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people who shall be fo fortunate as to poffefs it, than on the ftyle or compofition; and more careful to render his language intelligible. and explicit, than smooth and florid.'

Having now introduced our Readers to fome acquaintance with Mr. Carver, and informed them of his motives to this undertaking, we muft defire them to shake hands with the Gentleman, and to part for the prefent. In our next we propose to have the pleasure of a fecond converfation with this intelligent and enterprizing Traveller: in which his discoveries and obfervations will, if we are not greatly mistaken, afford us much entertainment, and not a litile information.

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ART. III. O Halloran's Hiftory of Ireland, concluded. See our last. · N the Shandyan phrafe, every man has his hobby-horse. That of Mr. O'Halloran appears to be the antiquity and bonour of his country: though, as we remarked in our account of this Author's former work *, we cannot suppose it a matter of very high moment, whether the Highland clans defcended from the Irish, or the Irish from the Highland clans; neither can we abfolutely reprehend a zeal of this kind, if united with learning and judgment. Under their direction it may help to throw light on ancient history, and contribute to entertain and inform the inquifitive reader. It is but justice to this Author, to allow that he writes in a manner that bespeaks him a man of erudition; and we must acknowledge, that the proofs he offers in fupport of the Irish descent from Milefius, bear the marks of reafon and probability: in this refpect we think there is ground to unite with Mr. Wynne, who, in his History of Ireland, produces some of the fame arguments with Mr. O‘Hal

loran +.

It was in the year of the world 2734, according to this writer, that the fons of Milefius determined to form a settlement in Ireland. This determination is faid to have been made in confequence of a prediction delivered fome years before by Caicer, one of their ancestors, that their posterity should fettle in the moft wefterly island in the world. Accordingly Ith, a principal perfon among them, was appointed to vifit the country. He fet fail from Spain with a fmall force in the year 2735, and landed at a place called Daire-Calgach in the North, the prefent Derry, fays our Author. When the inhabitants enquired who this adventurer was, and what his bufinefs; he immediately anfwered, we are told, in the Irish language, that they were from one common stock, being both the defcendants of Magog; that distress of weather threw him on their coafts; and that the

* Vid. Review, vol. xlix. p. 201.
+ Vid. Review, vol. xlviii. p. 470.


laws of affinity, as well as of hofpitality, pleaded in his caufe and that of his followers.

Here, fays Mr. O'Halloran in a kind of triumph, we see to demonstration the Milefian adventurers well acquainted with the country, its inhabitants, and their ancestry:-we alfo find them speaking the fame language; nor is there in history a fact better afcertained than this, notwithstanding the flippant affertions of fome moderns, who will, on their bare authorities, have it, that all the colonies, previous to the Milefian expedition, came from Britain.' On this point we will not dispute with our historian.


"It is told of Ith, that finding the three princes (brothers) who then jointly ruled Ireland, were met at a palace not very diftant, to agree about a partition of the crown jewels, he refolved to pay them a vifit. He conducted himself with fo much difcretion, that the princes agreed to conftitute him umpire. His juftice and impartiality on the occafion is faid not only to have prevented a civil war, but to have entirely reconciled the brothers, and given them great pleasure. But foon after Ith had left them, they began to reflect on the high encomiums he beftowed on their country, and the diligence with which he had obferved and explored it, from whence, with other circumftances, they concluded he was a fpy, and formed the refolution, for their own fecurity, to cut off him and his party before they could reach their fhip. One of the brothers was immediately detached with a number of men by a different route; they foon overtook Ith, who with his men retreated as fast as they could to their fhip, and as they drew nearer to it, a defperate attack was made, in which the flower of his fmall company were killed, and with great difficulty the remains of the hattered troop reached the veffel, bearing with them their general mortally wounded.

