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Avaunt from avant, Fr., before,=go forward, Derivatives. begone.

Bevy, from beva, Italian, a covey of partridges, ==a company.

Bull (of the Pope), from bulla, Lat., a pendant seal, = the writing sealed by the Pope.

Catarrh, from katarrheo, Gr., to flow down=a cold in the head or throat.

Conclave, from con together and clavis, key, Lat. =a room that may be locked up. Hence a secret assembly, as of the Cardinals at Rome.

Cornice, from koronis, Gr., a crown.

Ceiling, from cielo, It., coelum, Lat., the sky; better spelt cieling.

Craze, from écraser, Fr., to break or bruise.

Demur, from demeurer, Fr., demoror, Lat., to reside, hence to hesitate.

Disparage, from dispar, Lat., unequal, = to treat with contempt.

Enormous, from e, out of, and norma, rule, Lat. = irregular, excessive.

Expatiate, from exspatiari, to walk about, Lat. =to enlarge upon.

Fan, from vannus, a winnowing machine, Lat.
Goblet, from kupellon, a cup, Gr.

Hermit, from eremita, Lat., eremos, Gr., a wilderness.

Lair, from layer, Sax., a bed of wild beasts), from to lie.

Main, from magne, Fr., magnus, great, Lat. great, huge.

Orgies, from orgia (orgé, rage), frantic rites of Bacchus, Gr.

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Palpable, from palpare, to touch softly, Lat. that which may be felt.

Pamper, from pamprer, to be overgrown with leaves, Fr., from pampinus, a vine-leaf, Lat.

Pandemonium, from pan all, and daimonion, a spirit, Gr.=rendezvous of all the devils.

Paragon, from para, beside, and agon, a contest, Gr.=match.

Pontiff, from pontifex, a bridge-maker, Lat.; hence a priest, because the earliest Roman priests had charge of the pile bridges over the Tiber.

Punctual, from punctum, a point or moment, Lat. =to the minute.

Puny, from puis and né, later born, Fr. =

young, small.

Purlieu, from pur, free, and lieu, place, Fr. = a place separated and freed from the laws of a forest; hence neighbourhood.

Reluctant, from reluctari, to struggle against, Lat.

Sovereign, from sovrano, It., supernus, above, Lat. ; better spelt sovran.

Squadron, from escadron, Fr., quadratus,

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square, Lat.

Succinct, from succinctus, tucked up (for freedom of motion), Lat. ; hence swift, short.

Trumpery, from tromperie, deceit, Fr. =showy worthlessness.

Van, from avant, before, Fr.=first line (of an army).

Welter, from volutare, to roll, Lat. = wallow, be bathed.

Cousin, from consanguinens, of the same blood, Derivatives. Lat.

German (in cousin-german), from germanus, kindred, Lat.



A sentence.

A Sentence is a complete thought expressed in words arranged according to the rules of Grammar.

In grammatical analysis, sentences are called Propositions.

Every Proposition is either an affirmative or negative assertion; as, The sun shines; The house is not inhabited; Virtue is happiness; The compact is broken.


“ Weak is the will of man, his judgment blind;
Remembrance persecutes, and hope betrays."


Age cannot wither her, nor custom stale
Her infinite variety.”—Antony and Cleopatra.


Every proposition consists at least of two terms, the Subject and Predicate, and a connecting element called the Copula.

Terms (terminus =a limit, Lat.) are so called because they serve to define or limit the proposition; as, sun and shines, virtue and happiness, in the above propositions.

The Subject (subjectus =lying under, Lat.) is the person or thing of which we assert or deny something; as, sun, house, virtue, compact, in the above propositions.



The Predicate (prædicatus =proclaimed, Lat.) Analysis. is what we assert or deny of the subject.

The predicate shows either what the subject does, what is done to it, or what it is; as, shines, broken, happiness, in the above propositions.

The Copula (copula=a bond, Lat.) serves to Copula. connect the subject and predicate together; as, is, in Virtue is happiness, The compact is broken.

In the proposition The sun shines, the copula is not expressed by a separate word, as it is in the equivalent sentence, The sun is shining. In the sentence The sun shines, the copula and predicate are both expressed by the same word, shines; the copula being the grammatical inflection s.

The copula is expressed by a separate word in those propositions only where the auxiliary verb to be is used ; as, The sun is shining; or in interrogatory and negative sentences where the auxiliary verb do is used; as, Does the sun shine ? The sun does not shine. The simplest form of a proposition is that in Simple pro

position. which only subject and predicate are expressed, the copula being contained in the grammatical inflection of the verb (if any): as, men walk; birds fly; or where the subject, predicate, and copula, are expressed without any qualifying words; as, life is sweet; death is inevitable. “ The ship was cheered, the harbour cleared.”


“ Cities were built, societies were made."-POPE.


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