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Two HUNDRED Pounds.—The following, me the following story : He was once requestfrom the life of Johnson, is striking. Sir John ed by a man under sentence of death in Nes. Hawkins, who, though he may not compete gate, to come and see him in his cell;

and, in with Boswell as a biographer, was chosen by pure humanity, he made him a visit. The man Johnson as his executor in preference to Bos- briefly informed him that he had been tried and well, was first a successful solicitor, next an ac- convicted of felony, and was in daily expectative and experienced magistrate, and knew the tion of the arrival of the warrant for his execuworld much and widely. Had he come down tion ; 'but,' said he, 'I have 2001. and you are to us only as the active and useful Chairman of a man of character, and had the court interest Quarter Sessions, the following extract would when you stood for chamberlain; I should have been often quoted and well known. But therefore hope it is in your power to get me off.' as coming from an author who could not write Mr. Selwin was struck with so strange an applia biography so well as Boswell, nor a history of cation, and to account for it asked if there were music so well as Burney, – which is all we know any alleviating circumstances in his case; the of Sir John Hawkins, it is quite forgotten :- man peevishly answered, No - but that he had “The chances (of eluding conviction) are these : inquired into the history of the place where he 1. That the offender is not discovered, or, if was, and could not find that any one who had two discovered, not apprehended. 2. That the per- hundred pounds was ever hanged. Mr. Selwin son injured is not both willing and able to pros- told him it was out of his power to help him, ecute him. 3. That the evidence is not suffi- and bade him farewell - which,' added he, cient for the finding of the bill, or if it be, 4. he did ;' for he found means to escape punishThat the indictment is so framed as that the of- ment." — We all know that publications of the fender cannot be convicted on it; or, 5. That class of Jonathan Wild,'.' The Beggars' Opethe witnesses to support it may die, or be pro ra,' &c. throw out more than hints of such a vailed upon to abscond, or to soften their testi- state of things as above described. These hints mony; or, 6. They may be entangled or made are neglected : but we may begin to pay more to contradict themselves, or each other, in a respect to them when we find them backed by cross-examination by the prisoner's counsel ; or, such stories from a Quarter-Sessions Judge. 7. A mild judge; or, 8. An ignorant or per- -Athenæum. verse jury; 9. A recommendation to mercy; or, 10. Appeals to the public by states of his case in pamphlets, or newspaper paragraphs, which the Newgate solicitors know very well how to get drawn. 11. Practices with a jury to obtain a declaration that some of them were dissatisfied with the verdict. 12. A motion in arrest of judgment. 13. A writ of error grounded on some defect or mistake on the face A correspondent informs the Times that in of the record. 14. An escape; and lastly, in- Switzerland the telegraph is the property of terest to procure a pardon. (What follows is the State, an office is established in almost every a note on the last word.) To this purpose, and village, and the charge is uniform, one franc as a caveat against seeking redress for injuries for twenty-five words, irrespective of distance. by going to law, I recollect a saying of a very The despatches are printed, and the establishsagacious and experienced citizen, Mr. Selwin, ment yields a large revenue to Government. who was formerly a candidate for the office of The writer advocates a similar system in Eng. chamberlain, and missed it only by seven votes land, where the need for it is much greater than out of near seven thousand : - A man,' says in Switzerland, and where the profit would be he, who deliberates about going to law, should enormous. We have repeatedly pressed this have, first, a good cause ; secondly, a good idea upon the public as one which would equalpurse ; thirdly, an honest and skilful attorney ; ize facilities of communication, greatly increase fourthly, good evidence: fifthly, able counsel ; trade, and yield a revenue which Mr. Gladstone sixthly, an upright judge ; seventhly, an intel- may apply if he pleases to reduce the national ligent jury; and with all these on his side, if he debt. At present our messages are badly sent has not, eighthly, good luck, it is odds but he at dear rates, whole districts are without telemiscarries in his suit.' The same person told graphs, and the State gains nothing.–Spectator.

No. 1152. Fourth Series, No. 13. 30 June, 1866.

CONTENTS.

Correspondence 1. Life of Sir Joshua Reynolds 2. To Esther. 3. Father Prout 4. Nemesis 5. Professor Silliman 6. Ethics of Quotation 7. Ecce Homo 8. Visions of Hell 9. Pioneers of France in the New World 10. The French Emperor and 1815 11. History Anticipated 12. Literary Matters in Germany

Title Page and Contents of Vol. 89.

