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understood what life and conversation did not prove a submission to the discihe hath been of, and whether he hath pline. No latitude for tender conbeen addicted to any heresy, or to the sciences no admission for Lutheran reading of any heretical books, or to protestants, or for those who were curious and strange questions, and idle conscientious believers in the necessity speculations; or rather, whether he be of episcopal government and ordination. accounted sound and cimsenting in all In every church there were to be things to the doctrine received in the pastors, teachers, elders, and deacons ; church. Whereunto if he agree, he is ihe pastors, lo “ administer the word also to expound some part of the holy and sacraments;" the teachers, to be scriptures, twice or oftener, as it shall " occupied in wholesome doctrine ;" seem meet to the examiners, and that the elders, to “ watch over the life and before the conference and that church behaviour of every man;" the deacons, which is interested. Let him also be to “ have care'orer the poor." The demanded of the principal beads of pastors, teachers, and elders, were to divinity : and whether he will diligent- form a consistory, or senate of elders, ly execute and discharge bis ministry, by whose "common counsel all things" and in the execution thereof propound were to be " directed, that belonged unto himself, not his own desires and to the state of their church." In this commodities, but the glory of God and consistory a plurality of voices was to edification of the church. Lastly, whe- govern ; " the most voices are to be ther he will be studious and careful to yielded unto.” Besides these consistomaintain and preserve wholesome doc. ries, there were to be conferences beld trine, and ecclesiastical discipline."

every six weeks,

which were,

the So much for the restraints upon the meetings of the elders of a few churchclergy ; let us now see in what manner es, as for example, of twelve ;" the laity were to be restrained and minister and one elder," from each punished. “Let them only be admitted particular church. To the consistories to the communion, that have made it would belong to administer ecclesiconfession of their faith, and submitted astical censures, such as admonition, themselves to the discipline : unless they suspension, and excommunication; to shall bring letters testimonial of good the conferences, to examine the procredit from some other place, or shall ceedings of the consistories. approve theinselves by some other suf- 6 They that are to be excommunificient testimony." The reader must cated, being in pùblick charge in the not suppose, that the letters testimonial, church, are to be deposed also from mentioned in the excepting clause, were their charges.” intended to show the good standing of “When there is question concerning persons in other denominations. No an heretick, complained of to the consuch idea was then thought of, for it is sistory, straight let two or three neighexpressly declared, that the discipline bour ministers be called, men godly of Christ's church, that is necessary for and learned, and free from that suspi. all times, is delivered by Christ, and cion, by whose opinion he may be susset down in the holy scriptures ;" and pended, till such time as the conference that, according to this discipline, "of may take knowledge of his cause. all particular churches, there is one “ The obstinate, after admonition by and the same right, order, and form." the consistory, though the fault have These letter's testimonial, therefore, not been so great, are to be suspended were to be from other parishes or from the communion; and if they conchurches, where the same discipline tinue in their obstinacy- let the sen. was established; and no testimony tence of excommunication be pronouncwould be considered as sufficient, which ed, &c.





“ He that hath committed great or council, was to be " a meeting of the offences, opprobrious to the church, and chosen men of every national synod." to be GRIEVOUSLY PUNISHED by the Such was the system which the pumagistrate's authority; albeit he professritans presented to the queen and parhis repentance in words, yet for the liainent, as the holy and synodical trial thereof, and to take away the discipline, agreeable to the word of, offence, let him for a time be kept from God, and which they laboured, hy the communion, which how often and every possible method, to make the bow long it is to be done, let the con- law of the land. How little it provided sistory, according to their discretion, for religious liberty, the reader must determine ; after which, if the party already have perceived; but a quotation repent, he is brotherly to be received or two, from other official writings of again, but not until he have openly that perioil, will place this subject in professed bis repentance before the the strongest light : “ They may be of, church, by consent whereof he should and in the commonwealth,” says the have been excommunicated.

