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antea, iudices, et ex aliorum miscriis et ex meis curis laboribusque cotidianis fortunatos cos homines iudicarem, qui remoti a studiis ambitionis otium ac tranquillitatem vitite seruti sunt, tum vero in his L. Murenae tantis tamque improvisis periculis ita sum animo adfectus, ut non quem satis neque communem omnium nostrum condicionem nellie huius crentum fortunamque miserari : qui primum, dum ex honoribus continuis familiae maiorumque suorum unum istendere gradum dignitatis conatus est, venit in periculum, ne et ei?, que relicti, et haec, quae ab ipso parta sunt, amittat, deinde propter studium novae laudis etiam in veteris fortunae discrimen adducitur. cum sunt gravia, iudices; tum illud acerbissimum est, quod habet eos accusatores non qui odio inimicitiarum ad accusudum, sed qui studio acusandi ad inimicitias descenderint. nam ut omittam Servium Sulpicium, quem intellego non iniuria L. Murenae, sed honoris contentione permotum, iccusat paternus amicus, C. Postumus, vetus, ut ait ipse, vicinus ac necessarius, qui necessitudinis causas complures protulit, simultatis nullam commemorare potuit; accusat Ser. Sulpicius, sodalis filius, cuius ingenio paterni omnes necessarii munitiores esse debebant; accusat II. Cato, qui quamquam a Murena nulla re umquam alienus fuit, tamen ea condicione erat in hac civitate natus, ut eius opes et ingenium praesidio multis etiam alienissimis, exitio vix cuiquam inimico esse deberent. iudicarem] discussed later de and cf. pro Mil. § 58. The sing.

inimicitia seems only used in good non queam] the regular form of prose as an abstract philosophical the first person in Cicero.

Freund cf. II in Verr. IV. § 89, pro Mil. honoris contentione] See on § 11. $77. so in third pers. pl., Tusc. D. sodalis filiis] Ilis father had be. II. $ 65.

longed to some collegium with Munostrum] 'us statesmen.'

rena, and such sodales were ordieventum]the result of his public life. narily expected to support each primum...deinde] The iwo things other. Also the son was expected to

Z. well cf. auct. ad take the same course as his father. Herenn. IV. S 54, expolitio est, quum

accusat] This repetition is called in eodem loco manemus et aliud atque åvapopa, cf. that of negat S 74, nolite aliud dicere videmur.

$ 80, Verres II in Verr. II. S 26. continuis] cf. § 15.

munitiores] sc. rather than at. relicta] Before this word H. in tacked. serts ei.

praesidio...exitio] Roby Lat. Gr. 56. odio inimicitiarum] gen. of

II. XXV-lvi. possession or relation. See on § 1, etiam alienissimis] cf. SS 8, 45.

Off. 1. SS 70, 71,

term.

are the same.

57 respondebo igitur Postumo primum, qui nescio quo pacto

mihi videtur praetorius candidatus in consularem quasi desultorius in quadrigarum curriculum incurrere. cuius competitores si nihil deliquerunt, dignitati corum concessit, cum petere destitit: sin autem eorum aliquis largitus est, expetendus amicis est, qui alienam potius iniuriam quam suam persequatur.

DE POSTUMI CRIMINIBUS.

DE SERVII ADULESCENTIS.

58 XXVIII. venio nunc ad M. Catonem, quod est firmamentum,

ac robur totius accusationis, qui tamen ita gravis est accusator et vehemens, ut multo magis eius auctoritatem quam criminationem pertimescam. in quo ego accusatore, iudices, primum

This person

57. desultorius] sc. equus, a horse trained for the performance of the desultor in the circus. usually had two horses under command, Propert. V. (IV.) 2. 35, eius traicit alterno qui leve pondus 1910, cf. Liv. XXIII. 29. These performances rank below the quadrigae, so that what Cicero means is, that Postumus, a candidate for an office inferior to the consulship, had better have left candidates for the latter to settle their own affairs. cf. also Suet. Julius 39, Liv. XLIV. 9.

dignitati etc.] Either they did not bribe, in which case Postumus has confessed their superiority; or they did, and then what a hearty friend is he who avenges the wrongs done to a friend rather than those done to himself; the point of the banter is that Postumus had better have taken his late defeat good-humouredly.

amicis] sc. he must be a very useful friend; irony, as he was hard on Murena, cf. § 56. So Z. after MS. Lag. 9, better than amicus. H. after 0. Heine now reads amicus ei, i.e., Postumus needs another Postumus.

