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licto ignoscere ; neminem misericordem esse nisi stultum et levem ; viri non esse neque exorari neque placari; solos sapientes esse, si distortissimi sint, formosos, si mendicissimi, divites, si servitutem serviant, reges : nos autem, qui sapientes non sumus, fugitivos, exsules, hostes, insanos denique esse dicunt: omnia peccata esse paria, omne delictum scelus esse nefarium, nec minus delinquere eum, qui gallum gallinaceum, cum opus non fuerit, quam eum, qui patrem suffocaverit :

sapientem nihil opinari, nullius rei paenitere, nulla in re falli, 62 sententiam mutare numquam. xxx. haec homo ingeniosissi

mus, M. Cato, auctoribus eruditissimis inductus arripuit, neque disputandi causa, ut magna pars, sed ita vivendi. petunt

μή είναι, συγγνώμην τε έχειν μηδενί. cf. Tusc. D. IV. § 18.

viri] a true man. A man worth the name. cf. $ 63.

solos...dicunt] μόνον τε (τον σοφών) ελεύθερον, τους δε φαύλους δούλους. ου μόνον δε ελευθέρους είναι τους σοφούς, αλλά και βασιλέας, της βασιλείας ούσης αρχής ανυπευθεύνου, ήτις περί μόνους αν τους σοφούς σταίη. Freund adds Lucian's words, μόνος ούτος σοφός, μόνος καλός, μόνος δίκαιος, άνδρείος, βασιλεύς, ρήτωρ, πλούσιος, νομοθέτης και τάλλα οπόσα εστίν. cf. Cic. de Fin. IV. 8 74, nam ex eisdem verborum praestigiis ei regna nata vobis sunt et imperia et divitiae, et tantae quidem, ut omnia quae ubique sint sapientis esse dicatis. solum praeterea formosum, solumi liberum, solum civem; stultos omnia contraria, quos etiam insanos esse vultis, Acad. pr. II. SS 136, 144. The titles of the Paradoxa, 5 ότι μόνος ο σοφός ελεύθερος, και ότι μόνος ο σοφός πλούσιος, και ότι πας άφρων μαίνεται, shew how Cicero coquetted with Stoicism. [See also the banter of Horace, Epp. Ι. Ι. Ιο6-Ιο8, Sat. Ι. 3. 124-142, II. 3. 40–46.]

servitutem serviant] cf. Gellius II. 18. 9, Diogenes etiam Cynicus servitutem servivit, the phrase is archaic, says Quint. VΙΙ. iii. 26. See Prof. Mayor's note on Cic. Phil. ΙΙ. 8 42, dicta dicere.

omnia ... suffocaverit] åpéokel TE αυτοίς ίσα ηγείσθαι τα αμαρτήματα: ...εί γαρ αληθές αληθούς μάλλον ουκ έστιν, ουδε. ψεύδος ψεύδους, ούτως ουδε απάτη απάτης, ουδέ αμάρτημα αμαρτήματος.

cf. de Fin. IV. 8 74, Parad. 3 ότι ίσα τα αμαρτήματα και τα κατορθώματα. Ηor. Sat. Ι. 3. 76 -124.

opinari] emphatic. Never 'fancies' or supposes' anything. έτι τε μη δοξάσεις τον σοφόν: τουτέστι ψευδεί μή συγκαταθήσεσθαι μηδενί. He alone possesses true knowledge. cf. on opinione $ 78.

xxx. 62. auctoribus] the ablative of the means, as the person stands for the thing implied, here for the auctoritas of his teachers. Madv. 8 254 obs. 3. cf. pro Mil. 8 47, jacent suis testibus = his testimoniis just above, Ar. Rhet. I. xv. 21, οποίοι γαρ άν τινες ώσιν οι επιγεγραμμένοι ή φυλάττοντες, τούτοις αι συνθηκαι πισταί εισιν.

arripuit] eagerly caught up, i.e., he was over-hasty. cf. $ 13, Cat. mai. $ 26, Corn. Nepos. Cato iii. 2. So inductus with glance at sense of "misled,'' taken in.'

disputandi] 'theorizing.' vivendi, for a rule of life.

ut magna pars] cf. the remarks on Helvidius Priscus, Tac. H. IV. 5.

