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partiens communicansque: the two participles differ very little in meaning—no more widely than ‘dividing' and 'sharing' in English. In parliens the notion of mere division is more prominent, in communicans the notion of comradeship or partnership; cf. 24, l. 23 in periculis communicandis.
§ 23. 3 commoditates: very little different in sense from opportunitates in
22, l. 17. Opportunitas expresses rather the idea of exceptional appropriateness, commoditas rather the characteristic of usefulness as an ordinary fact.
cum contineat...tum praestat: the normal construction with cum ... tum is for both clauses to have the same verb or for the verbs (if different) in both clauses to be in the same mood and tense.
The reason for the variation here is the desire to point out that the fact contained in the clause cum...contineat is one which has been already mentioned and disposed of. Seeing that friendship furnishes very many and important advantages...'. Continet would have been appropriate had the fact now been mentioned for the first time.
illa...praestat omnibus: I take illa as ablative (sc. commoditate), comparing 19, 1. 26 hoc praestat, and make omnibus neuter=omnibus rebus, the verbs praestat and praelucet having thus the same subject amicitia. Many editors, in order to avoid the exceptional omnibus=omnibus rebus, make illa (sc. commoditas) subject to praestat so that omnibus =0. commoditatibus, while praelucet has for its subject amicitia. The neuter omnibus used as substantive, though rare, is well attested; cf. N. D. 2, 36 quae quoniam talis est ut et praesit omnibus et eam nulla res possit impedire; ib. 2, 133 ratio est enim quae praestet omnibus; De fato 14 non valere videtur in omnibus ; Liv. 1, 45 formatis omnibus ; 3, 23 omissis omnibus; cf. also n. on 50, 1. 7 similium.
spem praelucet: the verb praelucere is rare even in poetry and very rare in prose.
The transitive use ("holds up the light of hope') may perhaps be allowed here, though the only passages quoted for it by the editors and lexica are Auson. Idyll. 4, 95 (p. lumen), and Plaut. Casina 1, 30 (p: facem). Plin. Nat. Hist. 32, 141 has praeluceat baculum, i.e. 'sets on fire'. The only other passage I have noted is in Amm. Marc. 18, 6, 15 P. facem. [Cf. Tusc. I, 95 praebibere ueñenum
alicui.] 5 cadere: cf. the phrase cadere animo. 6 verum amicum: so 54, 1. II the word verus is to be taken in a less strict sense than in 22, p. 34, 1. 32 vera amicitia.
exemplar aliquod: Seyffert well quotes the Meyáda nolkà 2, 15 ώσπερ όταν θέλωμεν αυτοί αυτών το πρόσωπον ιδείν, εις το κάτοπτρον εμβλέψαντες είδομεν, ομοίως και όταν αυτοί αυτους βουληθώμεν γνώναι, εις τον φίλον ιδόντες γνωρίσαμεν άν έστι γαρ ως φάμεν ο φίλος έτερος dyú. Cf. also 80, 1, 8.
7 absentes adsunt etc.: for the intended contradiction in terms (oxy
moron; cf. n. on 85, I. 16) cf. Mil. 97 gloriam: esse hanc unam quae efficeret ut absentes adessemus, mortui viveremus, where edd. quote the epigram of Simonides on the heroes of Thermopylae—ood? Tedvâol θανόντες, επεί σφ' αρετή καθύπερθε κυδαίνουσ’ ανάγει δώματος εξ Αιδεω.
egentes abundant etc.: St Paul, Corinth. 2, 6, 10'as having nothing, and yet possessing all things'; ib. 5.9 ‘as dying and behold,
we live'. 8 difficilius dictu: 'a harder saying'. T Latin like the English
phrase is strictly inaccurate, since the statement is not hard to make, but hard to believe. Cf. Mark 2, 9 'whether is it easier to say to the sick of the palsy...' Cic. often has incredibile dictu; cf. Liv. 3, 5, 12
difficile ad fidem est affirmare. 9 tantus eos honos: for the separation of tantus from honos cf. n. on quam id recte in 10, 1. 8.
ex quo: the antecedent to quo is not desiderium, but the whole preceding clause; thus ex quo=ex qua re.
beata mors... vita laudabilis: note the chiasmus (inversion of the order of the words in parallel phrases) for which cf. 5, 1. 22; 47, 1. 11; 65, p. 49, 1. 1; 70, l. 12; 57, 1. 7.
laudabilis: worthy of praise'; because the survivors do well in remembering their friends.
rerum natura: 'the constitution of things', i.e. the universe.
benevolentiae coniunctionem: 'the bond of goodwill’; benevolentia, the more diffused and weaker form of affection, is here contrasted with amicitia in l. 14, its more concentrated and intense form. Benevolentia
here is Aristotle's oubvola in Eth. Nic. 9, c. 6. 13 ne...quidem: 'nu, nor'; simply a stronger nec.
id: explained by the clause quanta...sit.
minus: here (and often) scarcely different in sense from non. 14
vis amicitiae: cf. 15, 1. 10. 15 percipi: a stronger word than intellegitur just before.
quae enim domus etc.; cf. Sallust, Iug. 10, 6 concordia parvae res crescunt, discordia maximae dilabuntur; Matthew 12, 25 mãoa róles
η οικία μερισθείσα καθ' εαυτής ου σταθήσεται. 16 discidiis: so rightly written, not dissidiis.