Defence of the Adinonition, p. 51, « Particular churches are to commu- o which neither may, nor can be, of, nicate one with another, hy common nor in the church; and, therefore, the meetings and resorts ; in them, only church having nothing to do with such, ecclesiastical matters are to be handled, the magistrate ought to see, that they &c.

join to hear sermons in the place where They that are to meet in such they are made, whether it be in those assemblies are to be chosen by the parishes where there is a church, aud consent of the churches. of that assem- so preaching, or where else he shall bly, &c.

think best, and cause them to be exaun“Let such only be chosen that ex. ined, how they profit, and if they profit ercise publick function in the church not, to punish them, and as their contempt of ministry or eldership, and which groweth, so to increase the punishment, bave subscribed to the doctrine and until such times as they declare mani. discipline, and have promised to behave fest tokens of un-repentantness, and themselves according to the word of then, as rotten members that do not only God, &c.” Other elders, and ministers, no good nor service in the body, but and deacons, and students in divinity, also corrupt and infect others, cut them are allowed to be present. “But they off." Observe the gradation : punish only are to give voice, which are chosen them-increase the punishment-cut by the churches, and bave brought their then off: and all this by the magistrate ! instructions signed from them.” The consistories and conferences were

These assemblies were to be divided first to try and condemn men for heresy, into conferences and synods; confe- and then deliver them over to the secu. rences consisting, as has been before lar arm, to be GRIEVOUSLY PUNISHED. stated, of delegates from particular “ The church,” says Cartwright, churches, not exceeding twelve. Sy. " wherein any magistrate, king, or

“ nods, or councils, were to be particular emperor, is a member, is divided into and universal : 1. Particular, com- some that are to govern, as pastors, prehending, 1. Provincial synods, con- doctors, and elders, and into such as sisting of two ministers and two elders are to obey, as magistrates of all sorts, from every conference in the province, and the people.there being twenty-four conferences in “ Every fault that tendeth either to each province. 2. National, consisting the burt of a man's neighbour, or to the of three ministers and three elders from hindrance of the glory of God, is to be every provincial synod. II. The uni- examined and dealt in by the order of versal, general or ecumenical synod the holy church.” Nay, the very sus


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picion of avarice, pride, superfluities have been the government; and as in meat or clothing, falls under their most voices" were “to be yielded Jash.

unto,” it requires no great penetration “ All wen,” says Goodman, one of to see, that she would have been con. the heads of the puritans, are bound stantly out-voted by her own subjects. to see the laws of God kept, and to She would have sunk to the character suppress and resist idolatry by force. of a solitary individual of a solitary Nor is it sufficient for subjects not to paris!ı. She would have been subject obey the wicked commands of princes, to the consistory of her own parish, but they must resist them ; and deliver whose duty it would have been to watch the children of God out of the hands of over her life and behaviour, to receive their enemies, as we would deliver a any complaint against her, to examine sheep that is in danger to be devoured her for heretical opinions, to cite her to by a wolf. If the magistrates shall appear publickly before them, and to refuse to put mass mongers and false adinonish, suspend, or excommunicate preachers to death, the people in seeing her, as might be determined by the it performed shew that zeal of God plurality of voices. which was cornmended in Phineas. Sub- What might thus be done to the jects do promise obedience, that the queen, night be done also to every magistrale might belp them; which, member of the parliament, and to every if he does not, they are discharged of officer of civil government; for throughtheir obedience. If inagistrates, without out the book of discipline, not a syllable fear, transgress God's laws themselves, is to be found of any prerogative to the and command others to do the like, civil magistrate, unless it be the privithey are no more to be taken for magis: lege of being the church's executioner, trates, but to be examin'd, accus'd, con. the privilege of GRIEVOUSLY PUNISHING ilernn'd, and punished, as private trans- those whom the consistory or the congressors. Evil princes ought, by the ference might deliver over to the secular law of God, to be deposed, and inferiour arm. magistrutes ought chiefly to do it.As an evidence that such was the

