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aut nihil valere aut ad salutem debet valere : congredere mecum criminibus ipsis. quid accusas, Cato? quid adfers ad iudicium ? quid arguis ? ambitum accusas : non defendo. reprehendis, quod idem defendam, qui lege punierim : punivi ambitum, non innocentiam, ambitum vero ipsum vel tecuin accusabo, si voles. dixisti senatus consultum me referente esse factum : si mercede obviam candidatis issent, si conducti sectarentur, si gladiatoribus locus tributim, item prandia si vulgo essent data, contra legem Calpurniam factum videri. ergo ita senatus nisi iudicat, contra legem facta haec videri, si facta sint, decernit quod nihil opus est, dum candidatis morem gerit; nam factum sit necne, vehementer quaeritur : si factum sit, quin contra legem sit, dubitare nemo potest. est igitur ridiculum, quod est 68 dubium, id relinquere incertum : quod nemini dubium potest esse, id indicare. atque id decernitur omnibus postulantibus candidatis, ut ex senatus consulto neque cuius intersit neque contra quem sit intellegi possit. quare doce, a L. Murena illa esse commissa; tum egomet tibi contra legem commissa esse concedam.

XXXIII. "multi obviam prodierunt de provincia decedenti.? eccui autem non proditur revertenti? quae fuit ista multi

congredere) of fighting. Have it purposely void of meaning, a piece out with plain charges, i.e. with the of weak concession to the wealthy several counts of the accusation. class (chiefly senators, cf. on S 47)

senatus consultum] the sequel of who stand for office. which was the lex Tullia. cf. on si factum sit] The subj. hints that SS 46, 47.

the charge against Murena is not gladiatoribus] at the gladiatorial true. Z. shows. cf. Phil. ix. § 16 (Ser. Sul- 68. indicare] Z's simple and expicio statuam statui) circumque eam cellent correction of iudicare. statuam locum ludis gladiatoribusque omnibus] and hence, by simply liberos posterosque eius quoquo versus quoting it, there is no presumption pedes quinque habere. Madv. § 276, raised that Murena did any of those obs. 2.

things. locus] sc. esset datus, supplied from doce......tum concedam] so de imp. foll.

Gn. Pomp. $ 38, recordamini ......... vulgo] cf. S 73.

tum statuetis. cf. doce......concedam Calpurniam] cf. on $ 46. nisi] so Z from MS. Lag. 9, and xxxiii.

revertenti] this reading alone seems to me to when he quitted his province'... convey sense. Either (a) they de. ' when he came back to Rome.' In cide that certain practices are to be these cases the present (o: imperf.) held illegal, or () its resolution is participle seems to lose is force. Cic. pro L. Mur.

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in $ 70.

decedenti ......

tudo?' primum, si tibi istam rationem non possim reddere, quid habet admirationis, tali viro advenienti, candidato con

sulari, obviam prodisse multos ? quod nisi esset factum, magis 69 mirandum videretur. quid ? si etiam illud addam, quod a

consuetudine non abhorret, rogatos esse multos, num aut criminosum est aut mirandum, qua in civitate rogati infimorum hominum filios prope de nocte ex ultima saepe urbe deductum venire soleamus, in ea non esse gravatos homines prodire hora tertia in campum Martium, praesertim talis viri nomine rogatos? quid ? si omnes societates venerunt, quarum ex numero multi sedent iudices? quid? si multi homines nostri ordinis honestissimi ? quid? si illa officiosissima, quae neminem patitur non honeste in urbem introire, tota natio candidatorum ? si denique ipse accusator noster Postumus obviam cum bene magna caterva sua venit, quid habet ista multitudo admirationis ? omitto clientes, vicinos, tribules, exercitum totum Luculli, qui ad triumphum per eos dies venerat : hoc dico, frequentiam in isto officio gratuitam non modo dignitati ullius

ne.

cf. pro Planc. $ 65, cum decedens campus Martius, which seems to e provincia (Sicily) Puteolos forte have been the ordinary place for venissem, Tac. Agr. 9, revertentem, meeting a friend revertentem. nomi18, ingredienti, Ann. 11. 69, remeans. cf. § 82. The reason, no doubt, is that Rome societates] the companies of revenue was regarded as the centre of the farmers (publicani) who belonged to world, as we say, the ‘metropolis.' the equestrian order. At this time At this time, and for more than a two of the three panels ( decuriae) of year afterwards (till the lex Julia of jurors were composed of equites. B.C. 61), the provincial governors See App. B. rendered account of their administra- natio] Z cf. in Pis. § 55, ne de tion at Rome. Thus a man would, officiosissima quidem natione candistrictly speaking, be decedens or re- datorum. The word is depreciatory, vertens until he had rendered ac- cf. pro Sest. SS 96, 97, de Nat. D. count.

