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In 1588, when the nation was alarmed with the apprehenfions of the Spanish armada, lord Leicester was made lieutenant-general, under the queen, of the army affembled at Tilbury. This noble perfonage ftood high in the favour of his mistress to the laft: for he died this year, Sept. 4, at his houfe at Cornbury in Oxfordshire, while he was upon the road to Kenilworth. His corpfe was removed to Warwick, and buried there in a magnificent manner. He is faid to have inherited the parts of his father. His ambition was great, but his abilities feem to have been greater. He was a finished courtier in every refpect; and managed his affairs fo nicely, that his influence and power became almost incredible. He had a competent knowledge of the Latin tongue, and was thoroughly verfed in the French and Italian.
DUDLEY (Sir ROBERT as he was called here, and as he was ftyled abroad earl of Warwick and duke of Northumberland) was fon (called by his father BASE SON) of Robert, earl of Leicester, by the lady Douglas Sheffield, and born at Sheen in Surrey in 1573. His birth was carefully concealed, as well to prevent the queen's knowledge of the earl's engagements with his mother, as to hide it from the countefs of Effex, to whom he was then contracted, if not married. He was confidered and treated as his lawful fon till the earl's marriage with the lady Effex, which was about 1578; and then he was declared to be only his natural iffue by lady Douglas. Out of her hands the earl was very defirous to get him, in order to put him under the care of Sir Edward Horfey, governor of the Isle of Wight; which fome have imagined to have been, not with any view to the child's difadvantage, for he always loved him tenderly, but with a thought of bringing him upon the ftage at fome proper time, as his natural fon by another lady. He was not able to get him for fome time: but at last effecting it, he fent him to school at Offingham in Suffex in 1583, and four years after to Chrift-Church in Oxford. In 1588 his father died, and left him, after the decease of his uncle Ambrofe, his caftle of Kenilworth, the lordships of Denbigh and Chirk, and the bulk of his eftate, which before he was of age he in a great measure enjoyed, notwithstanding the enmity borne him by the countefs dowager of Leicefter. He was now looked upon as one of the finest gentlemen in England; in his perfon tall, well-fhaped, having a fresh and fine complexion, but red-haired; learned beyond his age, more efpecially in the mathematics; and of parts equal, if not fuperior, to any of his family. Add to all this, that he was very expert in his exercifes, and particularly in riding the great horse, in which he was allowed to excel any man of his time.
His genius prompting him to great exploits, and having a particular turn to navigation and difcoveries, he projected a voyage into the South-Seas, in hopes of acquiring the fame fame thereby, as his
friend the famous Thomas Cavendish, of Trimley, Efq; whose fifter he had married; but, after much pains taken, and money fpent, the govenment thought it not fafe for him to proceed. Afterwards, however, he performed a voyage, setting out Nov. 1594, and returning May 1595: an account of which, written by himfelf, is publifhed in Hackluyt's collection of voyages. At the end of Elizabeth's reign, having buried his wife, he married Alice, the daughter of Sir Thomas Leigh. He then began to entertain hopes of reviving the honours of his family; and, in 1605, commenced a fuit, with a view of proving the legitimacy of his birth. But no fooner had the countefs dowager notice of this, than fhe procured an information to be filed against him and fome others for a confpiracy; which was such a blow to all his hopes, that, obtaining a licence to travel for three years, which was eafily granted him, he quitted the kingdom: leaving behind him lady Alice Dudley his wife, and four daughters. He had not been long abroad, before he was commanded back, for affuming in foreign countries the title of earl of Warwick; but refufing to obey that fummons, his estate was feized, and vested in the crown, during his natural life, upon the ftatute of fugitives.