These last quotations will lead us to view taken of the holy discipline by the real cause why the puritans were the government, 1 shall lay before your dealt with so rigorously by the govern- readers an extract from two briefs, in inent. It was not so inuch for their which the doctrines and practices of non-conformity, as it was for the ten- the puritans are stated, from their own dency of their principles and writings writings, as tending to the overthrow of to overthrow the authority of the queen, her majesty's government and prerogaand the very form and character of the tive, as well in causes civil as ecclesiasgovernment. This will be made evi- tical, and dangerous to the state and dent, by observing the operation of the policy of the realm. They are too long holy discipline itself, and the express to be inserted entire, but


be found, Jeclarations of its advocates.

the first in Strype's life of Whitgift. ' If the discipline had been established Appendix, p. 138. The second, in his

, by the queen and parliament, they Annals, vol. iv, p. 140. would at once have stripped themselves 1. “ They do impugn her majesty's of all authority The queen as a royal prerogative and governmentvoornan could have no voice in the con- by attributing to her highness and her sistories, conferences, and synods; and magistrates no more than the papists eren if she could, it would not have do, potestatem facti non juris in causis been as head of the nation, but merely ecclesiasticis, viz. That which they deas a member of a particular church. termine to be law and right, the prince The pastors, doctors, and elders, would and her officers shall see it put in execu


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tian politically." The authorities in “ 3. Again, they impair the revenues the margin are Suecanus, p. 442. J. B. of the crown, lib. 2. de polit. civil. et ecclesiastic. By teaching that things once conp. 83, 97, 98, 129.—“ By making ker secrated to God, for the service of the bigbness subject to the censures and ex• church, belong to himn forever; [Compt. communications of their elderships and of the coinmonalty, c. 6.] calling the other assemblies." [Wal. Travers Ec. having of impropriations and abbey

{ cles. Disc. cum epist. T. C. p. 142.] lands sacrilege. [2 Admonit. p. 13.

“ For else she cannot be a child of Learned Discourse, p. 54.] the church.” [Counterpoison, 174.] “ By urging an immunity of the

"2. They likewise, by their plot, revenues of persons ecclesiastical, from shake the safety of her majesty, and of publick impositions, &c. the realm, [Theol. Fenner, 186.] by “4. Lastly. They abrogate or change making certain magistrates, in every the greatest part of the laws of the lund; ; commonwealth, (as God's institution) and namely, for example sake; who shall have authority to depose their ** By urging, legem talionis, an eye sovereign, either by war, or otherwise, for an eye, &c. [Theol. Fenner, p. 178.]

, . if he seem to them to break the cove- " By urging of necessity the judicial tant, as the Ephori in Lacedæmon had. law of Moses, for penalties of death

" By teaching that the government of upou blaspbemers, &c. [Ibid. p. 174, the coinmonwealth must be frained to 175, 176, 177.] For they hold that no the government of the church, as the prince or law may spare the life of any hanging to the house. [T. C. Reply. such persons. [T. C. Reply. p. 36.] p. 646 ]* And they make the church • By teaching that ministers should government partly popular of all the be judges juris, what is law in all matpeople, and partly oligarchical, of a ters, and civil magistrates judges only few ministers and elders. [Omnes illius of the fact. [J. B. lib. 2. de Polit. secta.)

Civil. et Ecclesiastic. p. 128, 129, 130.]

“ By affirming that all controversies The full force of the expression of fram- of doctrine and manners (so far as aping the government of the commonwealth to pertaineth to conscience) do belong to that of the church, as the hangings to the the determination of elderships, and house, will be best seen by reading the pas- other church assemblies. [Demonstr. sage in Cartwright's Defence, to which the of Discipline, p. 80.] writer here alludes. " The world,” says Cartwright, “is now deceived, that think- “ 5. They also deprave the justice eth that the church must be framed accords of the realm, and lords of the council, ing to the commonwealth; and the church as writing thus : 'I will not in this government according to the civil govern- place charge our council with that ment; which is as much to say, as if a man should fashion his house according to his which followeth, &c. namely, that they bangings, whereas indeed it is clean contra