: Quarterly Review,

Cornhill Magazine,
Pall Mall Gazette,
Punch,
Evangelist,
Athenaeum,
Examiner,
Spectator,
Saturday Review,
Eraminer,
Transcript,

PAGE

834 835 860 866 865 869 871 872 877 880 882 884 886

NEW BOOK. FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN NORTH AMERICA. A Series of Historical Narratives. By Fran. cis Parkman, Author of " History of the Conspiracy of Pontiac," " Prairie and Rocky Mountain Life" &c., Part First. Boston, Little, Brown, and Company.

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY BY

LIT TELL, SON, & CO.

BOSTON.

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. FOR EIGHT DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the Living Age will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage. But we do not prepay postage on less than a year; nor where we have to pay a commission for forwarding the money.

Price of the First Series, in Cloth, 36 volumes, 90 dollars.
Second

20
Third
The Complete work

88

220 Any Volume Bound, 3 dollars; Unbound, 2 dollars. The sets, or volumes, will be sent at the expense of the publishers.

50
80

32

ed on

CORRESPONDENCE.

an ample octavo page, and on the BEFORE reaching the age of three score and finest paper. We say published, if that ten, we should be glad to appoint our succes. word can be properly applied to an edition sors in the management of the Living Age.

of only seventy copies, a limit which imTo this we have looked forward with some plies that the edition is not for the public, anxiety during the war. Having passed through but only for a lucky few who happen to be that severe trial, more than making up in one able to obtain a copy. The poem is illusway what we lost in another, — and having inaugurated a Fourth Series which has alreadly trated by notes which bear the date of largely gained upon its predecessor; we feel 1866. The local allusions, and the

passages that this is a favorable time to turn over to referring to personages who have passed other hands, all business matters.

from the stage, sometimes require explanaOur editorial work we shall be glad to con- ' tion, though no lapse of time can make us tinue till “the night cometh."

insensible to the grace of the versification, To any persons competent to act as pub- the vein of Horatian pleasantry which perlishers, and to succeed us as editors, and able to vades the poem, and the pungency of the invest the necessary capital, a finer business satire, which has almost as direct an appliwith less risk cannot be found.

cation to our own time as to that in which EDWARD ATKINSON, Esq., has delivered the poem was written, nearly half a centubefore the American Geographical and ry ago. The allusions of which we speak Statistical Society a Lecture upon

Cotton,

are therefore explained in notes by the which the Society is about to issue in the author himself, in which he drops the char. Record of Civilization. Meantime a few acter of the satirist and contents himself copies have been printed, and we have read with that of the historical annotator. it with much interest. It furnishes large

The poem entitled “The Recorder," material for thought, and opens a pros- written some years after, and in a strain pect of unlimited prosperity to the South of equally playful satire, is printed in the as soon as the politicians there shall be so far subdued by the working people and by the author's notes. It began originally

same manner, and in like manner illustrated the owners of land as to cease obstructing with the lines, the entrance into that country of Northern

"My dear Dick Riker, you and I and European capital and labour. When

Have floated down life's stream together." men can work unmolested, and the fruits of

In the present edition for Dick Riker is their labour become secure, Mr. Atkinson thinks that all the coarser cotton fabrics will substituted the word Recorder, Mr. Riker be made in the cotton country; leaving to having filled the place of Recorder and the North a competition with England in principal criminal judge of the city for a the fine goods.

song course of years. These two poems

without being in the long run the most We read with great interest in the NewYork Evening Post, the following notice of a certain respects the most characteristic

popu lar of Halleck’s productions, are in new edition of some of Mr. Halleck's Poems. in their combination of beautiful poetic It brings back our youth. More than 40 years imagery with delicate satire. To the poem ago, when New York contained about 130,- of Fanny is prefixed an engraved portrait 000 people, we made our first visit to it, and remember the delight with which we in youth, about the time, we suppose, when

of the author, representing him as he was read on a sign, Vandervoort and Flandin. the poem was written. This name had appeared in one of Mr. Halleck’s lively poems :

Professor Silliman was another old acquaint

ance, in a different line. We did all that we, “I want a little money, dear, for Vandervoort as a young bookseller, could, to extend the sale and Flandin ;

of his Scientific Journal, in which we felt a paTheir bill, which now has stood a year, to-triotic interest, as we did in working for the morrow mean to hand in-"

North-American Review. and we bad supposed that the name was If people could learn from the experience of made for the rhyme.

other people, we should hope that the article We had the pleasure of becoming ac- entitled History Anticipated would open the quainted with the poet, and enjoying con- eyes of Members of Congress to the great versation as clear and sparkling as his waste of public property, which the national poetry. Mr. Halleck still lives, but scarcely a bank-notes occasion to the United States. The single one of the society in which we met him. similar folly of the English people on the same

subject is considered to be beyond the credulity Would that we were one of “The Seventy!” of future ages. What will be thought of us,

Halleck's poem of “ Fanny” has been who are now paying these banks for nothing published in a beautiful edition by W. L. more than the whole expense of government under Andrews of this city. It is superbly print- 1 John Quincy Adams.