Such was the event of the first Milefian expedition to Ireland. Those who reached Spain were provided with fufficient arguments to excite their countrymen to renew the attempt. Their preparations were vigorous, their troops numerous, and their fleet, it is faid, fuch as would be respectable at any time, but for that period a very great one. This was the grand Milefian expedition under the conduct of Heber and Heremon. Our Author gives us the names of feveral principal perfons as they have been, he fays, carefully preferved in the Irish annals, and he mentions them, because many confiderable places in the kingdom yet commemorate them,' of which he produces inftances. On their landing, an embassy was fent to the reigning princes, the three fons of Cearmada, requiring a speedy fubmiffion. They replied, that it was contrary to the rules of war to take them thus by furprize, but if they would give proper time to collect

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their troops, they would then put the fate of the kingdom to the iffue of a battle.' It was at length agreed that the Milesians fhould re-embark, and their ships clear the coafts; after which, if they made good their fecond landing, it should be deemed an equitable invafion, and the Damnonii, or prefent poffeffors, would either fubmit or oppose them as they found most convenient,

I fhall make no comment, fays Mr. O'Halloran, on this extraordinary agreement, but obferve to my readers, that it was faithfully adhered to by the Milefian chiefs. They conveyed all their troops and provifions on board, and put to fea with their whole fleet. When they had all cleared the land, and were fairly in the main ocean, they tacked about to reach the coafts they had left; but at this very critical time, a violent ftorm of wind at Weft arofe, owing, fay our annals, to the magical powers of the Damnonii; but let that pafs as one of the many inftances of pitiable credulity in our annalifts, though at the fame time of their great dread to alter the least iota in the national records; fince nothing can be more abfurd than recurring to preternatural caufes in accounting for facts which we know may happen, and often happen, as a Wefterly wind is a kind of trade wind on our coaft. The wind increasing, and want of fufficient fea room, were the fources of dreadful calamities. The galley commanded by Donn ran into the Shannon, and was dafhed to pieces beyond the Cafhel, at a place which to this day retains his name, and every foul on board perished! Befide this chief, we are particularly told that twentyfour common foldiers, twelve women, four galley flaves, fifty felect warriors, and five captains, being all on board, fhared his fate! The galley commanded by Ir, met the fame fate on the Defmond coaft. The remainder of this fleet, though much damaged, ftood off to fea till the ftorm abated, and then relanded at Inbher-Sceine; but Arranan a moft experienced feaman, in the height of their distress, mounting the maft to secure fome fails, which none other had the boldness to attempt, was by the violence of the wind dafhed down on the deck, where he died. The place of his interment yet goes by the name of Cnoc Arranan, though vulgarly called Cnoc Arrar, bordering on the Shannon, in Kerry. The fquadron commanded by Heremon felt part of this ftorm, though moft of them landed fafely at Inbher-Colpa, or Drogheda, so called from Colpa who perished here, as did likewife Aireach. Thus by this high point of honour, of the eight fons of Milefius five perifhed in this ftorm, befide many ladies and captains of fpecial note, and numbers of foldiers.

The fecond landing was effected on the 17th day of the month Bel or May, and in the year of the world, according to : REV, Feb. 1779.



the Hebrew computation, 2736. The troops of Heber imme diately took poffeffion of their former camp at Sliabh-mis; nor were the Damnonii in the mean time idle, fince we find them collect fo confiderable a force as to attack his entrenchments the third day after their landing. The attack was long and bloody; but the Danaans at length gave way to fuperior courage, having left a thousand of their best troops killed in the trenches. The lofs of the Milefians was alfo confiderable; three hundred brave fellows falling by the fword of the enemy, with two Druids, who animated them by their prayers, and two ladies, Scota, widow of Milefius, and Fais, wife to Un. The next day the remains of these amazons were interred with great funeral pomp; Scota in a vale, to this day from her called Glean-Scota, near Tralee, where a royal monument was erected to her memory. The beauty of this place has been celebrated by antiquity; but at prefent it appears a dreary uncultivated wafte, the fatal confequences of depopulation and neglect of tilJage! Fais was buried in another valley near Sliabh-mis, which yet retains the name of Glean Fais.