petunt etc.] here a number of cases are put, in which the Stoic

aliquid publicani : "cave quidquam habeat momenti gratia.' supplices aliqui veniunt miseri et calamitosi : sceleratus et nefarius fueris, si quidquam misericordia adductus feceris.' fatetur aliquis se peccasse et eius delicti veniam petit : 'nefarium est facinus ignoscere.' at leve delictum est : omnia peccata sunt paria.' dixisti quippiam : “fixum et statutum est.' non re ductus es, sed opinione: “sapiens nihil opinatur.' errasti aliqua in re: maledici putat. hac ex disciplina nobis illa sunt: dixi in senatu me nomen consularis candidati delaturum.' iratus dixisti. "numquam'inquitósapiens irascitur.' at temporis causa. 'improbi'inquit ‘hominis est mendacio fallere, mutare sententiam turpe est, exorari scelus, misereri flagitium.' nostri autem illi—fatebor enim, Cato, me 63 quoque in adulescentia diffisum ingenio meo quaesisse adiumenta doctrinae-, nostri, inquam, illi a Platone et Aristotele, moderati homines et temperati, aiunt apud sapientem valere aliquando gratiam : viri boni esse misereri, distincta genera rules break down. The conversa- we owe such arguments as.' dixi, I tional form of parallel sentences is said, and fixum et statutum est. employed to throw into stronger re- temporis causa) either dixisti, 'you lief the inapplicability of each dog. said it to serve the turn of the mo

cf. Madv. § 442 a obs. 2. the ment,' or with H. ne nomen detuleris, reply in each case is delivered in the do not do it just now, at such a character of Cato.

crisis.' publicani] When they had ten- 63. nostri illi] sc. magistri. dered too high a price for the reve- Cicero's teachers, particularly Annues, they sometimes petitioned the tiochus of Askalon, a free adherent senate for a remissio mercedum or ut of the New Academy. induceretur locatio. A case occurred diffisum] not diffidentem. cf. Mady. in B.C. 61, and Cato acted just as Cicero describes here. cf. de Off. adiumenta] the support that eduIII. § 88, ad Att. I, 17. 9, 18. 7, cation gives. doctrinae, very like the Suet. Jul. 20.

studia humanitatis of $ 61 in sense. supplices] ‘in suppliant guise,' for For genitive cf. on SS 1, 56. aliqui (adj.) goes with miseri et cala- a Platone] imitating the Gk. oi mitosi (subst.). H. Some provincials åtò IIXátwvos etc., usually with esse, are probably meant.

as de Fin. IV. & 7, Zeno et ab eo qui at] 'why,' you urge, “it is but an sunt. T. insignificant short-coming.'

Plato founder of the Academic dixisti quippiam] ‘you have drop- school, Aristotle of the Peripatetic. ped some casual remark, perhaps.' moderati et temperati] of no violent But see Appendix C.

or extreme views. opinione] cf. Acad. pr. 11. § 66, et] and hence there is a correand note inf. $ 78.

sponding difference in (the approprinobis] dat. ethicus. cf. SS 13, 21, ate] punishments, 74. 'It is to this Stoic training that

ma.

§ 431 b.

esse delictorum et dispares poenas, esse apud hominem constantem ignoscendi locum, ipsum sapientem saepe aliquid opinari [quod nesciat], irasci nonnumquam, exorari eundem et placari, quod dixerit interdum, si ita rectius sit, mutare, de

sententia decedere aliquando: omnes virtutes mediocritate 64 quadam esse moderatas. XXXI. hos ad magistros si qua te

fortuna, Cato, cum ista natura detulisset, non tu quidem vir melior esses nec fortior nec temperatior nec iustior-neque enim esse' potes—, sed paulo ad lenitatem propensior. non accusares nullis adductus inimicitiis, nulla lacessitus iniuria, pudentissimum hominem, summa dignitate atque honestate praeditum; putares, cum in eiusdem anni custodia te atque L. Murenam fortuna posuisset, aliquo te cum hoc rei publicae vinculo esse coniunctum : quod atrociter in senatu dixisti, aut

non dixisses aut seposuisses aut mitiorem in partem interpretarere. 65 ac te ipsum, quantum ego opinione auguror, nunc et animi

quodam impetu concitatum et vi naturae atque ingenii elatum et recentibus praeceptorum studiis flagrantem iam usus flectet,