Servii] sc.criminibus. These titles are added by Cicero himself, like those in pro Fonteio § 20. Pliny

the younger, Epp. 1. 20. 7, says, testes sunt multae multorum orationes et Ciceronis pro Murena, pro Vareno, in quibus brevis et nuda quasi subscriptio quorundam criminum solis titulis indicatur; ex his apparet illum permulta dixisse, cum ederet, omisisse.

xxviii. 58. quod] When an obser. vation is appended to an idea already sufficiently defined, the relative is accommodated to the substantive which follows, cf. Madv. $ 316: add Phil. V. § 39, II. § 54 and Prof. Mayor's note.

firmamentum ac robur) so de imp. Gn. Pomp. $ 10.

tamen] The editors leave this un. noticed; I believe that it requires some such explanation as the following: auctoritatem refers to gravis, and criminationem to vehemens: ita ...ut, as often, =‘though'... “yet,' cf. ad Att. v. 9. 2, hoc tibi ita mando ut dubitem an etiam te rogem ut..., while giving you this commission, I still am in doubt whether to go further and ask you to’... The sense of this passage will then be ‘while as a prosecutor he is both weighty and energetic, still I feel far more afraid of the weight he may carry than of the charges he brings,' cf. on abrogarim $ 5.

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illud deprecabor, ne quid L. Murenae dignitas illius, ne quid exspectatio tribunatus, ne quid totius vitae splendor et gravitas noceat, denique ne ea soli huic obsint bona VI. Catonis, quae ille adeptus est, ut multis prodesse possit. bis consul fuerat P. Africanus et duos terrores huius imperii, Karthaginem Numantiamque, deleverat, cum accusavit L. Cottam. erat in eo summa eloquentia, summa fides, summa integritas, auctoritas tanta quanta in imperio populi Romani, quod illius opera tenebatur. saepe hoc maiores natu dicere audivi, hanc accusatoris eximiam vim plurimum L. Cottae profuisse. noluerunt sapientissimi homines, qui tum rem illam iudicabant, ita quemquam cadere in iudicio, ut nimiis adversarii viribus abiectus videretur. quid? Ser. Galbam-nam traditum memoriae est 59

-nonne proavo tuo, fortissimo atque florentissimo viro, M. Catoni incumbenti ad eius perniciem populus Romanus eripuit? semper in hac civitate nimis magnis accusatorum opibus et populus universus et sapientes ac multum in posterum prospicientes iudices restiterunt. nolo accusator in iudicium potentiam adferat, non vim maiorem aliquam, non auctoritatem excellentem, non nimiam gratiam : valeant haec omnia ad salutem innocentium, ad opem impotentium, ad auxilium calamitosorum, in periculo vero et in pernicie civium repudientur. nam si quis hoc forte dicet, Catonem descensurum ad 60

tribunatus] He was tribunus desig. natus.

bis consul] B.C. 147 and 134. P. Corn. Scipio Aemilianus Africanus minor. See Mommsen, bk. IV. C. I.

duos terrores) so called also in de Rep. I. $ 71, Velleius, II. 4. 5.

İ. Aurel. Cotta] consul in B.C. 144, in the Brutus § 82 we are told that he was thought a veterator, probably in reference to his oratory; but he is said to have bought his acquittal.

tenebatur] was maintained, upheld, cf. § 83, totam rempublicam vos in hac causa tenetis, de Nat. D. II. $ 31.

dicere audivi] cf. Madv. § 395

cadere] should lose his case, cf. causa cadere in $ 9.

abiectus] overthrown, struck down, cf. in Catil. II. § 1, se perculsum atque abicctum esse sentit.

59. quid?] so $ 33. cf. Mady. § 479 d, obs. 1.

Ser. Sulpicius Galba] who as praetor in Spain B.C. 151 had treacherously massacred 30,000 Lusitanians. Suet. Galba 3. For his oratorical power, his trial and acquittal, cf. Brutus § 89, de Orat. I, § 227.

incumbenti ad] cf. on S 53, and add in Catil. iv. § 4, incumbite ad salutem reipublicae.

potentiam) with inferiors, gratiam, with superiors in rank, standing, etc. cf. pro Caec. $ 73, quod neque inflicti

obs. 5.

accusandum non fuisse, nisi prius de causa iudicasset, iniquam legem, iudices, et miseram condicionem instituet periculis hominum, si existimabitur iudicium accusatoris in reum pro aliquo praeiudicio valere oportere.

XXIX. ego tuum consilium, Cato, propter singulare animi mei de tua virtute iudicium, vituperare nolo: nonnulla forsitan conformare et leviter emendare possim. non multa peccas, inquit ille fortissimo viro senior magister, sed peccas; te regere possum. at ego verissime dixerim peccare te nihil neque ulla in re te esse huius modi, ut corrigendus potius quam leviter inflectendus esse videare. finxit enim te ipsa natura ad honestatem, gravitatem, temperantiam, magnitudinem animi, iustitiam, ad omnes denique virtutes [magnum hominem et excelsum]. accessit his doctrina non moderata

nec mitis, sed, ut mihi videtur, paulo asperior et durior, quam 61 veritas aut natura patitur. et quoniam non est nobis haec

pro Balbo

gratia neque perfringi potentia neque adulterari pecunia possit.