Most scholars now agree with Madvig in denying dissidium to be a Latin word.
§ 24. 18 quidem : often used like the Greek ye or yoûv to introduce a statement confirming a previous statement.
doctum quendam: Empedocles (born about 485 B.C.). Cicero is very careful not to make Laelius betray too intimate an acquaintance with Greek literature. Cf. n. on 87, 1. 5 nescio quem.
19 vaticinatum : 'sang in inspired strain'. The vates is divino quodam
spiritu inflatus (Arch. § 19); cf. also vaticini furores in Ov. Met. 2, 640. Vaticinari is sometimes used by Cic. in a bad sense=to talk nonsense, to drivel, as in Fam. 2, 16, 6. The great philosophical poem of Empedocles, nepi púoews, the title of which is borrowed by Lucretius for his poem
'De rerum natura', and which he greatly imitates, contained many passages that seemed to sober-minded readers to border on madness; cf. Acad. 2, 14 isti exclamant mente incitati, Empedocles quidem ut interdum mihi furere videatur; also Lucr. I, 727 carmina quin etiam divini pectoris eius vociferantur. As the word vaticinari sometimes means 'to prophesy’, there may be a reference to the fact that Empedocles claimed to possess prophetic and magic powers.
totoque mundo : this is merely explanatory of rerum natura, which has the same meaning. Trans. ‘in the constitution of things and the entire universe'.
constarent...discordiam: the passage closely corresponds with the wellknown lines of Empedocles : και ταυτ' άλλάσσοντα διαμπερές ουδαμά λήγει | άλλοτε μεν φιλότητι συνερχόμεν' εις έν άπαντα | άλλοτε δ' αυ δίχ' έκαστα φορεύμενα νείκεος έχθει, where συνερχόμενα corresponds with constarent here and popeúueva with moverentur. Empedocles held that two principles were perpetually at war in the universe, one the principle of love or friendship (attraction) constantly tending to unite the scattered portions of the four elements, fire, air, earth and water, so as to bring Things into existence, the other the principle of hate or enmity (repulsion), tending to decompose bodies into their constituent parts.
ea: of course the object, as amicitiam is the subject, of the verb contrahere.
hoc : “this principle', i.e. that friendship is a uniting force, hatred a destructive force.
omnes mortales: here=simply omnes homines. Cicero never uses mortalis for homo without some attribute, though the usage is very common in Sallust, Tacitus, and the later Latin prose. Caesar altogether avoids the word. Cf. mortalis nemo in 18, 1. 7.
et intellegunt et re probant: ‘not only understand but approve by their actions'. 23 si quando aliquod : Cicero, like the other Latin writers, often seems
capricious in his use of quando and aliquando, quid (quod...) and aliquid (aliquod...) after si. For si quando aliquid (aliquod...) cf. Verr. De Or. 1, 124. For si quid (quod...) aliquando Cluent. 140; Fam. 9, 17, 1. For si quando quid (quod...) De Or. 2, 240; Caes. B. C. 3, 82, 3; Suet. Aug. 43. For si aliquid (aliquod...) aliquando Acad. 2, 25; Mil. 67; Sest. 14. It is commonly said that when the words with ali- are used after si they are more emphatic than the simple forms; the passages, however, do not always bear out the supposition. Cf. 27, p. 37, 1. 6 n.
exstitit : has been displayed'. Cf. n. on 27, p. 37, 1. 6. 24 adeundis: i.e. pro amico; in the one case the amicus meets the
danger alone, and protects his friend ; in the other both friends face it together. The use of in is the same as that in 9, p. 30, l. 3 in pueris.
