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The syllables gua, gue, gui, are pronounced ga,

ge, gi, or rather, gwa, gwe, gwi. The syllables ghe, ghi, are pronounced gue, gui ;

as, bottéghe shops, say bottégue; luoghi places, say luogui.


Z, as well single as double, is generally pro

nounced like Ts; as, zío an uncle, say tsio; zóppo lame, say tsoppo; bellézza beauty, fay bellét fa ; fazzoletta a handkerchief, say fatsoletta ; nozze a wedding, say not fe ; diligenza diligence, fay diligent fa ; forza strength, fay fortfa. And note, that in pronouncing these words, a small

rest is to be made on the t before the s. Z is pronounced like ds, in words which in Eng

lish and Latin are wrote with a Z; as, Lazaro Lazarus, say Ladsaro; zona a zone, say dsona ; gazzetta a gazette, say gadsetta ; mizo the middle, say midso ; azuro blue, say adfuro.


The letter H is neither aspirated, nor pro

nounced in the beginning of words; as, Hora an hour; ho I have; humano human; read ora, Ò, oomano.


The letter S, in the beginning of words, is pro

nounced as in English; as, Salute health, fervo a servant, Sopra upon.

S, before e, f, P, t, keeps its natural found; as,

scalà a ladder, véspa a wafp, stúdio study. S, before d, 8, l, m, n, r, u, is pronounced like

%; as, sdegno disdain, read zdegno ; sguardo a look, read zguardo ; fmánia madness, read

zmánia, &c. S, between two Vowels, is pronounced also like z;

as, mísero miserable, say mizero; desío a desire, fay dezío ; casa a house, say caza ; uso used, say uzo. Except S in cosi so, which is pronounced cosi. Sa, in these two words only, cosa a thing,

and rosa gnawed, is pronounced in like manner. Si, when added to other words, keeps its na

tural found ; as, Jorivesi they write, parlasi they say, &c.


T, before ia, ie, ii, io, in the middle or ending of words, is pronounced ts; as gratia grace, fay gratia ; natione a nation, say nat fione ; vitii vices, fay vitfi ; ótio idleness, fay ótsio. Except, in the words following, ambastiã extafy, faettia a pinnace, malatia fickness, questióne a question, moléstia trouble ; the letter s preceeding the letter t: Also in tiéne he holdeth, potiáre ye may be able, patiamo we may suffer, patiáte ye may suffer; and some other Verbs

which will be learnt by practice. Note. The other Consonants b. d. f. l. m. n.

p. r. are pronounced as in English: Instead of k, the Italians use ch; and instead of ph, the letter f.


For the Learner's more ready improvement, let him attend to the following Recapitulation of the Italian Pronunciation.


Ce read che

cena chena


città chittà cia

chia ciascuno chiascuno cie

chie cielo chielo cio

chio bacio batchio ge

dge genio dgenio



ja giardino jardino gie

je Gia/u jesu


joo giusto joosto

pigliare pilliare
gna,gne, &c. nnia, nnie, regnare renniare

che ke


chi ki Sce

The fcemare shemare foi

shi lasciare lashiare ti


natione natsione no

Virt Virtoo u before og

buono bono VU


avvenire avenire ts

diligenza diligentfa Z

zefiro dfefiro

gio giu gli

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Observe always to rest on the pronunciation of the Vowels accented thus, tì, virti, cecità, am), amerò, amerà, credi, sentì, crederà, sentirà.


Note. By these Examples it may be seen, that the Italian Tongue does not so greatly differ in pronunciation from the English; but, notwithstanding this, it may at ali times be most proper to attend to the instructions of an able Master, as every language has some peculiar expressions which are better learnt by the ear, than by any written Rules.


1. HE Italian Tongue differs in this from

the French, that all words are written after the same manner they are pronounced.

II. That the Consonants in the beginning of comprund words are doubled, as, ab- battere, ap- pogiare, ap- preso, dif- ficile, of - fendere, &c.

III. The letter g is doubled, when followed by ia and is, and make together but one syllable ; as, Loggia a lodze, Maggio May: But if the Vowels ia and io be divided or pronounced distinct, the g is not doubled ; as, agio easy, privilegio privilege, malvagio bad.

The letter g is also doubled in the infinitive mood of verbs, and in those tenses where a vowel comes before gere; as, leggere to read, reggere to govern ; other i: ise the g remains single ; as, fingere to feign, pingere to paint, &c.

IV. All words that begin in English with an'j cont nant, as, Jefus, Joseph, Journal, are by the Italians wrote by G ; as, Giefu, Gioseppe, Giornale.

V. That

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V. That the Vowels E, 0, and I, are not pronounced when they follow the letters I, n, 1, and for the most part not expresfed in writing, unlefs they end the sentence ; as,

Bel tempo , it is fair weather, not bello.
Di buon ingégno, of a good wit, not buono.
Un mal non vien sólo, a mischief comes not

alone, not uno male.

Huomin' da bene, honest men, not huomini.
Also sometimes when they follow t, d, or m; as,

Fra Bernardo, Brother Bernard, not Frate.
Gran Soggetto, an eminent man, not grande,

Note. To this Rule there are some exceptions
in the words Animo the mind, Regno a kingdom,
Apollo the God Apollo, and some others ; as, Apollo
fiede nel trono, Apollo fitteth on the throne, not
Apol fiede, &c.

VI. Words beginning with S, require the preceeding word to end with a Vowel; as, grande Stato, quello spirito, essere state, for gran stato, quel Spirito, eller ftato.

VII. Words of the infinitive mood are not cut off at the end, though a Vowel follows; as, parlare alto to speak aloud, not parlar alto: And note the final Vowels of words are always to be pronounced very soft ; also, that the Italian Poets take great liberty in retrenching or cutting off words at their pleasure, which will be readily observed by reading the best Authors.


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