6

quod_nesciat]=quod non certum inimicitiùs] cf. $ 56. sciat. T. well cf. the equally re- pudentissimum] so in § 30 pudor markable ad Att. XII. 23. 2, de sense of honour.' Oropo opinor sed certum nescio.

custodia] as tribune. cf. $ 58. mediocritate] Plato's MET PLOTNS, seposuisses] would have set it aside. Aristotle's Negórns. cf. Ar. Eth. cf. Ov. Met. III. 318, where Jove is ΙΙ. 6. 13, μεσότης τις άρα εστίν ή said curas seposuisse graves. αρετή, στοχαστική γε ουσα του μέσου, 65. auguror] so de Or. I. $ 95, e.g. true bravery is the mean, rash

quantum auguror coniectura. ness and cowardice being the ex- impetu] 'rush.' Alluding to his tremes between which it lies. Also hastiness, cf. § 62. Cic. de Off. I. $ 89.

concitatum] 'roused,' 'over-exquadam] as often, apologetic. cited.' cf. pro Flacco $ 17, non Here he has just used mediocritas in concitatae contionis, sed iurati senaa restricted sense as a translation of tus. It implies a state of semiUegórns. So ut ita dicam. cf. de insanity in some passages. With de Fin. II. § 11.

Divin. II. § 27, concitatione mentis moderatas) are ruled, tempered. edi et quasi fundi videbatur compare esse, are seen to be,' i.e. by the eye Macbeth 11. i. 39, ‘proceeding from of the Philosopher.

the heat-oppressed brain.' xxxi. 64. detulisset] cf. de Off. flagrantem] cf. Cat. mai. $ 50, 1. § 47, maior enim pars eo fere his studiis flagrantes. recentibus. deferri solet quo a natura ipsa dedu

Cato was now 32. citur. For natura cf. § 79.

iam] ‘presently,' cf. pro Caelio g tu quidem] cf. Madv. § 489 b. 77, iam ista deferbuerint, iam aetas

tenperatior] more self-controlled, omnia, iam dies mitigarit. σωφρονέστερος.

dies leniet, aetas mitigabit. etenim isti ipsi mihi videntur vestri praeceptores et virtutis magistri fines officiorum paulo longius, quam natura vellet, protulisse, ut, cum ad ultimum animo contendissemus, ibi tamen, ubi oporteret, consisteremus. “nihil ignoveris :' immo aliquid, non omnia. “nihil omnino gratiae concesseris-immo insistito, cum officium et fides postulabit. misericordia commotus ne sis’: etiam, in dissolvenda severitate ; sed tamen est laus aliqua humanitatis. 'in sententia permaneto’: vero, nisi sententiam sententia alia vicerit melior. huiusce modi Scipio ille fuit, quem non paenite-66 bat facere idem, quod tu' habere eruditissimum hominem Panaetium domi, cuius oratione et praeceptis, quamquam erant eadem ista, quae te delectant, tamen asperior non est factus, sed, ut accepi a senibus, lenissimus. quis vero C.

isti ipsi] i.e. your very teachers severitate] Z. cf. de Off. 1. § 88, need teaching. The sense of the pas- et tamen ita probanda est mansuetudo sage is, they have set up an ideal atque clementia, ut adhibeatur reibeyond the reach of human frailty, publicae causa severitas, sine qua and not without a reason: we must administrari civitas non potest. The fall short of it, but then, if we aim word='strictness,' 'firmness.' high and fail, we still maydo our duty.' humanitatis] here 'feelings,' al

natura] cf. $ 60, quam veritas aut most ‘sympathy.' natura patitur.

vero] a strong affirmative, cf. ad ultimum] to the furthest limit, Tusc. D. II. § 26, vero ac libenter i.e. to the highest perfection. quidem. In § 45 it was used to add

ignoveris] Madv. § 386. Here force in the last member of a climax. Cicero puts limitations to some of melior] purposely put at the end the extreme doctrines noticed above. like an after-thought, as Freund well

concesseris] so Z. from MS. Lag. 9. remarks.

