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TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.

THE volume now offered to the members of the Cavendish Society is the first part of a translation of Gmelin's “Handbuch der Chemie," comprising the General Laws of Chemical Action, and the Chemical Relations of Light, Heat, and Electricity. The publication of the last edition of this Great Standard Work was commenced by the author in 1843,-since which time, these branches of science have been enriched by many important discoveries. A full account of the whole of these researches would have extended the volume to too great a length; I have therefore contented myself with introducing the most important. The principal additions relate to the following subjects;—Relation between Atomic Weight and Density;—Relation of Light to Magnetism; the Calotype Process; Thermography;-Radiation and Conduction of Heat; Expansion; Specific Heat; Latent Heat of Liquids and of Vapours; Tension of Vapours: Liquefaction and Solidification of Gases; Development of Heat iủ Chomical Combination; Decomposition of Water by: Heat;Development of Electricity by the escape of High-pressure steam; Grove's Gas Voltaic Battery; and the Magnetic Condition of 31 Matter.--- Additions have likewise been made to the lists of Memoirs at the heads of the chapters. The new matter is kept quite distinct from the original; more complete incorporation would have required alterations in the text, which a translator is by no means justified in making.

A few words are necessary with regard to nomenclature. In the portion of the work included in the present volume,-relating principally to physical science, it has been the Author's practice rather to copy or translate the terms used by the different writers from whose works or memoirs he has borrowed, than to adopt a strictly systematic nomenclature. A similar course is, for the most part, pursued in the translation,-retaining, for example, the ordinary terms, sulphuret and phosphuret, instead of the inore systematic appellations, sulphide and phosphide, proposed by Professors Graham and Hofmann. It is true that this mode of pro

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TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.

ceeding renders the nomenclature adopted in the present volume somewhat different from that which will be employed in the sequel: but the differences thereby occasioned are not likely to create confusion, especially as the nomenclature to be used in the remainder of the work will be fully explained in the course of the second volume.

The names of several of the elements in the original are somewhat different from those in common use; for instance, the ordinary terms Magnesium, Aluminum, and Glucinum, are, for the sake of brevity, replaced by Magnium, Alumium, and Glycium. These alterations it is impossible to retain in an English translation; for the adoption of them would render it necessary to substitute the corresponding terms Magnia, Alumia, and Glycia, for Magnesia, Alumina, and Glucina, -an alteration which we are scarcely at liberty to make, especially with words of such common occurrence as magnesia and alumina. In German, the same difficulty does not occur: for the names of the three oxides in question are totally different in form from those of the corresponding metals, viz. Talkerde for magnesia, Thonerde for alumina, and Beryllerde for glucina.

The decimal pelglts: ärid peasmes employed in the original have been retained in.jhe translation. If it should be thought necessary, in any particátar nätapice to ascertain the equivalent values in the English.Systein, the required data will be found in a table near the beginnings of the work (p. ix). For the most part, however, such reductions may be entirely dispensed with: for scientific chemistry is more concerned with relative than with absolute magnitudes; and therefore, the particular unit or mode of subdivision adopted is unimportant, except in so far as convenience and simplicity are concerned; and in these respects, the decimal system is incomparably superior to every other. In some few instances, in which absolute magnitudes are of special importance, the English equivalents are given in addition to the original data in the decimal system.

H. W. University College, December, 1848.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS WORK.

Crell, chem. J. signifies: Chemisches Journal, von Dr. Lorenz Crell.

Lemgo. 1778–1781. 6 Parts. Crell, N. Entd.—Die neuesten Entdeckungen in der Chemie, von Dr.

Lorenz Crell. Leipzig. 1781-1784. 12 Parts. Crell, Ann.—Chemische Annalen, von Dr. Lorenz Crell. Hemst and

Leipzig. 1784–1804. 40 Volumes. Voigt N. Mag.-Magazin für den neuesten Zustand der Naturkunde, von

Joh. Heinr. Voigt. Jena, Weimar. 1797–1806. 12 Vol. Gren, A. J.—Journal der Physik, von F. A. C. Gren. Halle and Leipzig.

1790_1794. 8 Vol Gren, N. J.-Neues Journal der Physik, von F. A.C. Gren. Leipzig.

1795–97. 4 Vol. Gilb.-Annalen der Physik; edited by L. W. Gilbert. Halle. 1799–

1824. 76 Vol. Pogg.-Annalen der Physik und Chemie, von Poggendorf. Leipzig.

1824-1827. 72 Vol. Scher. J.-Allgemeines Journal der Chemie; edited by Dr. Al. Nic.

Scherer. Leipzig. 1799–1803. 10 Vol. Scher. N. Bel.-Nordische Blätter für die Chemie, von Al. Nic. Scherer.

Halle. 1817. i Vol. Scher. N. Ann.-Allgemeine Nordische Annalen für die Chemie, von Al.

Nic. Scherer. Petersburg. 1819–1822. 8 Vol. A. Gehl.-Neues allgemeines Journal der Chemie; edited by A. F. Gehlen.

Berlin. 1803–1805, 6 Vol. N. Gehl. Journal für die Chemie und Physik; edited by Dr. A. F.