26 M. Pacuvi : Pacuvius, the greatest tragic writer in Latin (summus
tragicus-Cic. de opt. gen. dic. 2) was born at Brundisium about 220 and lived till about 130 B.C. Since Pacuvius probably exhibited no new play after his eightieth year (Cic. Brut. 229), and Scipio died in 129 B.C., the word nuper is very loosely used, as in 13, 1. 10. Pacuvius probably never became a Roman citizen, hence Cic. calls him hospes as well as amicus. So Fam. 9, 12, 2 hospiti veteri et amico (of king Deiotarus)
nova fabula : commonly supposed to be a play called the Dulorestes (though Ribbeck and some other scholars deny this), of which a number of fragments are preserved. Cf. Fin. 5, 63 clamores volgi atque imperitorum excitantur in theatris, cum illa dicuntur ego sum Orestes contraque ab altero : immo enim vero ego sum, inquam, Orestes; cum autem etiam exitus ab utroque datur conturbato errantique regi, ambo ergo igitur simul una enicarier comprecamur; ib. 2, 79 aut Pylades cum sis, dices te esse Oresten, ut moriare pro amico, aut si esses Orestes Pyladen refelleres, te indicares, et si id non provares quo minus ambo una necaremini non precarere. The story was often handled by Greek dramatists. The plays of Pacuvius were all palliatae and closely copied from Greek originals, but it is not exactly known on what Greek play the Dulorestes was founded. It certainly did not follow the Iphigenia in Tauris of Euripides, which treats the same story. The rex was
Thoas, king of the Tauric Chersonese. 29 stantes plaudebant: 'they (the audience) rose to their feet and
cheered'. It has been generally supposed that Cic. here is guilty of a small anachronism, because the first permanent theatre at Rome was erected by Pompeius, before which time it is believed that the audience stood throughout the exhibition of the plays. The temporary booths, however, may have contained rough galleries ; cf. Tac. Ann. 14, 20 with Nipperdey’s n. With Cicero's words cf. Att. 2, 19, 3 Curioni stantes plauserant ; Phaedr. 5, 7, 28 in plausus consurrectum est ; Suet. Aug. 56 filiis praetextatis adhuc adsurrectum ab universis in theatro et a stantibus plausum questus est. Mr Shilleto (MS note): ‘spectantes Chr. Wordsworth : sed vid. Tac. XIV. Ann. 20; Val. Max. 11. 4, 3'.
arbitramur: n. on censemus in 14, p. 31, l. 29; cf. also arbitramur in 48, 1. 15. 31 cum...iudicarent: 'inasmuch as they pronounced'. Possibly, however, the right reading is iudicarunt.
possent : sc. si facto opus esset. For suppressed protasis cf. n. on 5, 1. 24.
recte fieri: to be closely taken with iudicarent. 32 in altero : 'in another's case'; the preposition as in l. 29 in re ficta;
l. 23 in periculis adeundis. 33 hactenus : 'up to this point', 'withir these limits’; contrasted with si quae praeterea sunt.
de amicitia quid sentirem : for the arrangement of the words cf. 14, 1. 26 de immortalitate animorum quae; also 16, l. 21 de amicitia quid sentias. Observe the tense of sentirem, and note the difference to the sense which would be made by substituting sensissem.
§ 25. 3 nos autem: sc. quaeremus. It very seldom happens in Latin that
a verb in the indicative or subjunctive, or indeed a verb at all, has to be supplied from one in the imperative or vice versa. See an example of an imperative of one verb to be supplied from the imperative of another in Phil. 2, 118.
saepe quaesivi : sc. quid sentirent.
non invitus : as in 4, 1. 7. 5 filum: all languages have metaphors resembling this. Cf. De Or.
3, 103 filo et genere ipso orationis; ib. 2, 93 omnes erant uberiore filo; Orat. 124 argumentandi tenue filum ; Fam. 9, 12, 2 munusculum
crasso filo; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 225 tenui deducta poemata filo. 6 tum...si: used here like the commoner ita...si ; cf. 53, 1. 5 si forte ceciderint tum intellegitur; 51, l. 18.
si nuper affuisses: but in the dialogue De re publica 1, 18 Fannius appears as one of the listeners.
He may not have been represented as present at the discussions in the subsequent books, which are only preserved in a fragmentary state. In § 14 Cic. seems to indicate the
absence of Fannius. 8 patronus iustitiae: advocate of justice'. The question was whether justice was an absolutely necessary foundation for a state.
iustitiam iustissimo: cf. 5, 1. 20 ad amicum amicissimus.
nonne facile: sc. est defendere. For omission of est cf. 22, 1. 20. 13 iustitia: Mss and edd. iustitiaque. I have struck out the que as
being against Cicero's usage. See n. on 12, 1. 6. 14 ceperit: note the different sense which cepit would here have had.
15 vim...afferre: 'why, this is violence you are applying to me':
A form of answer often used in reply to very pressing entreaties; cf. Terent. Adelph. 5, 8, 19 (1. 943) non omittitis? vis est haec quidem; Suet. Iul. 82 ista quidem vis est (said by Caesar when first attacked by
his assassins). 16 studiis...obsistere: the same kind of excuse for a philosophical dis
cussion is given in Orat. i negare ei quem unice diligerem cuique me carissimum esse sentirem, praesertim et iusta petenti et praeclara cupienti, durum admodum mihi videbatur; cf. ib. 140.
in re bona: cf. 17, p. 32, l. 27 praeclara res est.