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A FIRST GERMAN COURSE | FOR SCIENCE STUDENTS.
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before us have been grouped by Baeyer under the following headings :-(1) The organic arsenic
compounds; (2) the uric acid group; (3) indigo; (4) IDOLF VON BIEYER'S COLLECTED WORKS. papers arising from the researches on indigo; (5) Adult ton Bueyer's gesammelte Werke. Herausge- pyrrol and pyridine bases; (6) experiments on the grb. n zur Feier des siebzigsten Geburtstages des
elimination of water and on condensation; (7) the Autors von seinen Schülern und Freunden. Erster phthaleins; (8) the chemistry of the hydroaromatic Band, pp. cxxxii +990. Zweiter Band, pp. 1194. compounds; (9) the terpenes; (10) nitroso-compounds; (Brunswick : F. Vieweg und Sohn, 1905.)
(11) furfurol; (12) acetylene compounds and the AS S we examine these two splendid volumes we
Spannung's Theorie"; (13) peroxides; (14) the cannot but feel that no better way of com
basic properties of oxygen; (15) dibenzalacetone and memorating the seventieth birthday of Adolf von triphenylmethane; (16) various researches in the aroBarrer could possibly have been found than that of
matic series; (17) various researches in the aliphatic a lecting together his researches and publishing them series; (18) nomenclature; (19) diversa. so that they might be studied in their entirety by all
The titles alone will serve to convey some idea of slidents of chemistry.
the immense range of subjects which have claimed The publication of the complete researches of an
the attention of Baeyer, and as we study each of these investigator who has had a profound influence on the sections we meet always the same characteristics— scientific thought of his time has much to recommend great skill in overcoming experimental difficulties it, since the collected works form not only a memorial | (often necessitating the working out of entirely new to the investigator, but also enable others to gain an methods of attack), and great ability in deducing the insight into the train of thcught which preceded the correct theoretical explanation from the results of gradual development of each important discovery. experiment.
The present volumes have, moreover, a special Within the necessarily limited space of this review in:ereat since they have been produced under the it is, of course, impossible to discuss in any detail even pa-onal supervision of Baeyer himself, with the the most far-reaching of Baeyer's discoveries or to result that the vast amount of work which he has attempt to follow their historical development. acumulated during the fifty years of his active life is Attention may, however, be briefly directed to some arranged in the manner which he himself wished and characteristics of Baeyer's work which will probably itaught most suitable.
strike the reader most as he studies the successive These volumes contain as frontispiece a strikingly sections into which these researches are divided. life like portrait of Baeyer. The introduction contains The researches on uric acid, which date from 1860, a must interesting sketch of Baeyer's life (1835-1905) are marvels of experimental skill, including, as they trum his own pen, which enables the reader to form a do, the discovery and characterisation of barbituric vity vivid idea of the difficulties Baeyer had to en- acid, violuric acid, and many other new members of counter in the earlier days of his scientific career. Not this important group, and this at a time when the (y were the schools of chemistry which existed at structure and relationship of the more important that time few in number and the appliances even in members of this section of organic chemistry were the best of them only of a very elementary kind, but little understood. Baeyer was naturally interested in mearch in organic chemistry was still quite in its the problem of the synthesis of uric acid, and in ofancy, and therefore every new development was 1863 he endeavoured to accomplish this by combining I the nature of pioneer work.
uramil with potassium cyanate, when he obtained Although in his grandfather's house Baeyer was in pseudo-uric acid, an acid which contains one molecule h: early years brought into contact with Paul Heyse, of water more than uric acid itself. The synthesis (ribul, Fontane, and other literary giants of the time, was completed in 1895, when E. Fischer and L. Ach b showed no inclination towards literature, and soon showed that pseudo-uric acid is converted into uric bean to develop a love for science by taking a keen acid when it is melted with anhydrous oxalic acid. a trrest in chemistry, botany, physics, and mathe- Of great interest, not only from a purely scientific,
but also from the commercial point of view, are the In 1836 he decided to devote himself seriously to sections the phthaleins and on indigo. The bominiry, and became a student in Bunsen's labora- researches on the phthaleins must have required extip at Heidelberg at a time when Roscoe, Pebal, | ceptional skill, ingenuity and patience, because it must Liban, Beilstein, Lothar Meyer, and others were work- be remembered that this work was absolutely new, and, in, in the laboratory, and when Bunsen's reputation moreover, the substances belonging to this class are, do? It acher and investigator was at its highest. His at the present day, some of the most difficult to deal fsos original investigation was a continuation of the with experimentally. Burk of Bunsen and Roscoe on the combination of The well-known papers on indigo should be read
men and chlorine, and this, as well as his next in connection with a most interesting sketch of their mwarsh, on methyl chloride, were suggested by Bunsen. historical development (p. xxxviii) which Baeyer him1"vp this Baeyer worked entirely on his own initiative, self has contributed. and gradually laid the foundations upon which the The labour entailed in carrying out these researches firms edifice of his life-work was subsequently raised, must have been very great, and it is instructive to The papers collected together in the two volumes read that, after a certain time, Baeyer became so
wearied with indigo that he was quite unable to con- Baeyer's latest publications deal with the vexed tinue experimenting on the subject, and had to allow question of the relation of colour to constitution, and the various problems connected with the commercial are concerned especially with the reason for the development of his discoveries to pass into other coloured nature of certain salts derived from dibenzalhands. In search of fresh fields for investigation, acetone and from triphenylcarbinol. One of the Baeyer commenced an inquiry with the object of dis- most remarkable results of this investigation is the covering whether carbon atoms, uncombined with proof that the coloured salts of triphenylcarbinol are hydrogen, are capable of uniting to form long chains, in reality esters possessing the properties of salts, and, in order to determine this, he synthesised a number and that they cannot be regarded as quinoid comof poly-acetylene compounds, including tetracetylene- pounds. dicarboxylic acid
Baeyer is, at the present time, occupied with the CO,H.C_C-C=C-C=C-CEC.CO,H.