Gehlen. Berlin; also, Journal für die Chemie, Physik, und Minera

logie; edited by Dr. A. F. Gehlen. Berlin. 1806-1810. 9 Vol. Schw. Journal für Chemie und Physik; edited by Dr. J. S. C. Schweig

ger. Nürnberg, Halle. 1811-1833. 69 Vol. J. techn. Chem.-Journal für technische und ökonomische Chemie, von 0.

L. Erdman. 1828–33. 18 Vol. J. pr. Chem.—Journal für praktische Chemie von 0. L. Erdmann, up to

1836 with Schweigger-Seiddel, after 1839 with R. F. Marchand.

1834-47. 42 Vol. Continued. A. Tr.—Journal der Pharmacie, von Joh. Barthol. Trommsdorff. Leipzig.

1794–1816. 25 Vol. N. I'r.-Neues Journal der Pharmacie, von. Joh. Barthol. Trommsdorf

Leipzig. 1817–34. 27 Vol. Taschenb. --Taschenbuch für Scheidekünstler und Apotheker. Weimar.

1780—1829. 50 Vol. Berl. Jahrb.-Berlinisches Jahrbuch der Pharmacie. Berlin. 1795

1841. 45 Vol. Continued. Repert.-Repertorium für die Pharmacie, von Buchner (the first volume

by Gehlen). Erlangen. 1815-42.76 Vol. Continued. Br. Arch.--Archiv. des Apothekervereins im nördlichen Deutschland, von Rud. Brandes. 1822-31. 39 Vol.

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N. Br. Arch.-Archiv. der Pharmacie des Apothekervereins im nördlichen

Deutschland, von Rud. Brandes. Second Series. 1835–1842. 32

Vol. Continued.
Mag. Pharm.—Magazin der Pharmacie; edited first by Hänle, afterwards

by Geiger. Karlsruhe. 1823–31. 36 Vol.
Ann. Pharm.-Annalen der Pharmacie; by Liebig, and occasionally also

by Geiger, Brandes, Trommsdorff, Merk, Mohr; since 1838 compiled
by Liebig and Wöhler, and since 1840, together with Vol. 33, under
the title: Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie von Frederich Wöhler
und Justus Liebig. Altogether from 1832—1847. 64 Vol. Con-

tinued.
Kastn. Archiv.Archiv. für die gesammte Naturlehre, von K. W. G.

Kastner. Erlangen. From 1830, together with the 19th Vol.,
under the title: Ărchiv. für Chemie und Meteorologie, von K. W. G.

Kastner. Erlangen. Altogether from 1824—1835. 27 Vol.
Zeitschr. Phys. Math.-Zeitschrift für Physik und Mathematik, von

Baumgartner und Ettinghausen. Wien. 1826-31. 10 Vol. Zeitschr. Phys. v. W.—Zeitschrift für Physik und verwandte Wissen

schaften, von Baumgarten (since 1837 by Holger). Wien. 1832—

1840. 6 Vol. Continued. J. Phys.Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d'Histoire Naturelle et des

Arts. Par Rozier, Delametherie -Ducrotay de Blainville. Paris.

1771-1823. 96 Vol. Mem. d Arcueil.--Mémoires de Physique et de Chimie de la Société d'Ar

cueil. Paris. 1807-17. 3 Vol. Ann. Chim.-Annales de Chimie, ou Recueil de Mémoires concernant la

Chimie et les Arts qui en dependent, et spécialement la Pharmacie.

Paris. 1781-1815. 96 Vol.
Ann. Chim. Phys.-Annales de Chimie et Physique. Par MM. Gay-

Lussac et Arago. Paris. 1816-40. 75 Vol.
N. Ann. Chim. Phys.-Annales de Chimie et Physique, par Gay-Lussac,
Arago, Dumas, Pelouze, Boussingault, et Regnault

. Troisième Série.
Paris. 1841-47. 21 Vol. Continued.
J. Polyt.-Journal de l'Ecole Polytechnique. Paris. 1797. 22 Parts.
Ann. du Mus.-Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris. 1802

-1813. 20 Vol.
Mém. du Mus..Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris.

1815-32. 20 Vol. N. Ann. du Mus.-Nouvelles Annales du Musée d'Histoire Naturelle.

1832-35. 4 Vol. Bibl. brit.-Bibliothèque britannique, Sciences et Arts. Genève.

Genève. 1796 -1815. 60 Vol. Bibl. univ.-Bibliothèque universelle. Sciences et Arts. Genève.

1816-35. 60 Vol. N. Bibl. univ.-Bibliothèque universelle de Genève. Nouvelle Série.

1836-42. 42 Vol.
Bull. philom.-Bulletin (and Nouveau Bulletin) des Sciences, par la

Société philomatique de Paris.
J. Mines.-Journal des Mines. Paris. 1794–1815. 38 Vol.
Ann. Mines.-Annales des Mines. Paris. Première Série. 1816–26.

13 Vol. —Deuxième Série. 1827-30. 8 Vol.-Troisième Série.

1832–41. 20 Vol. -Quatrième Série. 1842. 2 Vol. Bull. Pharm.—Bulletin de Pharmacie, par Cadet, Planche, Boullay, &c.

Paris. 1809–14. 6 Vol.

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