The place which Sir Robert Dudley chose for his retreat abroad, was Florence; where he was very kindly received by Cofmo II. great duke of Tuscany: and, in procefs of time, made great chamberlain to his ferene highness's confort, the archduchefs Magdalen of Auftria, fifter to the emperor Ferdinand II. with whom he was a great favourite. He difcovered in that court those great abilities, for which he had been fo much admired in England: he contrived feveral methods of improving fhipping, introduced new manufactures, excited the merchants to extend their foreign commerce; and, by other fervices of ftill greater importance, obtained fo high a reputation, that, at the defire of the arch-duchefs, the emperor, by letters-patent, dated at Vienna, March the 9th, 1620, created him a duke of the holy Roman empire. Upon this, he affumed his grandfather's title of Northumberland; and, ten years after, got himself enrolled by pope Urban VIII. among the Roman nobility. Under the reign of the grand duke Ferdinand II. he became ftill more famous, on account of that great project which he formed, of draining a vast tract of morafs between Pifa and the fea for by this he raifed Livorno, or Leghorn, froin a mean and pitiful place into a large and beautiful town: and having engaged his ferene highnefs to declare it a free port, he, by his influence, drew many English merchants to fettle, and fet up houfes there. In confideration of his fervices, and for the fupport of his dignity, the grand duke beftowed upon him a handfome penfion; which however went but a little way in his expences: for he affected magnificence in all things, built a noble palace for himself and his family at Florence, and much adorned the caftle of Car
bello, three miles from that capital, which the grand duke gave him for a country-retreat, and where he died Sept. 1639.
Sir Robert Dudley was not only admired by princes, but also by the learned; among whom he held a very high rank, as well on account of his skill in philofophy, chemistry, and physic, as his perfect acquaintance with all the branches of the mathematics, and the means of applying them for the fervice and benefit of mankind. He wrote feveral things. We have mentioned the account of his voyage, His principal work is, "Del arcano del mare," &c. Firenze, 1630, 1646. This work has been always fo fcarce, as feldom to have found a place even in the catalogues that have been published of rare books. Wood tells us, that he wrote alfo a medical treatife, entitled Catholicon, which was well efteemed by the faculty. There is ftill another piece, the title of which, as it ftands in Rufhworth's Collections, runs thus: "A propofition for his majefty's fervice, to bridle the impertinency of parliaments. Afterwards queftioned in the Star-Chamber." After he had lived fome time in exile, he ftill cherished hopes of returning to England: to facilitate which, and to ingratiate himself with king James, he drew up a propofition, as he calls it, in two parts: the one, to fecure the ftate, and to bridle the impertinency of parliaments; the other, to increase his majefty's revenue much more than it is." This fcheme, falling into the hands of fome perfons of great diftinction, and being fome years after by them made public, was confidered as a thing of fo pernicious a nature, as to occafion their imprisonment: but they were released upon the difcovery of the true author. It was written about 1613, and fent to king James, to teach him how moft effectually to enflave his fubjects: for in that light it is certainly as fingular and as dangerous a paper, as ever fell from the pen of man. It was turned to the prejudice of James I. and Charles I. for though neither they, nor their minifters, made ufe of it, or intended to make use of it, yet occafion was taken from thence to excite the people to a hatred of ftatefmen, who were capable of contriving fuch deftructive projects. Laftly, he was the author of a famous powder, called, Pulvis comitis Warwicenfis, or, The earl of Warwick's powder, which is thus made: "Take of fcammony, prepared with the fumes of fulphur, two ounces; of diaphoretic antimony, an ounce; of the crystals of tartar, half an ounce: mix them all together into a powder."
When he went abroad, he prevailed upon a young lady, at that time efteemed one of the finest women in England, to bear him company in the habit of a page. This lady was Mrs. Elizabeth Southwell, the daughter of Sir Robert Southwell, of Woodrifing in Norfolk; whom he afterwards married, by virtue of a difpenfation from the pope. How blameable foever fhe was in following him, yet her conduct was afterwards without exception: and,
as fhe lived in honour and esteem, and had all the refpect paid her that her title of a duchefs could demand, fo it is reported, that Sir Robert loved her moft tenderly to the last, and caused a noble monument to be erected to her memory in the church of St. Pancratius at Florence, where her body lies buried, and his by her. He had by this lady a fon Charles, who affumed the title of earl of Warwick, and four daughters, all honourably married in that Country.