II. § 74. Add Phaedrus, II. 5, est istam rationem ristius rei ratio- ardelionum quaedam Romae natio. nem] cf. Madv. § 314.

bene magna] as we say, “a good habet] “involves,' causes.' cf. SS large' throng. cf. de Or. II. $ 361, 12, 87, 89, 69.

sermonem bene longum hominis. 69. deductum] sc. in forum, as exercitum] cf. § 37. was the custom when youths first hoc dico] 'but this much I will put on the toga virilis. This visit

say.'

non modo. 'I do not say to was called tirocinium fori, and was enhance a man's personal credit, but performed at early morning (prope simply to give him satisfaction.' cf. de nocte).

de imp. Gn. Pomp. $ 66. prodire] to go out of the city to gratuitam] voluntary, opposed to meet him beyond the walls in the mercede.

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umquam, sed ne voluptati quidem defuisse. at sectabantur 70 multi.' doce mercede: concedam esse crimen. hoc quidem remoto, quid reprehendis ? 'quid opus est,' inquit, 'sectatoribus ?' Xxxiv. a me tu id quaeris, quid opus sit eo, quo semper usi sumus ? homines tenues unum habent in nostrum ordinem aut promerendi aut referendi beneficii locum, hanc in nostris petitionibus operam atque adsectationem. neque enim fieri potest neque postulandum est a nobis aut ab equitibus Romanis, ut suos necessarios candidatos adsectentur totos dies, a quibus si domus nostra celebratur, si interdum ad forum deducimur, si uno basilicae spatio honestamur, diligenter observari videmur et coli: tenuiorum amicorum et non occupatorum est ista assiduitas, quorum copia bonis viris et beneficis deesse non solet. noli igitur eripere hunc inferiori generi hominum fruc-71 tum officii, Cato : sine eos, qui omnia a nobis sperant, habere ipsos quoque aliquid, quod nobis tribuere possint. si nihil erit praeter ipsorum suffragium, tenue est, si, ut suffragentur, nihil valent gratia. ipsi denique ut solent loqui non dicere pro nobis, non spondere, non vocare domum suam possunt. atque haec a nobis petunt omnia neque ulla re alia, quae a nobis consequuntur, nisi opera sua compensari putant posse. itaque et legi Fabiae, quae est de numero sectatorum, et senatus consulto, quod est L. Caesare consule factum, resti

70. at] The second clause is now

this sense. de Off. 1. § 138, domus dealt with. cf. § 67. sectabantur. suffragata domino, pro Planc. § 1, sc. during the canvass.

etc., but the best instance is auct. xxxiv. nobis] ‘us senators.' petit. cons. $ 28, in eo quem homines

candidatos] when they have on ignoti, nullis suffragantibus, honore their toga candida, i.e. are openly adficiant, i.e. without the interven. engaged in canvassing.

tion of suffragatores. cf. SS 16, 44. a quibus si... ...] so auct. petit. spondere) become security for us. cons. § 34 gives the three kinds pro Planc. $ 47, quod multis benigne of adsectatio, viz., salutatorum, de- fecerit, pro multis spoponderit. ductorum, adsectatorum.

legi Fabiae] Nothing more is known spatio] with a single turn in a about this. Probably it was passed public hall. The basilicae were used about b.c. 66 or 65 as a supplement (a) as courts of justice, (b) as pro- to the lex Calpurnia. Z. menades.

L. Caesare consule] B.C. 64. The 71. si ut suffragentur] sc. erit, to definition of the time by the name be supplied from above. 'If it is to of one consul only is strange but cf. be their support in canvassing, - de prov. cons. $ 45, Iulias leges et why, their influence is nothing.' We ceteras illo consule rogatas. Probably find suffragari continually used in only the consul who presided at the

terunt; nulla est enim poena, quae possit observantiam tenui72 orum ab hoc vetere instituto officiorum excludere. 'at spec

tacula sunt tributim data et ad prandium vulgo vocati.' etsi hoc factum a Murena omnino, iudices, non est, ab eius amicis autem more et modo factum est, tamen admonitus re ipsa recordor, quantum hae conquestiones in senatu habitae punctorum nobis, Servi, detraxerint. quod enim tempus fuit aut nostra aut patrum nostrorum memoria, quo haec, sive ambitio est sive liberalitas, non fuerit, ut locus et in circo et in foro daretur amicis et tribulibus ? haec homines tenuiores a suis

tribulibus vetere instituto adsequebantur. 73 XXXV... praefectum fabrum semel locum tribulibus suis de

disse : quid statuent in viros primarios, qui in circo totas tabernas tribulium causa compararunt? haec omnia sectatorum, spectaculorum, prandiorum crimina a multitudine in tuam nimiam diligentiam, Servi, coniecta sunt, in quibus tamen

XXXV.

debate is mentioned. H. Nothing tribulibus] the fellow-tribesmen of is known of the matter.

the candidates. But the charge restiterunt) paid no attention to it, brought against Murena was spectamade it a dead letter.

cula tributim data, i.e. to whole 72. spectacula] seats for seeing the tribes at a time. H. games from. cf. pro Sest. § 124, adsequebantur] here there is a laLiv. I. 35, ubi spectacula sibi quisque cuna in the MSS. facerent.. ...spectavere furcis specta

