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Solar months in the Telugu country.

The second alternative seems to be more probable to me, as I find in some grants of that period the mention of solar months instead of lunar months. Pro. Kielhorn has proved by calculation10 that in giving the date of the coronation of Rajaraja in the Korumilli and Nandampundi plates the solar month is given, and not the lunar. The month mentioned in the Ranasthapundi plates of Vimaladitya (1011 A. D) is clearly solar. (). Both the solar and luni-solar month of the same name as mentioned in the plate (U'FAT) were current on the date12 of the cornation of Amma II. In a grant13 of Sakti Varma II of S. 983 (1061 A. D), we find the month of Tula only mentioned without stating the name of any lunar month. It is therefore a problem for the History of Astronomy in the Southern India to find out exactly the period at which the solar month was dropped from the current calendar in the Telugu country.

Fleet's dates compared.

As we are sure of the exact date of the coronation of Chalukya Bhima I, the fourteenth king of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty, we can fix the dates of the previous kings, with more certainty and accuracy than the dates of Dr. Fleet in Vol. XX of the Indian Antiquery. Calculating back from 892 the periods of reigns of different kings as given in this grant, we arrive at the following dates. I also note the dates as fixed by Dr. Fleet for comparison.

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It is a matter for real admiration that Dr. Fleet should have arrived at 615, by independent sources, as the date of the commencement of the reign of Kubja Vishnuvardhana. We have

here 616 as the intial date of that King; and not with standing the present grant, 615 may be the date when Kulbja Vishnuvardhana began to rule as an independent sovereign, because in the grant of Gunaka Vijayaditya 41 instead of 40 years as in our grant, are allotted to Vijayaditya (Narendra-Mrigaraja). With this, the total number of years from Kubja Vishnuvardhna to the end of the reign of Gunaka Vijayaditya comes to 277, which figure when deducted from 892, the year of Bhima's Coronation as given in this grant, gives us the year 15 as the date of Kubja Vishnu Vardhana's initial year. As far other discrepancies between the dates of Dr. Fleet and the dates deduced from the figures in this grant, they are due to mainly Dr. Fleet's basing his calculations on the figures given in the later grants of the Chalukyas. But I think the dates and the number of years of each reign as given in the earliest grants are more reliable than the dates given in the later ones. I therefore consider the figures given in this grant and in the grants of Gunaga Vijayaditya as more reliable than the figures in any other inscriptions of the latter Chalukyas.

Bhima Salki.

From this grant (111) as from some others, it seems that the eleventh King of this dynasty Vijayadita Narendra Mrigaraja defeated a certain Bhima Salki and the army of Dakshina Gangas that came to his help. Who was this Bhima Salki? We find from two grants of Gunaga Vijayadita, one noticed in the Epigraphical reports and another newly discovered by me15 which will be shortly published, that Narendra Mrigaraja had a younger brother called Bhima Chalukya, who revolted against him at the instigation of the Gangas. Bhima Salki was defeated together with the Gangas that came to his help. In this grant I think the words 'Swanujam were omitted by mistake by the writer after the words Bhima Salkinamanam' in (111), This is a new piece of information which we get from these grants. We hitherto knew from the British Museum plates 5 of Narendra Mrigaraja that he had a younger brother called Nripa Rudra.

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Salki means Chalukya.

The peculiar vernacular form Salki as equivalent to the Sanskrit word Chalukya deserves special notice by philologists and historians. It is not difficult to derive Salki from Chalukya or vice-versa. This word is seen with various forms such as Chalkya 16 Chalukki 17 Saluki 18, Chaliki 19. It is natural that in the Dravidian and some times in the Gaudian Languages Ch and S. interchange. In Tamil only one letter represents the sounds Cha F. S. Sh. The vowel U is generally elided and we get the form Salki. We came across this form in som inseriptions 19 and in the compounds Salki Rattagudi 19b. Vallava Salki 20. The first represents the mixing of the Chalukyas with the Rashtrakuta clan and the second indicates the fusion of the Pallavas and the Chalukyas. I am inclined to believe that the dynasty of Kings called the Chalukyas, like the Pallavas and others, came out of a South Indian clan which was orginally called Salki or Chalkı or Chaluhi and the word was subsequently Sanskritised into Chalukya, when the Kings of that race rose to very high power and coveted the distinction of belonging to the lunar race of the Pauranic Kings.

Other grants of Bhima I.

Besides the present grant we know of five inscriptions of Bhima I. Of these ore, the Bezwada grant 21 is published. This was issued at the time of his coronation (892). The Khasim kota plates 22 call him the eldest son of his father. This shows that he had some younger brothers, His conquest on a battle field of the combined forces of his dayada (Jnaties) is mentioned in this grant. These davadas were perhaps his younger brothers and Tada and his son Yuddhamalla. It is also stated that he crushed the army of Krishnaraja. This grant refers to a village in Elamanchali Kalingadesa and Devarashtra. The Narasapur plates 23 inform us that Chalukya Bhima 1 "defeated the army of Krishna Vallabha together with his allies, and that before him fled as darkness before light,' the vile

Kings of Karnata, and Lata. His son, a prince of 16 years, who was of charming appearance, learned and powerful, died after figating bravely on the battle fields at Niravadyapura and Peruvangurgrama, killing from the back of his elephant the general of the Vallabh King called Dandena-Gundaya. Having performed the obesquial ceremonies of this prince, who had the Surname Iri (Marsiganda) the King granted to 45 learned Brahmans the village of Vedatuluru in Uttara-Kanderuvati vishaya." The Bezwada pillar inscription 24 is by a certain chief in the seventeenth year (909) of Bhima's reign. The temple of Partheswara was then built. There is a copy of copper grant by Bhima I in a manuscript volume 25 in the Government Oriental M. S. Library, Madras. Unlike other grants it describes in verses the periods of the reigns of different Kings. It clearly says that Kubjavishnu Vardhana was the first to occupy the Vengi country. This grant gives us the information, which is not found elsewhere that the name of the mother of Bhima I was Vengambika. The king gives an agrahara to a warrior to help him in war (अस्मद् खङ्ग-सहाय निमित्त) ।

From the Masulipatam plates 26 of Amma I we get the following information :

"King Chalukya Bhima had a foster mother named Nagipoti. She was (to him) like a second earth, like a warrior endowed with endurance. She had a daughter named Gamukamba, like unto Ambika who drank her mother's milk sharing it with King Bhima. She brought forth a son, endowed with strength like Kumāra, the high-spirited Mahākāla, (who became) a general of King Bhima. In battle where fire is produced by the clashing together of the opponents' arms, going before his master this brave one more than once annihilated the enemy's armies" vs. (5--8).

Krishna II.

From the inscriptions of the successors we know that Bhima ruled for 30 years. So he must have ruled from A. D. 892-922. His contemporary among the Rashtrakutas was

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