insistito] ‘stop,' or as we say draw 66. Scipio] the younger Africathe line.' The strong imperatives are nus, § 58. He was murdered in here used with mock-solemnity, like 129 B.C. non paenitebat=delectabat. a statute. cf. Hor. Sat. II. 1. 8, 9. quod tu] Cato had with great diffifides] ‘honesty,' as in $ 30. culty induced the aged Stoic Atheno

etiam] a strong affirmative. cf. dorus Kordylion to come with him Acad. pr. II. $ 104, aut 'etiam' aut from Pergamus to Rome and dwell * non' respondere possit, de Nat. D. in his house, Plut. Cat. min. 10, 16, 1. $ 70, in omnibus diiunctionibus in quibus 'aut etiam aut non' poneretur, Panaelium] a famous Stoic from pro Rosc. Com. § 9 si non..., si

Rhodes. His intimacy with Scipio ctiam, Plin. Epp. VI. 2. 8, at quae- and Laelius is often mentioned by vlam supervacua dicuntur. etiam, sed Cicero, e.g. de Fin. IV. § 23, de Rep. satius est et haec dici quam non dici I. $ 24. Also by Velleius I. 13. 3. necessaria.

His work περί καθήκοντος was fol- . dissolvenda] ‘relaxing.' cf. de Off. lowed by Cicero in the de Officiis. JI. $ 113, fraus astringit, non dis- accepi] Cicero was born in B.C. 106. solvit periurium.

lenissimus] sc. erat, which has

cf. also 4.

Laelio comior? quis iucundior, eodem ex studio isto ? quis illo gravior, sapientior ? possum de L. Philo, de C. Gallo dicere haec eadem, sed te domum iam deducam tuam. quemquamne existimas Catone proavo tuo commodiorem, communiorem, moderatiorem fuisse ad omnem rationem humanitatis ? de cuius praestanti virtute cum vere graviterque diceres, domesticum te habere dixisti exemplum ad imitandum. est illud quidem exemplum tibi propositum domi, sed tamen naturae similitudo illius ad te magis, qui ab illo ortus es, quam ad unum quemque nostrum pervenire potuit, ad imitandum vero tam mihi propositum exemplar illud est quam tibi. sed si illius comitatem et facilitatem tuae gravitati severitatique asperseris, non ista quidem erunt meliora, quae nunc sunt optima,

sed certe condita iucundius. 67 XXXII. quare ut ad id, quod institui, revertar, tolle mihi

e causa nomen Catonis, remove auctoritatem, quae in iudiciis

sul 140.

perhaps dropped out.

Cicero can- communiorem] more sociable.' not mean that Stoicism rendered him cf. Lael. $ 65. 2. from MS. Lag. 9 very gentle ; rather, in spite of his comiorem, cf. pro Balbo $ 36. Stoic training he retained his gentle- humanitatis] in every relation of ness. H. This I doubt. We know social life. that Panaetius modified the harsh exemplum] so Isocr. ad Demon. doctrines of the Stoics to a consider- 89, ου μην αλλά και τας του πατρός able extent, de Fin. iv. $ 79, and προαιρέσεις αναμνησθείς οικείον και thus caused them to spread widely καλόν έξεις παράδειγμα των υπ' εμού and take deep root at Rome. ool leyouévwv, and Mr Sandys' C. Laelio] praetor B.C. 145, con- note.

He had the nickname naturae similitudo) = one word. Sapiens, was the bosom friend of the 'Likeness of character. illius. to younger Scipio Africanus, Hor. Sat.

him, i.e. his character. cf. huius 11. 1. 72 virtus Scipiadae et mitis periculi propulsatio,

from him, pro sapientia Laeli, and is taken by Cicero as a typical 'crony' to form asperseris] metaphor from cookery. the chief character in the dialogue cf. Orator § 87, huic generi orationis on Friendship which bears his name.

aspergentur etiam sales, pro Cluent. He did much to introduce Greek § 71, Guttam aspergit huic Bulbo, learning into Rome and was inti

ista] your peculiarities. quidem. mate with the Stoics Panaetius and Madv. § 489 b. Diogenes of Babylon. With this conditaj so Cat. mai. $ 10, comitate passage generally cf. de Or. 11. $ 154,

condita gravitas. Seasoned.' de Rep. III. $ 5.

xxxii. 67. nomen Catonis] (the eodem ex studio] so $ 75. 'Of the name Cato.' cf. § 13 nomen volupsame school.'

tatis, Phil. yili. § 2, belli nomen. L. Furius Philus) consul B.C. 136. Madv. § 286. C. Sulp. Gallus] consul B.C. 166. mihi] dat. eth. cf. SS 13, 21, etc.

Sull. S. 2.

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