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Mr. Abbot has in very few instances differed from Dr. Withering; we mean with regard to nomenclature: for he has not followed the Botanical Arrangements in turning the Linnaan system topsy turvy. -On the authority of Hoffman, aided by his own observation, he has made the beautiful variety of Anagallis Arvensis, a species under the name of A. Cærulea ; and he follows Mr. Relhan in describing Heracleum Angustifolium as distinct from H. Sphondylium ; in' which latter point we suspect that he is in an error; as we are acquainted with a very accurate botanist, who pointed out to Ms. Relhas, near Cambridge, the leaves of both plants on one steni.
We do not remember that Mr. Abbot was ever before known to the world as an author : but we have very frequently seen his name as one of the most liberal contributors to Mr. Sowerby's two publications before mentioned, and he therefore is not stranger to English naturalists. The present work does him considerable credit ; and we do not hesitate in pronouncing it a valuable addition to the Botany of Great Britain.
ART. XI. Sermons, preached !o Parochial Coxgregations, by the late 1 Rev. Richard Southgate, M. A.'many Years Čurate of St. Giles's in the Fields, and sometime Rector of Warsop, Nottinghamshire: with a Biographical Preface by George Gaskin, D. D. Rector of St. Benet Grace-Church, London; and of Stoke. Newingtort, Mişdtesex. 8vo. 2 Vols. 128. Boards, Leigh and Sotheby. 1798.
He author of these discourses appeared, for the greates 80 populous a parish as that of St. Giles, he could not long remain in obscurity. Indeed, according to the short memorial annexed to these volumes, his vigilance in attending to the duties of his office, his learning and ingenuity, his diffidence and humility, could not fail of recommending him to regard, and of rendering him in some degree conspicuous. His behaviour was not that which is termed merely decent ; it was such as displayed a heart under the powerful influence of religious and virtuous principles. His income was but slender during the former years of his life:-yet he was able to indulge a taste for books, medals, and coins; and for fossils, shells, and oiher natural curiosities. The manifestation of this taste gained the notice of the Directors of the British Museum; and in November 1784, on the death of Dr. Gifford, he was appointed assistant librarian, an office (says Dr. Gaskin) for which he was eminctly qualified.' About this time also he became a fellow of the Antiquarian and Linnzan Societies,
and was constituted rector of Warsop, a valuable benefice : yet he was so attached to his curacy that he would not relinquish it, and satisfied himself with passing some part of every summer at his parish in the country. He died in the 66th year of his age, at the British Museum, 25th January 1795. His collections of books, coins, &c. were sold at an auction (which continued one-and-twenty days.'
Respecting the discourses, perhaps some judgment may be formed from the following paragraph, extracted from the editor's account:
• They are the productions of a man, whose mind was well furnished and highly cultivated ; whose learning was extensive and accurate, particularly in classics, bistory, and theology ; whose principles were formed strictly on the orthodox views of the Church of England, whether we contemplate her primitive episcopal constitution, or her creed; whose high aim was to promote the glory of God, the knowledge of Christ crucified for the salvation of penitent sinners, and the spiritual edification of Christians : whose ministry was exercised with gravity, zeal, and perseverance ; whole politics were such as the Bible inculcates, and the primitive Christians gloried in ; whose temper was mild and amiable; and the tenor of whose life adorned the doctrine of God, our Saviour.'
The first of these volumes contains twenty-five, and the second twenty-six sermons. Though posthumous, and not in tended for the press, the style is on the whole correct ; sometimes declamatory, at others argumentative. If we cannot in every instance concur entirely in the author's sentiments, we must approve the sincerity with which they appear to be advanced; and must applaud the spirit of candour and benevolence which he manifests towards those who differ from him, and from the establishment with which he was immediately connected. The sermons have not unfrequently reminded us of old, and what are called puritanical writings, both within and without the English pale, though appearing in a modern and more suitable dress; and many parts of them deserve our sin. cere approbation. From the judgment which we can form, the parish of St. Giles sustained a great loss in the removal of such a minister as Mr. Southgate ;-we can only expiess our hope that the vacancy is well supplied.
ART. XII. A Geographical and Satistical Account of the Cisalpine Re
public, and Maritime Austria. With a Map, describing the Partition of the Venetian Territory, and the New Limits of the Cisalpine Republic. Translated from the Germany; by W. Oppenheim, M. D. 8vo. Pp. 570. 75. 6d. Boards. Robinsons. 1798.
a very early stage of the present war, we remarked its necessary tendency to break up Europe into large masses,
and to aggrandize the greater at the expence of the smaller Powers of the Continent. By this process, the relative consequence of Great Britain is continually diminished; because her insular form and geographical position render all European acquisition to her impracticable. A general peace has therefore, at every moment of the war, been her perpetual interest ; and must continue to be so, though the whole force of Austria be again directed against France, to be again bought off by a new partition of Switzerland, of Italy, or of Turkey. Ever since the introduction of the partitioning policy, the tendency of each state to aggrandizement seems to have grown in the same proportion as its magnitude: as the dropping of one satellite on the body of Saturn would increase its power of attracting the remaining moons. It is probable, therefore, that all the petty states will ere long be anvexed to one or another of the great states; and that country will absorb the largest number, which interposes the fewest delays between its successive accroachmenis *. France and Austria seem to have most inclination for alertness in the task of seizure, and to have most augmented their positive strength by the incorporation of contiguous dominion.