further development of this important matter. This remarkable acid is quite colourless, but is It is impossible to close the volumes before us withreadily blackened by the action of light, and compounds out marvelling at the immense amount of work which of this type were found to be so explosive that their | it is possible for one man to carry out, and without a further investigation had to be abandoned. One of deep impression of the enormous influence which the the fruits of the consideration of the properties of work of Baeyer has had on the development of these compounds was the enunciation of the well- modern chemistry. The list of papers published from known Spannung's Theorie,” which has given rise Baeyer's laboratory occupies no less than sixty-three to so much discussion, and proved to be of such value pages of closely-printed matter, and when we look at in suggesting new lines for experimental inquiry. the names attached to these papers we are able to
Section viii., which Baeyer has placed directly form some idea of the magnitude of the school which after the phthaleins, deals with the chemistry of the he has founded, and of the extent to which many of hydroaromatic compounds and the constitution of the greatest chemists of the day owe their training in benzol. These researches date from the year 1866. research to Baeyer.
W. H. PERKIN, JUN. when, in conjunction with Graebe, Born, Mohs and others, he first investigated the behaviour of phthalic
A STANDARD TREATISE ON ELASTICITY. acid and terephthalic acid towards sodium amalgam.
Baeyer repeatedly returned to this subject in later A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. years, but it was not until 1888 that the epoch-making
By A. E. H. Love. Second edition. Pp. xviii + series of papers “Ueber die Constitution des 552. (Cambridge: University Press, 1906.) Price Benzols began with the exhaustive study of the
18s. net. products which are formed when terephthalic acid is NSTEAD of merely revising his former treatise, reduced with sodium amalgam. These researches on Prof. Love has written a new one; the result the reduction products of the phthalic acids and of is that we have two works by the same author, in some benzene itself are well known, but they have perhaps ways contrasting, in others complementary. And as hardly received the close attention which they merit, in the similar cases of Maxwell's “ Electricity," and owing partly, no doubt, to their difficult and intricate Thomson and Tait's “Natural Philosophy,” the nature. The careful study of these papers will, how- prudent will buy the new book without parting with ever, more than repay the time spent, and to the the old. young investigator they may well serve as an example Naturally one feature in the new edition is the inof the patience and endurance which he must be pre- clusion of important or interesting results obtained pared to face if he wishes to attempt the solution of a since the appearance of the earlier one. In some problem of really first-rate importance.
branches of mathematics the proportion of English It is perhaps a consequence of the study of these workers is distressingly small; but in elasticity this is artificially prepared reduction derivatives of benzene happily not the case, and the recent researches of that Baeyer was led to investigate that wonderful Michell, Filon, Dougall, and others, besides those of series of naturally occurring reduced benzene deriva- veterans that need not be named, receive in these pages tives--the terpenes—the constitution of which has their due recognition. So also do those of their offered one of the most difficult problems to the Continental confrères, more particularly Voigt; but modern organic chemist. During the course of his it is hard to avoid the impression that the deaths of experiments on the oxidation of substances which, Kirchhoff and Hertz have left vacancies which have like the terpenes, contain unsaturated closed chains,
yet to be worthily filled. Baeyer commenced to experiment with Caro's acid, It is interesting to compare the historical introducand, among many other interesting results, showed tion in its old form with its successor. The former was that this acid was a most valuable reagent for the in some places controversial, and the author seems to conversion of ketones into lactones. Further experi- have thought some of the statements too dogmatic, at ments resulted in the discovery of the remarkable any rate in form. However this may be, the new series of peroxidised substances of which benzoyl introduction is strictly impersonal, and shows clearly hyperoxide and diethylperoxide may be taken as enough how recent physical theories and discoveries types, and led to a development of Collie and Tickle's affect the subject of elasticity. A great deal of the important work on the tetravalent nature of oxygen polemic about the number of elastic constants was as and the oxonium theory.
