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PERU is a country in South America, situated between cannot land on these shores, as they are exposed to a very 3° 30' and 21° 28' s. lat., and between 65° and 81° 20' W. heavy swell from the Pacific, forming a dangerous suri, long: On the west it is washed by the Pacific; and on the which can only be passed in favourable weather by boats. south and south-east it borders on Bolivia. The boundary- | Landing in most places can only be effected by balsas. In all line between these states, at ihe most southern point of this extent of coast, fresh water can only be got at ihree places, Peru, is formed by the small river Loa (21° 28' S. lat.): it the rivers Loa and Pisagua, and at Arica. The water of the follows the course of this river for several miles, when it river Loa is extremely bad. The water of the Rio Pisagua turns eastward till it reaches the western edge of the Andes. is good, but the river is dry nine months in the year, and It follows this edge northward to the mountain-pass of the water obtained from the wells is bad. At Árica the Gualillas (17° 50' S. lat.), whence it runs northward across water is excellent. The only harbour is that of Iquique, the plain of the lake of Titicaca to the southern extremity which is formed by a low island, the largest that occurs of that lake. It traverses the lake in a northern direction, along this coast. Between it and the town is good anchorage which it preserves till it reaches the eastern chain of the in eleven fathoms. The harbour of Arica, which lies at the Bolivian Andes, near 15° S. lat. It follows this chain for northern extremity of this coast-line, is also formed by a low some distance, and then runs along the lateral range which island, called Huans, on the northern side of which there branches off in an east-north-east direction between the is good anchorage. A mole runs out into the sea, which river Tuche, an aflluent of the Beni, and some rivers which enables boats to lie quietly while loading or discharging: are supposed to fall into the.Purus. From the mouth of From Arica (18° 28' S. lat.) to Point Carreta (14° 10'), a the river Tuche, the boundary-line between Peru and Bo- distance of more than 460 miles, the coast lies east-southlivia runs along the Rio Beni to its junction with the Gua- east and west-north-west. Where the cliffs come close to poré, by which the river Madera is formed. At this point the sea, they rise from 50 to 300 feet above it, and the waves commences the boundary-line between Peru and Brazil.. in some places break with great violence along the shore. This line follows the Madera river to go 30'S. lat. : it Even the sandy beach is frequently interrupted by low prostretches westward along this parallel to the river Yavari, jecting cliffs, but the soundings are in general regular. The the course of which river, up to its junction with the Ama- projecting points are usually too short and too far from one zonas, forms the remainder of the boundary between Peru another to form safe anchorages and to break the swell of and Brazil. The Amazonas is the boundary between Peru the sea. Towards Point Carreta a few inlets occur, which and Ecuador, from its junction with the Yavari to the town form good harbours, though even here the landing in boats of S. Juan de Brancamoros, south of which place the river is generally difficult and sometimes impracticable. Fresh Chinchupe falls into the Amazonas. The Chinchupe sepa- water is much more abundant, and may be got in several rates both countries as far as its source, from which the places. The first harbour which occurs, after leaving Arica, dividing line passes over the Andes to the Rio Tumbez, is that of Islay, the port of Arequipa. Cove Mollendo forwhich falls into the Gulf of Guayaquil, in 3° 30' S. lat. merly served for that purpose, but it has so changed, that

The length of this country from south to north, along at present it only admits boats, or very small coasting vesthe meridian of 70°, is above 1150 miles, but its width varies sels. Port Islay is formed by a few straggling islands greatly. South of 17° S. lat. it hardly exceeds 30 miles, which lie off Point Islay, and is capable of containing twenty whilst near 10° S. lat, it is more than 650 miles wide. Its

or twenty-five vessels. The anchorage is good, but the area, according to a rough estimate, considerably exceeds landing extremely difficult, and at the full of the moon it is 500,000 square miles, being about two and a half times the sometimes impracticable for several days. Point Lomas, extent of France.

the port of Acari, lies farther west, and is an open roadstead, Coast and Harbours.-The coast-line is about 1500 miles but it has good anchorage in from five to fifteen fathoms, in length. In an extent of 1200 miles this coast forms only and tolerable landing. Some distance farther west there three straight lines, which meet at obtuse angles, and are not are two good harbours, S. Juan and S. Nicolas, with excelinterrupted by any large bays. The most southern line lent anchorage and tolerable landing; but the country about runs south and north, the central line runs nearly south- them is sterile and uninhabited. Farther west is the Bay east and north-west, and the northern line runs north- of Independencia, which lies between Cape Quemada and north-west. The most northern and most projecting por- Cape Carreta, and is protected towards the sea by two islands, tion of the coast is broken by bays and by headlands. Santa Rosa and Santa Vieja, of which the latter rises to a

The southern coast-line, which runs south and north, considerable elevation. It extends 15 miles from south-east extends from the mouth of the river Loa (21° 28' S. lat.) to to north-west, and is about 3.} miles broad. There is an. the harbour of Arica (18° 28' S. lat.), a distance of 210 chorage in all parts of this spacious bay, the bottom being miles. The whole of this line consists of rocky cliffs, quite regular in about 20 fathoms. It may be entered from rarely low, and occasionally several hundred feet high. In the south by the Strait of Serrate, between the island of a few spots a sandy beach lies between the cliffs and the Santa Rosa and Cape Quemadla, which is three-quarters of a

The projecting points seldom extend a mile from the mile wide, or by the wide opening at the north-western exmainland, and in no case more than two. They also form tremity, which is called Dardo, and is five miles across beright angles with the coast, and as they occur only at tween the island of Vieja and Cape Carreta. As the country distances of 10, 15, or 20 miles, they afford no shelter to surrounding this bay is very thinly inhabited, it is rarely vessels. A few small rocks lie off the coast, but they are visited by vessels. low and too small to protect vessels which anchor between The coast from Cape Carreta (14° 10' S. lat.) to the roadthem and the shores. The soundings are irregular. Boats stead of Lambayeque (6° 46' S. lat.), a distance of about P. C., No. 1103.



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