The object of the work before us is to describe statistically, as well what the Emperor has lost as what he has gained in Italy and Dalmatia by the treaty of Campo Formio: (a treaty (says the author) which may on several accounts be considered as highly advantageous to the Emperor; for if we compare the territories which Austria has ceded and acquired, we shall find that that monarchy gains a superficial extent of eighty-eight German square miles.'—' A further aggrandizement (he adds) may be expected by the Emperor as well as the Cisalpine republic, which shall be noticed at a proper opportunity.'
The author thus describes the extent and population of the Cisalpine Republic :
« The CISALPINE REPUBLIC was created by the French Republic, in the year 1796 ; it was firmly established, in consequence of the peace of Campo Formio, in 1997; and was acknowledged by his Majesty the Emperor, the Kings of Sardinia, Spain, Swisserland, the Pope, &c. It comprehends, beside the whole of Austrian Lombardy, and part of the former Republic of Venice, the territories of the Duke of Modena, the Papal provinces of Ferrara, Bologna, and Romagna; and so critically are the encircled states of the Duke of Parma situated, that the Republic intends alrcady to aggrandise it
This word, though not commonly used, will be found in Johnson's Dictionary, and more exactly expresses our meaning here than encroachments.
self at the expence of this and other tottering powers in its neighbourhood.'
The whole territorial dimensions of the Cisalpine Republic contain 3,567 square miles, and 3,4471384 souls, viz.
Square Miles. Inhabitants. i. The Duchy of Milan
1,116,892 2. The Duchy of Mantua, with (3.) the
principalities Castiglione and Salfe.
207,331 4. The acquired provinces formerly be
longing to the Republic of Venice,
463 666,000 5. The Duchy of Modena, with the principalities of Massa and Carrara
431 460,000 6. The lands obtained from the Duke
of Parma, the Duchy of Guastillo,
18,000 7. The three legations, Ferrara, Bologna, and Romagna, formerly Papal
775,86€ 8. The territories of the Grisons, belong
ing to Worms, Cleves, and the Val-
100,000 9 The four (commonly termed) Italian Bailiwicks
3,447,084 Agreeable to this account, a square mile will contain 966 inhabitants. Comparing this with the enumeration collected by order of the government in 1791–94, from the different parish-lists, with the account of authors of veracity, and with the account (Sect. X) collected by the present legislature, no one will doubt the exactness of our account. On the other hand, the ridiculous assertions of the newspapers, with respect to the population of the modern Republic, and the supposed loss of the Austrian Monarchy, will appear most glaring. The number 3,239,572 of inhabitants will, indeed, be deficient in 207,812 ; but this is owing to the Swiss territories (No. VIII, IX, Sect. II), comprehending 203,000 souls, which territories were annexed to the Republic after the division of it into departments. If the latter number be added to the above-mentioned 3,239,572, the number 3,442,472 of souls will be obtained, and our account will be overrated by 4812 persons only, who are included among the 18,000 of some districts belonging to No. VI, which the Republic took possession of subsequent to its division. The certainty of our account, however, will become stronger by comparing ít minutely with the account of the Republic. For example, we give
to Milan (NĄ I) 1,116,892 souls, and in the account of the Repub. lc, its seven departments, namely, Adda, Verbano, Tesino, Lario, Delle Montague, Olone, and Upper Po, contain 1,179,410 inhabitants ; again, we give to Mantua (No. II and III) 207,331 souls, and in the account of the Republic, the departments made out of it have only 123,649 persons, because some districts have been annexed partly tá the department of the Upper Po, and partly to the department of the Benaco. All these inhabitants, at present, are sensible of no distinction with respect to orders, all are citizens of the Republis, and may, according to the tenor of the constitution, vote in the elecrions of the representatives of the people, and are themselves eligible; whereas formerly the nobility only, and a few inhabitants of the cities, were capable of holding the public functions.'
The extent and population of Maritime Austria are thus pasticularized.
a In virtue of the treaty of peace of Campo Formio, the limits of Maritime Austria commence on the west side of the Lago di Garda, near the confines of the Tyrol, with the little river which passes Gardolo, and passing obliquely through the lake, they extend on the east to Lascise, from hence across to St. Giocomo ; from this place they run through a space of territory, 18,000 feet in length, along the left banks of the Adige, to Porto Legnano, then to the left of the White Canal, the river Tartaro, and the Canal of Polisella, reaching the Po, the left bank of which, as far as the Adriatic Sca, constitutes the boundaries of Maritime Austria. According to this account then, the new province is bounded on the north by the Tyrol, Carinthia, Crain, or Carniola ; on the east by Carinthia, Carniola, Croatia, Bosnia, and Albania ; on the south, throughout its whole extent, by the Gulph of Venice, the Po, the canal Polisella, the White Canal, and the river Tartaro ; on the west by the Cisalpine Republic.'
The portion of territory which Austria has acquired, compreLending the lacunes and islands of the former Republic of Venice, contains a superficial content of 865 German square miles * ; viz. of the continent, and the lacunes and isles 625, of Dalmatia and AL bania 240 square miles; which territories have, according to the most recent enumeration made by the French, 3,110,000 inhabitants; namely, 2,860,000 souls on the continent, &c. 250,000 in Albania and Dalmatia : so that cvery square mile contains 3,595 inhabitants, which constitutes a very considerable population; and although it dous not, by far, equal the populousness of the Netherlands, yet will, under the Austrian dominion, certainly attain that proportion. The following may serve as a comparison with other States. In Germany, a square mile coutains on an average 2,190 souls.
German 19. miles. Inhabitants. In France
3,776 6* A geographical degree contains fifteen Gernan miles.'