73. Mommsen supplies cula alta sustinentibus, xLv. 1, Ov. sense thus (quodsi criminosum videMet. x. 668, resonant spectacula tur amicum quendam Murenae,] flausu.

praefectum...... H. etsi......tamen] though this is really praefectum fabrum] 'an officer of not to the point, yet the mention of engineers.' cf. Caes. B.C. 1. 24. it serves to remind me that......

tabernas) either 'boxes,'i.e. booths more et modo] so nihil more, nihil with seats (H.), or 'blocks of seats,' modo, in pro Scauro $ 37. T. i.e. strictly the entrance arcades

hae conquestiones] 'complaints of which gave access to the several this sort. cf. on $ 7.

blocks (Z.), cf. Tac. Ann. xv. 38, punctorum} = suffragiorum. cf. Dionys. Hal. III. 68. pro. Planc. $ 53, Hor. A. P. 343. compararunt] have 'taken,' as we nobis] 'us'= our side. Cic. had

say, i.e. hired. supported Servius. cf. $ 7.

diligentiam] cf. pro Ligar. § 1, ambitio) lawful adfectatio honoris, quoniam diligentia inimici investigaopposed to ambitus, unlawful. cf. tum est quod latebat. pro Planc. $ 45, cum ambitionis nos. coniecta] flung upon, 'laid to the trae tempora postulabant. liberalitas. door of your over-activity in hunting

up charges against your rivals.' cf. in foro] where the gladiators were II in Verr. 11. § 18, o praeclare exhibited, before the days of amphi. coniectum a vulgo in illam provinciam theatres.

omen comunis famae atque sermonis.

cf. $ 77

Murena senatus auctoritate defenditur. quid enim ? senatus num obviam prodire crimen putat? 'non, sed mercede :' convince. num sectari multos ? non, sed conductos:' doce. num locum ad spectandum dare aut ad prandium invitare? 'minime, sed vulgo.' quid est vulgo? “universos.' non igitur, si L. Natta, summo loco adulescens, qui et quo animo iam sit et qualis vir futurus sit videmus, in equitum centuriis voluit esse et ad hoc officium necessitudinis et ad reliquum tempus gratiosus, id erit eius vitrico fraudi aut crimini, nec, si virgo Vestalis, huius propinqua et necessaria, locum suum gladiatorium concessit huic, non et illa pie fecit et hic a culpa est remotus. omnia haec sunt officia necessariorum, commoda tenuiorum, munia candidatorum.

at enim agit mecum austere et stoice Cato: negat verum 74 esse adlici benevolentiam cibo, negat iudicium hominum in magistratibus mandandis corrumpi voluptatibus oportere. ergo, ad cenam petitionis causa si quis vocat, condemnetur? quippe' inquit; "tu mihi summum imperium, tu summam auctoritatem, tu gubernacula rei publicae petas fovendis homi

auctoritate) the 'expressed will’of the Senate=consultum, as in de Leg. 11. $ 37, senatus vetus auctoritas de Bacchanalibus, ad Fam. I. 2. 4, de his rebus senatus auctoritas gravissima intercessit. cf. sup. $ 67.

num locum...dare] Campe suspects that the answer to this (non, sed tributim. cf. 8 67) has dropped out. H.

universos] this question and answer is quoted by Quint. vii. iii. 16.

L. Pinarius Natta] As pontiff in B.C. 58 he joined in the destruction of Cicero's house.

centuriis] there were 18 of equites. necessitudinis] the service which his close connection demanded. cf. div. in Caec. $ 14, pro Sest. § 10, officium vicinitatis. For gen. cf. on § 1.

ad reliquum tempus] sc. petitionis Murenae. Z, which seems nonsense, but it is hard to see what it does mean. Perhaps simply for the future,' i.e. with an eye to needing their support one day himself.

propinqua] perhaps a Licinia. H.

gladiatorium] cf. pro Sest. $ 124, consessu gladiatorio. z, who thinks that the places were those kept for all the six Vestals. The conjecture gladiatoribus is unnecessary. Add pro Sest. § 115.

munia] 'services,' 'functions,' a rare word in Cicero, but found pro Sest. § 138. H.

74. verum] ‘right,' 'fair,' as often. cf. Tusc. D. III. $ 73, Verg. Aen. XII. 694, Hor. Epp. I. 7. 98.

quippe) in answers='what then?' i.e. .certainly,' “to be sure.' cf. pro Caec. $ 55, de Fin. V. $ 84, IV. $ 7. Festus, p. 257 M. says that it=quid

tu......tu]For the avapopa' cf. Tusc. D. V. § 5.

mihi] dat. ethicus. cf. § 13. petas] ‘are you to be allowed to seek?'. Madv. $ 353 quotes Ter. Hec. IV. 2. 13, ex urbe rus tu habi. tatum migres ?

ni.

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