illogical as the quarrel about vis viva. As an abstract
mathematical theory, the 21-constant hypothesis is as stress and strain in a curved shell, agreeing to that legitimate as its rival and conversely; the question order with results of Mr. Basset's. that interests physicists is which of the two, if either, In this, as in other parts of the book, the analysis best corresponds to the properties of elastic bodies. is very elegant, and is given in sufficient detail for Saint-V'enant rightly argued that this could not be really competent readers to follow. But the author settled a priori, but only by experiment; and at the follows the general tendency now in vogue, of suppresent day his justification on this point is complete, pressing details of calculation, and emphasising results although he was ied to adopt the rari-constant theory of practical value, rather than examples of mainly by relying upon inconclusive experiments. As Prof. æsthetic interest. In his preface he expresses a hope Love points out (pp. 14, 15) our views of the ultimate that his book will be useful to engineers; how far they structure of matter are being profoundly modified, and do so depends, of course, upon them as well as upon until they are cleared up it is premature to propose him. They will find among the subjects treated the an " atomic " theory of elasticity. Meanwhile we can buckling of plates, the collapse of boiler-fues, the make a working hypothesis by assuming the existence whirling of shafts, the stability of slender columns, of a strain-energy-function which is a quadratic and other such things; it is to be hoped that they will function of the components of strain. In all proba- also appreciate the general theory, as the author bility the ultimate theory, if we could only reach it, presents it. Every student, not an expert, should is kinematical; the stresses set up in a strained body follow the advice given in the preface of proceeding bring an aspect of a new distribution of kinetic energy to chapter v. as soon as possible. in space.
It is a great advantage that the author of this book The results of the theory, as applied to the arts, is a mathematician of wide as well as accurate attainare, of necessity, only approximate; and great care ments. As an illustration, it will be enough to refer must be taken to see that, when an approximate solu- to p. 306, dealing with the torsion of a rectangular tion has been obtained, it is really applicable to the prism; it is at once clear that the author's knowledge concrete case. An excellent example is given on p. of Fourier expansions is quite different from that of 140. relating to a sphere strained by its own gravita- the average physicist. Similar examples of rigour lion. If we put in the numerical values of g, ro, Po free from pedantry may be found throughout the and
any reasonable values for 1, H, when the sphere volume. in question is the earth, we find that the condition At the end of the introduction occurs the sentence : that Uir should be small for ^,>r>o cannot be “Most of the men by whose researches it (the mathesatisfied, although this is one of the assumptions on matical theory of elasticity] has been founded and which U has been calculated. This point was brought shaped have been
interested in Natural put in the previous edition (i. 220); it is a pity that Philosophy than in material progress, in trying to this warning has been suppressed, though another, understand the world than in trying to make it more equally instructive, has been given.
comfortable." It may be added that most of the Again, take the condition (or conditions) for comfort we enjoy, and most of our civilisation that is rupture taking place (pp. 117 sqq.). This cannot be worthy of the name, is due to men who have endured given by the ordinary theory, which is only applicable discomfort, in pursuance of ideal ends. Apart from when the elastic limit is not exceeded. Nevertheless, the poets and the philosophers, where should we be ? attempts have been made to express the condition in
G. B. M. terms of the components of stress. This is entirely illogical, and hence, as usual, a contest between rival
PROTEID CHEMISTRY. formulae. It may, of course, happen that one formula, as against the other, may have a wider range of ap
Chemistry of the Proteids. By Dr. Gustav Mann. plicability; but it ought to be treated as purely em
Based on Prof. Otto Cohnheim's “Chemie der pirical, and not rashly applied to untested cases. On
Eiweisskörper.” Pp. xviii +606. (London: Macthis point the author might have been more dogmatic
millan and Co., Ltd.; New York : The Macmillan than he is.
Co., 1906.) Price 155. net. A very interesting section is that on the deforma- DR.
R. GUSTAV MINN started this work with the tion of plates. This is a famous problem, historically,
modest idea of producing an English translaand even lately gave rise to controversy, now tion of Prof. 0. Cohnheim's well-known monograph satisfactorily settled. To get a reasonably simple on the chemistry of the albuminous substances. But approximate solution some kinematical assumption it has developed into a volume of a much more am. must be made, and this must be compatible with the bitious nature, and has culminated in a book twice boundary conditions. Prof. Love pointed out that, the size of that on which it is founded. The subject strictly speaking, a vibrating plate with free edges in many parts is treated much more fully, and a good cannot satisfy the condition that the middle surface deal of new matter introduced. In many places, is unstretched; Mr. Basset and Prof. Lamb showed moreover, Cohnheim's own views are adversely that the boundary condition could be satisfied without criticised, so that the present volume bears witness supposing any considerable stretching except near the to the originality of the English author. rdge. An interesting statical illustration due to Lamb Those who know Dr. Mann best as a histologist is given on p. 521. On p. 506 Prof. Love obtains, may be surprised that he should have the necessary by a method of his own, second approximations for knowledge to write on a subject at first sight so far