From The Quarterly Review. again, abounds in weighty antithesis, and Life and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds :

his copyist emulates him in such sentences with notices of some of his contemporaries. Burke, and who was loved by Johnson, has

as this:- He who has been praised by Commenced by Charles Robert Leslie, little chance of being forgotten. Nobody R. A.; continued and concluded by Tom could outdo Johnson in his praise of ReyTaylor. In 2 volumes. With portraits nolds, or Burke in his love for him, and to and illustrations. London : 1865.

allot prajse to Burke, and love to Johnson, The first authentic life of Reynolds was when both characteristics were united in published in a quarto pamphlet in 1797, and each, was to sacrifice accuracy to a false was prefixed the next year to an octavo edi- sparkle of words. Nor could there be a tion of his literary works. The brief narra- more inane and misplaced reflection than to tive was by his friend and executor, Ma- say that Reynolds had little chance of being lone; who, notwithstanding his intimate forgotten because he had been praised by knowledge of the man has only produced a Burke and loved by Johnson, when he had dull and feeble sketch. Northcote next won a far loftier immortality by his own extook the subject in hand. His life of Rey- quisite works, – works which have hardly nolds appeared in 1813, and a second and an inferior rank in painting to the producenlarged edition in 1819. I like it,' said tions of Burke and Johnson in literature. Rogers the poet, it may be depended upon The frequent faults of style, however, were for facts; and of course Northcote was a the least defect in Allan Cunningham's narvery competent critic in painting. He had rative. He had a bitter antipathy to the lived in the house with Reynolds for five refined, amiable, and upright Reynolds, years as pupil or assistant, and continued and, under the influence of this feeling, the to associate with him for sixteen years more. biographer has told the story of his life He had a minute acquaintance with the very unfairly, and has converted one whose pictures of his master in every stage, and reputation is almost spotless, into a mean, a thorough comprehension of their subtlest en vious, designing character.

Leslie requalities. His lot was cast in the world of solved to redress the wrong. He had been artists, and he knew the relation in which the friend of many persons who were acthey stood to their President, and the opin. quainted with Reynolds, he was familiar with ions they entertained of him. Northcote's the traditions which prevailed among artists, book is not unworthy of his opportunities. and everything he had heard or read' conThough there is an occasional want of ar- tradicted the degrading charges of Allan rangement, and though the composition has Cunningham. For several years Mr. Leslie none of the force and piquancy which dis- wanted leisure to execute his project, and tinguished his conversation, the particulars when, at last, he entered upon it in earnest, he relates are abundantly interesting, and he was overtaken by death. The biography fulfil the great end of all biography, that of was left unfinished, and the manuscript was conveying a complete idea of the hero of put into the hands of Mr. Taylor, that he the tale.

might revise and complete it. The volumes of Northcote were followed

Mr. Leslie and his editor had very different in 1829 by the account which Allan Cun- schemes. The first projected a life of Reyningham inserted in his “Lives of the nolds; the second conceived that the acPainters.' This work is written in close count of the individual ought to be accomimitation of the Lives of the Poets.' What panied by a general history of the times. Reynolds said of slavish mimicry in paint- This appears to us to be a fundamental mising is equally true in literature,

Sir Joshua Reynolds lived for his el may be excellent, but the copy will be art, and a select circle of friends. It woull ridiculous.' The dogmatic and sententious be difficult to name an eminent man who style of Johnson was the natural product of was less mixed up with the multifarious pura robust mind, throwing out comments upon suits of the big and busy world around books and men in the same vigorous form in him.* The plan does injustice to Reynolds which they were conceived. Allan Cun- * 'The very qualities,' wrote Burke to Jalone, ningham exagerated the magisterial tone May 22, 1795, which made the society of our friend of his original, and employed it to give an things thit make it difficult to write his life, or to imposing air to common-places and sophisms. ' draw his character. The former part is peculiarThe consequence is that there is frequently public events, nor was it diversified with much