60. de causa] on the merits of the case."

legem...condicionem] 'rule'... 'principle.' So pro Caec. S 40. cf. also pro Flacco § 24, pro Cluent. $ 150. Vet Cicero employs this very line of argument in pro Sulla $ 85, as H. well points out.

pro aliquo praeiudicio] ‘as a sort of recorded verdict.'

xxix. nolo] Boot's brilliant conjecture. The MSS. have a lacuna here, except one inferior one, which reads non audeo.

conformare] ‘bring into the right shape.' H., and so Freund : better Madv. on de Fin. 1V. S 5, qua mores conformari putantur, says Ethica mores constituit et quales esse debeant quaerit et praecipit, hoc est, conformat. «Give you some rule to fashion yourself by.'

magister] Phoenix (or Chiron] to Achilles. Quint. VIII. vi. 29, 30 in speaking of antonomasia, quae aliquid pro nomine ponit, quotes this passage, adding neutrum enim nomen est positum et utrumque intelligitur.

inquit] ‘says in the play.' A quotation from some old drama.

percas...regere] The quotation is wittily chosen, embodying some cant terms of the Stoics. rectum = Katópowia, cf. on S 3. peccatum= ájáptqua, cf. on S 62.

corrigendus] to require 'settingstraight.' A strong word, cf. de Fin. 1. § 17. [in Phil. 11. $ 4: $ 20, Hor. Epp. I. 15. 37, corrector is particularly invidious.]

inflectendus] a much milder word. 2. well cf. de Divin. I. $ 30, leviter a summo inflexum bacillum, 'with a slight bend.

finxit] so de Orat. II. $ 219, natura enim fingit homines et creat imitatores.

ad] ‘for,' with a view to,' moral worth etc. It goes with magnum etc., cf. $ 66.

doctrina) the teaching of a school. ' A set of tenets.' •The creed of a sect.'

veritas] the “realities of life,' natura, “the feelings innate in us.' The passage in de Fin. Iv. § 55 should be compared with this, cf. also § 65 inf.

oratio habenda apud imperitam multitudinem aut in aliquo conventu agrestium, audacius paulo de studiis humanitatis, quae et mihi et vobis nota et iucunda sunt, disputabo. in M. Catone, iudices, haec bona, quae videmus divina et egregia, ipsius scitote esse propria: quae nonnumquam requirimus, eit sunt omnia non a natura, verum a magistro. fuit enim quidam summo ingenio vir, Zeno, cuius inventorum aemuli Stoici nominantur. huius sententine sunt et praecepta huius modi : sapientem gratia numquam moveri, numquam cuiusquam de

SO.

aut] not it, as the comparison durior...qum has the force of il negative. T. cf. § 78, where quisquam is used for the same reason. H.

61. apud imporitam multitudinem] This is merely a flourishadlinuddin tiam captandam, he says just the opposite in de Fin. 11.$ 7+, omnia fica cata paria dicitis. non igo tucum (addressed to Cato) iam ita incalor, ut isdem his de rebus, cum L. lluriname te accu sante defenderem : apud impcritos tum illa dicta sunt. Plut. Cat. min. 21 tells us that when Cicero delivered this volley of ridicule against the Stoics and in particular against their paradoxes, Cato smiled and said "what a witty consul we have.' Cicero afterwards wrote his six papers called mapáõoša by way of commending the morality of the Stoics to his countrymen.

humanitatis] education, especially of a higher kind, 'cultivation,' Talheia. In Cicero's time it is often used thus, cf. de Or. I. SS 35, 71, 11. SS 40, 72, pro Arch. SS 2, 3, etc.; but Gellius XIII. 17 (16) notices the disuse of this sense in his time and illustrates it from Varro. We have still the phrase ' professor of Humanity' in Scotland, and a school of Litterae Humaniores at Oxford. studiis with gen., cf. § 2.

requirimus]=desideramus, ‘miss.' The use here is strange, and the true explanation is this.

We miss compassion as an element in his character, i. e. we think him hard-hearted: but he is not so by nature, it is his

master's teaching that has made him

11. paraphrodnes. We would thin see otherwise'' cf. Quint. 11. 1.70.

Zino of lition in the isle of Cyo prus, a Grech station with some admixture of Phoenician blood in the population. He taught at thens during the 4th century 1.c. in the frescoed l'orch (Tolki \n otoà), from which his school as well as himself got the name of it wikoi or oi dò Tîs otoâs. lle passed into a proverb, του φιλοσόφου Ζήνωνος έγκρατέστεpos. lle was succeeded by Kleanthes and Kleanthes by Chrysippus. cf. Ritter and Preller $$ 391–393.

in'intorum] 2. cf. de Or. 1. § 84, nisi qui philosophorum intenta didi(.

alemuli] 'students,' “followers.' cf. pro Marcello § 2, de invent. I. $ 43, Liv. I. 18, Tac. H. 111. SI. probably an adaptation from Gk. Šnloûv, ζηλωτής.

. sententiar] "positions,' 'dogmas.' proncepła, teaching. He does not here deal with the fundamental principles of the Stoic school, but with their dark sayings,' tà tapádoğa kaloúpeva doyuara, Plut. Cat. min. 21.

Cicero renders παράδοξα by admirabilia in de Fin. IV. $ 74. The Greek of Diogenes Laertius will be compared in the case of the several positions. Diog. L. book

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