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Encouraged by this first defeat of the enemy, the Milefians in good order proceeded towards Inbher-Colpa, or Drogheda, to join their affociates commanded by Heremon; and we cannot doubt but in their route they were joined by many malcontents, but particularly by the Belge. This junction was happily affected, and now united, they fend a fecond fummons to the fons of Cermada to furrender the kingdom, or to appoint a day to put its fate to the iffue of the fword. These princes return a refolute answer, that they would die as they lived, monarchs of Ireland; and that they would meet them on the plains of Tailten, in Meath, where the longeft fword and strongest arm should determine the conqueft. At the time agreed on the two armies. met, refolved on victory or death. Their numbers were nearly equal, as were the commanders; the three fons of Milefius, to wit, Heber, Heremon, and Amhergin, heading the invaders, while the Damnonii were led on by the three fons of Cearmada, The fight foon began, and continued with aftonishing obftinacy from fun-rife, even to fun- fet, as the book of invafion notes. The oppofing princes eagerly fought for each other, through numbers of wounded and dying enemies. At length they met. The fate of Ireland now, like that of Rome, in the days of the Horatii, hung on the fwords of these contending brothers! At length Mac Cuill fell by the hand of Heber-fion, Mac Creacht was flain by Heremon, and Mac Greine by Amhergin. The Danaans, now deprived of their chiefs, gave way on every fide, but this had more the air of a regular retreat, than a precipitate flight. The victors wifely confidering, that if the enemy now efcaped, it would be the fource of fresh devastations, clofely,


but in good order, purfued them. The Danaans made a gallant effort at Sliabh-Cualgne, fo called from Cualgne, the fon of Breogan, who fell in this battle; a fecond stand they made at Sliabh-Fuadh, fo named from Fuadh, brother to Cualgne, who was here flain. But more enraged than intimidated at thefe checks, the Milefians continued the purfuit, putting to the fword all the enemy they met, and fo effectually broke them, that they were never after able to make the leaft difturbance in the kingdom; and fuch as did not paffively fubmit to the new government retired to Britain, poffeffing themfelves of Devonfhire and Cornwall, and carrying with them their name and language. Thus, after ruling Ireland for an hundred and ninety-five years, under nine princes, were the Danaans completely conquered. From their hiftory it is evident that they were a very warlike, as well as a learned people.'

The above relation of an important revolution in the Irish history we have chofen to lay before the reader in the author's own words, from whence fome judgment may be formed of his manner of writing. He proceeds to tell us of the policy and humanity with which the Mile fians treated their new fubjects, which he contrafts with what he calls, the oppofite conduct purfued fince the revolution; but it should be remarked, that he does not, here at leaft, ftate thofe reafons and motives which, when they are properly examined, might poffibly give fome ground for a different mode of policy. However, this is an ar gument we do not undertake to difcufs.

The fupreme command of Ireland was vefted in Heber and Heremon; the former, this writer fays, had the fouthern half of the island, and the northern was the property of the latter.

The nobility, the military, and the followers of these two princes, had eftates and lands affigned to them, in proportion to their different ranks; but O'Naoi, a celebrated mufician, and Mac Cis, a bard of the firft eminence, had like to have produced much trouble, each prince being fond of retaining both. in his fervice. It was, however, determined by lot, when the musician fell to the share of Heber, and the bard to that of his brother Heremon; an early index, remarks Mr. O'Halloran, who neglects nothing for the honour of his country, of that protection which the Irish nation ever after afforded to poetry and mufic! Nor were arts, agriculture, and manufactures lefs attended to.-Nor should it be forgot to the credit of our literati, that while many important actions of our ancestors have been loft, yet the names of fuch princes as most remarkably attended to and encouraged agriculture have carefully been handed down from age to age! Ireland was undoubtedly formerly, what China. is at this day, one continued fcene of tillage.'

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