- the mod- take.

ly difficult, as it had little connection with great a ludicrous contrast between the insigni- change of fo'tane, or much private adventure ficance of his ideas, and the oracular mode hardly, indeed, any adventure at all. All that I in which they are delivered. Johnson, sketch which I printed after his death.'

could say of him I have said already in that short

and to Leslie, as well as to the accomplished that I believe there is no admiral's son beteditor himself. The central figure of the ter put in hand for the sea than he is. He painter is smothered in the mass of incon- has, by my means, the whole foundation for gruous accessories which were intended to the theory of navigation, so that there is adorn him, and the valuable narrative of nothing that he need take upon trust, nothMr. Leslie is cut up into little fragments, ing but that he may have demonstration for which lose half their effect when separated if he pleases, it having been my way to fill by the discursive interpolations of his ed up the intervals of his coming home by goitor. To counterbalance the redundancies ing on just where we left off. The perwe have far more information regarding sistency of his father in tutoring him in Reynolds and his pictures than has been mathematics every time he set foot on shore, got together before. Mr. Taylor writes ad- is the strongest evidence of paternal dilimirably on his proper subject, and if he had gence and zeal. Joshua was intended for a concentrated upon it the time he has wasted general practitioner in medicine, and his on unprofitable episodes, he might have per- training was commenced with equal care. fected the work. There is one characteris- Before he was seventeen he had already tic which must strike everybody,--the gen- spent a great deal of time and pains' on erous, genial spirit with which he treats the study of medicine, under the direction both persons and things.

of Samuel Reynolds, who was, in his own The Rev. Samuel Reynolds, the father of opinion, a proficient in the science. He Sir Joshua, was born on Jan. 31, 1681. In thought of apprenticing his son to the June, 1715, he became master of the gram- Plympton apothecary, and said he should mar-school at Plympton, and there Joshua make no account of the qualification of the was born on July 16, 1723. He was the nominal master, since he himself should be third son, and seventh child in a family of the actual instructor. The salary of the eleven. Five of the number died young worthy schoolmaster was only 1201. a year Samuel Reynolds was more remarkable for and a house, and as, with his large family the range than for the depth of his attain- and small income, he could not afford to ments. He,' said Sir Joshua to Northcote, send his boys to the University, he had eviwho would arrive at eminence in bis pro- dently resolved to educate them with referfession, should confine his whol attention ence to their special callings, instead of to that alone, and not do as many very sen- devoting their entire youth to obtaining a sible men have done, who spent their time critical acquaintance with the learned lanin acquiring a smattering of every science, guages. He had not the less taken care to by which their powers becaine so much di- ground them in the classics. Sir Joshua vided that they were not masters of any was as well versed in Latin as the majority one.' Northcote replied, that is exactly of gentlemen. He was at no loss to detect my own father.' Reynolds rejoined — And a wrong translation which Mason, a professed it was mine also. His want of profundiry scholar, introduced into the version of Du might have been no disadvantage in the ele- Fresnoy's ' Art of Painting,' and Mr. Leslie mentary instruction of youth, but he was remarks that Jobnson not only submitted also remarkable for good temper, guileless- the epitaph on Goldsmith to the judgment ness, and absence of mind, and these were of Reynolds, but, when the manuscript was qualities which would be likely to render mislaid, assumed that he could write down him the dupe of his boys. Whatever was parts of the composition from memory. the cause he was unsuccessful in his office, Johnson could not be deceived in the acand in spite of his various knowledge and quirements of a constant companion, and virtues, he was at last left with only a single he was above the hyprocrisy of pretending pupil.

to give him credit for more knowledge than Allan Cunningham asserts, without au- he possessed. thority, that Samuel Reynolds was an indo- Joshua had been accustomed from childlent man, who seems to have neglected, hood to make little sketches, and copy the more than such a parent ought, the educa- poor engravings in Dryden's Plutareb, tion of his son.' Northcote, whose means of and Jacob Cats' · Book of Emblems. He information were abundant, declares, on the does not appear to have displayed at the contrary, that he was very assiduous in outset any extraordinary skill. His most cultivating the minds of his children. The inemorable feat was that he went through statement is confirmed by the letters of the Jesuits’ · Perspective of his own acrord Samuel Reynolds. • I have ordered matters at the age of eight. "It happened," he told so,' he writes March 3, 1743, of his first-born, Malone, to lie on the window-seat of bus Humphrey, who was in the Royal Navy, father's parlour, and be made himself so

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