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3. Music is a charming art. 4. Italian is the most harmonious of European lan

guages. 5. English grammar is remarkable for its simplicity. 6. Ambition is a noble passion. 7. Christianity has greatly contributed to promote

civilization. 8. He was a man of excellent principles. 9. A judge should be strictly impartial. 10. Shakspere was the greatest of modern poets. 11. Adversity is not without its advantages. 12. Modesty differs from bashfulness. 13. Every language has its characteristics. 14. The Athenians were celebrated for their delicacy

of taste. 15. This style is very faulty. 16. English is a copious and flexible language. 17. Paper is applied to many uses. 18. We derive much knowledge from books. 19. Attention is indispensable to improvement. 20. This is a most interesting work.

IV. CAUSE AND EFFECT. (1). This form of reasoning is of frequent occurrence, and may be applied in very numerous cases. It is assumed that there is a close connection between cause and effect; and that if the cause be admitted as good, its effect must also be good. The converse of this proposition must hold equally true; i. e. if the effect be pernicious it cannot be produced by a good cause. This principle is extensively used in arguing on questions connected with physical philosophy ; but we shall here

apply it chiefly to moral or practical subjects. For example, we may show that industry is desirable from the success by which it is generally followed, or that drunkenness is a fatal vice, because its effects are to deprive its victim of his reason, to squander his estate, and to bring disgrace and ruin on his family.

The following model is an example of this form of reasoning :


Given proposition . . Be not suspicious. Be not suspicious. A man of suspicious temper is a torment to himself and his companions. His mind is never at ease. He is perpetually imagining that others are plotting against his peace. He gives no one credit for good feeling, and he thus completely alienates the good-will of those who would otherwise be interested in his welfare. If suspicion generally prevailed, every man would stand in fear of his neighbour, and all the bonds of society would be burst asunder,

The opinions expressed in the following list of propositions are to be maintained by arguing on the principle of cause and effect.

Propositions to be proved by showing the Effect.

1. We should cultivate our tastes. 2. Indolence is a most pernicious condition of the

mind. 3. Decision of character is especially necessary in a


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4. Captivity has fearful effects on the human mind. 5. Excessive severity is to be deprecated. 6. Address is preferable to violence. 7. A national literature should be encouraged. 8. Philosophy, when studied in a right spirit, produces

incalculable advantages. 9. “Train up a child in the


he should go.' 10. A police force is necessary in every large city. 11. It is wrong to spare the guilty. 12. Slander must be carefully shunned. 13. Mode of occupation affects the character. 14. Candour is universally admired. 15. The natural affections should be cultivated. 16. Be kind to your companions. 17. A little learning is a dangerous thing.' 18. We should not contend about trifles. 19. Opportunities must not be neglected. 20. It is unwise to attempt to please everybody.

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In the last lesson, the truth of the statement was proved by the effect; here the effect will


in the given proposition, and we shall endeavour to show the cause that produced this effect. For example, if we state that some one has an amiable disposition, or is well-informed, these effects may be accounted for by referring to the causes which led to them, such as care bestowed on his- moral education, various circumstances of his early life, &c.

This form of argument may be illustrated by the following model :


Given proposition . . { Termine was in a flourishing

condition. The firm was in a flourishing condition. The experience the partners had gained in the earlier period of their career had made them more cautious, and they avoided all dealings with those whose credit was not known to be firmly established. Their increased wealth had enabled them to extend their business so widely, that there was scarcely a place of any importance in the world with which they had not commercial transactions.

Let the learner explain the following propositions, which represent effects, by showing the causes which led to them.

Propositions (Effects) to be explained by stating their

Causes. 1. The country was now in a state of profound tran

quillity. 2. Your friend is very much improved. 3. His brother gained the prize. 4. All the family have been in great distress. 5. My uncle has quite regained his health. 6. They live very happily together. 7. Her aunt is a great invalid. 8. She was beloved by all who knew her. :9. Cardinal Wolsey fell into disgrace with the king. 10. The Roman Empire fell a prey to the barbarians. 11. He was very successful in business. 12. The house stopped payment. 13. The siege was raised in the beginning of the



14. His cousin was appointed to the office. 15. The gallant soldier was promoted on the spot. 16. The mob broke into and plundered several houses. 17. The condition of the poor is much improved. 18. My friend is now become a rich man. 19. He was in a state of great agitation. 20. The lecturer received a handsome present from

his pupils.


IV. CAUSE AND EFFECT. (3.) Another way of reasoning upon this principle is when a fact or an event is stated; and the writer mentions the causes which led to it, and the consequences or effects which it produced. The whole paragraph will here consist of three parts arranged in the following order:- 1. Cause ; 2. Fact; 3. Consequence :

The following model is constructed of three parts, as above explained :



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Given propositions The French Revolution broke

(an event). out in 1789. 1. (Cause.) For many years there had been symptoms of wide-spread discontent throughout France. The people were grievously oppressed and unequally taxed; justice was partially administered; the nobles and higher clergy enjoyed excessive and undue privileges; and, worse than all, every grade of society was infected with infidelity and irreligion. wonder that such a state of things should lead to a political revolution. 2. (the event.) This convulsion, which was to shake all Europe, and threaten the

It was


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