execute no judgment, no, not the judg: Thal as the hangings are made fit for ment of the fatherless. But this I will the house, so the commonwealth must be made say, that they cannot possibly deal agree with the church, and the government truly in the natter of justice between thereof with her government ; for as the house is before the hangings, therefore the hangings, man and man; in so much as they bend which come after, must be framed to the all their forces to bereaf Jesus Christ house which was before ; so the church being of that right which he hath in the govbefore there was any commonwealth, and the ernment of his church ; by which uncommonwealth, coming after, must be fash. godly and wicked course, as they have ioned, and made suitable unto the church; held on, ever since the beginning of otherwise God is made to give place to men, beaven to earth,” &c. All this clearly point- her majesty's reign, so, at this day, ed to the subversion of the civil government. they have taken greater boldness, and

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grown more rebellious against the Lord MINISTERS ; [Wright ;) let us take our and his cause, than ever they were.' penny worths of thein, and not dye in [Epist. bef. the book termed, Reforma- their debt.' tion no enemy to the state p. 4, 5.] “ One of them (Snape] ask'd this

“ Ali these mischiefs notwithstanding, question: What will you say, if we &c. they say, it shall prevail; [Ref. overthrow the bishops, and that governno enemy, 6. 1.) Malgre the queen, ment, all in one day? council, and all that stand against it. “ They write [Epist. to the De[Epist. to the Demonst. circa finem.] monstr.) that if it come in by such

- To bring to pass that it may so means as will make your hearts ake, you prevail they have penn’d a book of must blame yourselves. And Payne discipline, partly termed holy, partly to Flud) that it is more than time to synodical, &c wholly innovating and register the names of the fittest and hotchanging all laws, common and ecclesi. test brethren, round about their several astical, concerning church matters and dwellings, whereby to put Suecanus's persons, without once naming the Chris- godly counsel in execution, viz. If the tian magistrate, or his authority. prince will not, then to erect it themselves.

Seeing then it must (as they say) • In which point,' saith he, we have prevail, malgre all withstanders ; [sub- dolefully fail'd, which now or never scription to the book of discipline,) and standeth us in hand to prosecute with they mention other means to advance all celerity, without lingring and staying it, besides suit to the queen's majesty, so long for parliaments.' the council, and parliament; and in The second brief was drawn up by one book it is wishid, (Epitome of the lord keeper, sir John Puckring. I Martin,] that the parliament would shall cite only a few paragraphs from it bring it in, though i! were by withstand to show their coincidence wiih the ing her majesty: what can those means statements in the first, above given. be, but the prosecution (by force and He speaks of two sorts of puritans, rebellion) of that plot which men of the proper presbyterians, who still conthe same humour have described, and tinued in the communion of the church, followed in the like case. For they and the Barrowists, or Brownists, who [Martin Senior,] brag of an 100,000 had separated.* Of the first of these hands to offer a supplication ; which, he says: he saith, in policy would not be reject- " When the supremacy was justly ed; especially, standing thus in danger restored to the crown, one chief superof our enemies abroad : [Motion with eminency was, that the last appellation, submission, p 39:] That thousands sigh in all ecclesiastical causes, was to be for it, and ten thousands have fought made to the king in the chancery. This for it, and approved ; and worthy men they take away ; for they make the apof all shires have consented to it. That pellation from an eldership consistory, [T. C. Reply, p. 44.) some of these to a colloquy or conference ; from thence matters are such, as if every bair of to a provincial synod ; and, lastly, to a our head were a life, we ought to national ; and that to be final. afford them, in defence of them. " In their letters [Lord to Fenner]

* The Barrowists were the same as the they begin to take care, how such as Brownists; being so called after Brown, they displace, by their reformation, as their leader, had deserted them, and returnbishops, deans, &c. may be provided ed to the communion of the church. Their for, so as the commonwealth be not pes. wards "called independency, and was the

scheme, somewhat softened down, was after. tered with beggars. They (Lord) ani

origin of the congregational system Robininate one another thus : • Buckle with son, the pastor of the Plymouth colonists at the bishop. "MASSACRE THESE MALKIN Leyden, was of this sect.


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