DUGARD (WILLIAM), an eminent school-mafter and learned man, was the fon of Henry Dugard, a clergyman, and born at Bromsgrove in Worcesterfhire in 1606. He was inftructed in claffical learning at a fchool in Worcester; and from thence fent in 1622, to Sidney-College, Cambridge. In 1626, he took the degree of B. A. and that of M. A. in 1630. Soon after he was appointed mafter of Stamford-School in Lincolnshire; from whence, in 1637, he was elected mafler of the free-fchool in Colchester. He religned the care of this fchool Jan. 1642-3; and, May 1644, was chofen head-mafter of Merchant-Taylors fchool in London. This fchool flourished exceedingly under his influence and management; but for thewing, as was thought, too great an affection to the royal caufe, and especially for being concerned in printing Salmafius's defence of Charles I. he was deprived of it Feb. 1649-50, and imprifoned in Newgate; his wife and fix children turned out of doors; and a printing-office, which he valued at a thoufand pounds, feized. That he was very well affected to Charles I. and to the royal intereft, appears from a curious regifter he kept of his fchool, which is ftill extant in Sion-College library, wherein are entered two Greek verfes, on the beheading of that monarch, to this effect:"Charles, the beft of kings, is fallen by the hands of cruel and wicked men, a martyr for the laws of God and of his country." There are alfo two more Greek verfes on the burial of Oliver Cromwell's mother in Westminster-Abbey, to this effect;
Here lieth the mother of a curfed fon, who has been the ruin of two kings, and of three kingdoms." However, it was not for thefe verfes that he was difmilled the school, but for being concerned in printing Salmafius's book.
Being foon releafed from this confinement, he opened, April 1650, a private fchool on Peter's-Hill, London; but, in September, was restored to his former ftation, by means of the fame council of state who had caufed him to be removed. There he continued with great fuccefs and credit, till about 1661; when he was difmiffed for breaking fome orders of the Merchant-Taylors, though he had been publicly warned and admonifhed of it before. He prefented a remonftrance to them upon that occafion, but to no purpose: whereupon he opened a private fchool in Coleman-Street, July 1661, and, by March following, had gathered an hundred and
ninety-three scholars : fo great was his reputation, and the fame of his abilities. He lived a very little while after, dying in 1662. He gave by will feveral books to Sion-College library. He publifhed fome few pieces for the use of his schools; as, 1. "Lexicon Græci Teftamenti Alphabeticum; unà cum Explicatione Grammaticâ Vocum fingularum, in ufum Tironum, Necnon Concordantià fingulis dictionibus appofitâ, in ufum Theologiæ Candidatorum, 1660." 2. "Rhetorices compendium." 8vo. 3." Luciani Samofatenfis dialogorum felectorum libri duo. A. G. Dugardo recogniti, et, variis collatis exemplaribus, multo caftigatius quam ante editi. Cum interpretatione Latina, multis in locis emendata, et ad calcem adjecta," 8vo. 4. "A Greek Grammar."
DUGDALE (Sir WILLIAM), an eminent English antiquary and hiftorian, was the only fon of John Dugdale, of Shuftoke, near Coleshill in Warwickshire, gent. and born there Sept. 12, 1605. He was placed at the free-fchool in Coventry, where he continued till he was fifteen; and then returning home to his father, who had been educated in St. John's-College, Oxford, and had applied himself particularly to civil law and history, was inftructed by him in thofe branches of literature. At the defire of his father, he married, March 1622-3, a daughter of Mr. Huntbach, of Seawall in Staffordshire; and boarded with his wife's father till the death of his own, which happened July 1624: but foon after went and kept houfe at Fillongley in Warwickshire, where he had an eftate formerly purchafed by his father. In 1625, he bought the manor of Blythe in Shuffoke above-mentioned; and, the year following, felling his eftate at Fillongley, he came and refided at Blythe-Hall. His natural inclination leading him to the ftudy of antiquities, he foon became acquainted with all the noted antiquaries; with Burton particularly, whofe "Defcription of Leicestershire" he had read, and who lived, but eight iniles from him, at Lindley in that county.
In 1638, he went to London, and was introduced to Sir Chrif topher Hatton, and to Sir Henry Spelman: by whofe intereft he was created a purfuivant at arms extraordinary, by the name of Blanch Lyon, having obtained the king's warrant for that purpose. Afterwards he was made Rouge-Croix purfuivant in ordinary, by virtue of the king's letters patent, dated March 18, 1639-40: by which means having a lodging in the Heralds-Office, and convenient opportunities, he fpent that, and part of the year following, in augmenting his collections out of the records in the Tower and other places. In 1641, through Sir Chriftopher Hatton's encou ragement, he employed himself in taking exact draughts of all the monuments in Westminster-Abbey, St. Paul's cathedral, and in many other cathedral and parochial churches of England; particularly thofe at Peterborough, Ely, Norwich, Lincoln, Newark upon VOL. V. Trent,