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fied and protected. He broke into violent complaints at his misfortune, and invoked Jupiter, the deity of expiation, in attestation of the injury he had received. He invoked him also as the guardian of hospitality and friendship 58; of hospitality, because, in receiving a stranger, he had received the murderer of his son; of friendship, because the man whose aid he might have expected, had proved his greatest enemy.
XLV. Whilst his thoughts were thus occupied, the Lydians appeared with the body of his son 59: the homicide followed. He advanced towards Crosus, and, with extended hands, implored that
58 Guardian of hospitality and friendship.]-Jupiter was adored under different titles, according to the place and circumstance of his different worshippers.- Larcher.
The sky was the department of Jupiter: hence he was deemed the god of tempests. The following titles were given bim: Pluvius, Pluviosus, Fulgurator, Fulgurum Eflector, Descensor, Tonans. Other epithets were given him, relative to the wants of men, for which he was thought to provide. See Bos, Antiquities of Greece. The above observation is confined to the Greeks. — The epithets of the Roman Jupiter were almost without number; and there was hardly, as Spence observes, a town, or even hamlet, in Italy, that had not a Jupiter of its own.-T.
Body of his son.)-This solemn procession of the Lydians, bearing to the presence of the father the dead body of his soi), followed mournfully by the person who had killed him, would, it is presumed, afford no mean subject for an historical painting.-T.
he might suffer death upon the body of him whom he had slain. He recited his former calamities; to which was now to be added, that he was the destroyer of the man who had * expiated him: he was consequently no longer fit to live. Cræsus listened to him with attention; and, although oppressed by his own paternal grief, he could not refuse his compassion to Adrastus; to whom he spake as follows: “My friend, I am sufficiently revenged by your voluntary condemnation of yourself“. You are not guilty of this event", for you did it without design. The offended deity, who warned me of the evil, has accomplished it.” Cræsus, therefore, buried his son with the proper ceremonies: but the unfortunate descendant of Midas, who had killed his brother and his friend, retired at the dead of night to the place where Atys was buried, and, confessing himself
* It was in fact Cræsus who expiated Adrastus ; but Larcher observes, he might have delegated this office to his son, as a compliment on his marriage.
6. Condemnation of yourself.]-Diodorus Siculus relates, that it was the first intention of Croesus to have burned Adrastus alive ; but his voluntary offer to submit to death, deprecated his anger --T.
6 You are not guilty of this event.]-See Homer, Iliad 3d, where Priam thus addresses Helen:
No crime of thine our present suff’rings draws;
to be the most miserable of mankind, slew himself on the tomb.
XLVI. The two years which succeeded the death of his son, were passed by Crosus in extreme affliction. His grief was at length suspended by the increasing greatness of the Persian empire, as well as by that of Cyrus son of Cambyses, who had deprived Astyages, son of Cyaxares, of his dominions. To restrain the power of Persia, before it should become too great and too extensive, was the object of his solicitude. Listening to these suggestions, he determined to consult the different oracles of Greece, and also that of Libya; and for this purpose he sent messengers to Delphi, the Phocian Abas, and to Dodona: he
62 Oracles.]—On the subject of oracles, it may not be improper, once for all, to inform the English reader, that the Apollo of Delphi was, to use Mr. Bayle's words, the judge without appeal; the greatest of the heathen gods not preserving, in relation to oracles, his advantage or superiority. The oracles of Trophonius, Dodona, and Hammon, had not so much credit as that of Delphi, nor did they equal it either in esteein or duration. The oracle at Abas was an oracle of Apollo; but, from the little mention that is made of it by ancient writers, it does not appear to have been held in the extremest veneration. At Dodona, as I describe it from Montfaucon, there were sounding kettles; from whence came the proverb of the Dodonean brass; which, according to Menander, if a man touched but once, would continue ringing the whole day. Others speak of the doves of Dodona, which spoke and delivered the oracles: of two
gent also to Amphiaraus, Trophonius, and the Milesian Branchidæ. The above-mentioned are the oracles which Crcesus consulted in Greece: he sent also to the Libyan Ammon. His motive in these consultations, was to form an idea of the truth of the oracles respectively, meaning afterwards to obtain from them, a decisive opinion concerning an expedition against the Persians.
doves, according to Statius, one flew to Libya, to pronounce the oracles of Jupiter; the other staid at Dodona : of which the more rational explanation is, that two females established religious ceremonies at the same time, at Dodona, and in Libya; for, in the ancient language of the people of Epirus, the same word signifies a dove and an old woman. At the same place also was an oak, or, as some say, a beech tree, hallowed by the prejudices of the people, from the remotest antiquity.
The oracle of Trophonius's cave, from its singularity, deserves minuter mention. He, says Pausanias, who desired to consult it, was obliged to undergo various preparatory ceremonies, which continued for several days: be was to purify himself by various methods, to offer sacrifices to many different deities; he was then conducted by night to a neighbouring river, where he was anointed and wasbed; he afterwards drank of the water of forgetfulness, that his former cares might be buried; and of the water of remembrance, that he might forget nothing of what he was to see. The cave was surrounded by a wall; it resembled an oven, was four cubits wide, and eight deep: it was descended by a ladder; and be who went down carried with him cakes made of honey; when he got down, he was made acquainted with futurity. For more particulars concerning this oracle, consult Montfaucon, Voyage de Jeune Anacharsis, in which the VOL. I.
XLVII. He took this method of proving the truth of their different communications. He settled with his Lydian messengers, that each should consult the different oracles, on the hundredth day of their departure from Sardis, and respectively ask what Cræsus the son of Alyattes was doing: they were to write down, and communicate to Crosus, the reply of each particular oracle63. Of the oracular answers in general we
different descriptions of antiquity, concerning this and other oracles, are collected and methodised. See also Van Dale. Of the above, a classical and correct description may also be found in Glover's Athenaid.
Amphiaraus was one of the seven warriors who fought against Thebes : he performed on that occasion the functions of a priest, and was supposed, on that account, to communicate oracles after his death. They who consulted him, were to abstain from wine for three days, and from all nourishment for twenty-four hours. They then sacrificed a ram before his statue, upon the skin of which, spread in the vestibule, they retired to sleep. The deity was supposed to appear to them in a vision, and answer their questions.
The temple of Branchidæ was afterwards, according to Pliny, named the temple of the Didymean Apollo, It was. burned by Xerxes, but afterwards rebuilt with such extraordinary magnificence, that, according to Vitruvius, it was one of the four edifices which rendered the names of their architects immortal. Some account may be found of this temple in Chishull's Asiatic Antiquities.-T.
Reply of each particular oracle.]—Lucian makes Jupiter complain of the great trouble the deities undergo on account