which meets the sides at sharp angles. The rough (probably broken) butt is quite flat and meets the sides almost at right angles. The dimensions are:-length, 7.5 cms.; breadth,—of the blade, 6.5 cms.,-of the butt (probably broken), 5.5 cms. ; average thickness, 2 cms.

Figure 20-represents the broken lower half of a broad axe made of dark grey gneiss, found at village Torangkel

(police-station Khunti). The flat parallel sides are rounded to meet the convex faces which slope downward to form a fine broad sharp crescentic edge meeting the sides symmetrically at wide angles. Though having numerous pecked depressions, the specimen is well-polished. Long-continued exposure has resulted in the formation of a patina over the surface. The dimensions are:-length (of the present broken celt), 6 cms.; breadth near the blade, 8 cms. ; thickness, 2 cms.

Figure 21-represents an elongated broad-bladed axe from village Gora (police-station Khūnti). It is a large and heavy celt formed of compact silicious rock. The specimen is broadest near the blade. The sides are straight but taper towards the butt which is pointed. Both the sides and faces are pecked, not polished; only the parts of the faces just near the edge are polished to form a rounded crescentic edge. One of the faces is convex and the other almost flat, only slightly concave,—thus making the implement suitable for gripping. The dimensions are-length, 20 cms. ; breadth,-near the blade, 8.5 cms.,of the rounded butt (5 cms. from the apex), 2.5 cms. ; thickness in the middle, 3 cms.

Figure 22-represents a large elongated celt of dark grey schist from village Bindā (police-station Khunti). The surface has become yellowish through weathering. The front face is distinctly convex and the other face rather flattish. The sides and faces are rounded and polished but uneven and illfinished. The sides taper gently towards the crescentic edge as well as towards the flat butt,--the broadest point being just in the middle. The sides and edge form one continuous band. Its dimensions are:-length, 16.5 cms.; breadth,-at the edge, 6 cms.,-in the middle, 6.5 cms.,--at the butt, 3.5 cms. ; thickness, 2.75 cms.

Figure 23—shews what looks like a paleolithic implement of compact grey quartzite from village Jurdag (police-station Karrā). The surface has become coated over with a greyish white decomposition product. The faces which are both convex are chipped into shape and meet one another to form the sides,

edge and butt,-all forming one continuous band, having roughly an oval shape resembling that of a small turtle. The dimensions are-length, 15 cms.l; breadth, 10 cms.; thickness, 3 cms.

Figure 24-represents an elongated axe-head formed of amphibole schist, found at village Pandu (police-station Khūnti). The faces are flat and slope from the butt towards the crescentic and blunt blade which has been formed by bevelling the faces. The sides are flat but slightly rounded to meet the faces, and are parallel to each other from the edge up to the middle and then go on tapering towards the butt which is thick and rounded. The dimensions are:-length, 17 cms. ; average breadth of the lower half, 6 cms. ; breadth of the butt, 3 cms.; thickness near the butt, 2 cms.

Figure 25-represents a large cylindrical celt made of hard greyish gneiss, from village Binda (police-station Khunti). The specimen is broken on both faces of the edge and near the butt, thus exposing fresher core. Weathering has made the surface soft and tinted it yellow. A section at the middle is elliptical, almost approaching a circle. The sides taper slightly towards both ends but the faces are distinctly convex and meet at both ends forming a crescentic edge and a narrow flat butt. The dimensions are:-length, 18 cms.; breadth,-near the edge, 4 cms.,-in the middle, 6 cms.,-near the butt, 3 cms.; thickness, 5 cms.

Figure 26-represents a heavy broad polished axe of greenish grey gneiss, found by the side of river Tājnā, near village Senegutu (police-station Khunti). Its crescentic blade, straight sides, and pointed butt, all together form an isosceles triangle with slightly rounded angles. The sides are broad but well-rounded to meet the faces, and more convergent to each other near the butt. One of the faces is highly convex, and the other slightly concave but sloping towards the other side near the edge. When looked at sideways, the specimen presents a curved shape. The dimensions are:-length, 16 cms. ; breadth, from corner to corner of the blade, 7 cms.,-near the butt, 3 cms.; thickness in the middle, 2.70 cms.


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