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Not content with the great fuccefs which the practice of inoculation hath met with against the Small-pox in most parts of Europe, the Author of this letter is for eradicating that terrible diforder entirely. He is indeed by no means of opinion, with most of the faculty, that this distemper is a neceflary evil to which almost every perfon is naturally liable. He is far from thinking it proceeds from a germe, or a virus, lodged in the blood, and which we bring with us into the world. According to Dr. Cafimir, the variolous fever is produced by the fame caufes as produce every other inflammatory fever; and nothing more is neceffary, to prevent the inflammation from breaking out in pustules, than to reduce the fever in the first inftance. If the puftules appear to come to a head, fays he, it is because we do every thing to favour their eruption, inftead of checking it. Our Author is not the first phyfician by many, who hath entertained this notion of the Small-pox; Dr. Kraufe of Leipfick, published a treatise on the fame subject, but a very little while ago. This notion, however, appears to gain but little ground; and, indeed, it is to be apprehended that the advocates for it will never have a fair opportunity of putting it to the test of experience; especially fince the progrefs of inoculation hath given fuch convincing proofs of its being a fafe and eafy method of paffing through this horrid diftemper, in permitting the fever to come to a crifis by the fuppuration of the puftules. There is another circumftance alfo attending this notion, which cannot fail to have a bad effect on the patient, who, in fubmiuing to be, inoculated, conceives he sh 11 for ever after be freed from the diforder whereas if the Small-rox be only a common inflammatory fever, no reafon can be given why he should not be liable to the fame fever again; as well as to other inflammatory disorders. This objection it feems ftared our good Doctor so trongly in the face, that, in order to obviate its force, he is obliged to admit the fact, and own that there are many people who have had the Small pox feveral times. He does admit, however, that in fuch cafes it generally comes under the dif guife of the meafles, the fcarlet fever, &c. As a proof of this, he prefcribes a method, by which a phyfician may convert the measles into the Small-pox, at any time, if the patient chufe it.We cannot here enter into a controverfy about any thing our Author hath advanced; but we greatly fear, that, fuppofing him to be in the right, his remedy would, like many others, prove as bad as the difeafe.
Art. 3. Ratio facilis atque tuta Nafium curandi Polypos, &c. An eafy and fafe Method of curing the Polypus in the Nofe. 8vo. Vienna. 1763.
Mr. Pallucci, the ingenious Author of this little treatise, conceives that the Polypus in the Nofe is not an expanfion of the pituitary membrane, as has been fuppoled by fome; because there is no mark in it of any a flir et organization It is formed, fays he, of a concretion of the blood, that oozes out after violent bleedings at the nole. As a proof of this, he relates, that having extirpated a Polypus, and stopping the hemorrhage that fue eeded too precipitately, another formed itself in a few days exactly like the former; and which, being taken out and put into warm wa er, diffolved away. His method of extirpating thefe difagreeable concretions is fomewhat different from those usual y
practifed, and feems to be an improvement: but we cannot enter here into the particulars of the operation.
Art. 4. Defcriptio Novi Inftrumenti pro Curâ Cataracta, &c. 8vo.
The Description of a New Inftrument for the Cure of the
The Inftrument here described is invented by Mr. Pallucci, (Author of the preceeding article on the Polypus) and appears, by the account given of it, to be well calculated for its intended ufe. The description of the inftrument is introduced by fome interesting obfervations on the Cataract itself. He remarks in particular that a true cataract has often been produced in a few days, by gently rubbing the chryftaline humour of the eyes of fome animals; whence he concludes that the feat of the diforder lies between the Chryftaline and the membranes inclosing it; or folely in those membranes, without the lens being at all affected. On the whole, he thinks it much better to deprefs Cataracts than to extract them; a conclufion in which he is fupported by the extensive experience of the celebrated M. Daviel; who hath cured more by the former method than the latter.
Art. 5. Memoire fur une Question Anatomique, relative a Jurifpru-
A Differtation on a certain anatomical Question, respecting a Point of Law; in which are laid down the Principles for determining, in cafes of Murder, the Marks of Suicide from thofe of Affaffination, upon Infpection of the dead body. By M. Louis, of the Royal Academy of Surgery.
This is a well defigned and interefting little tract, we wish we could fay a fatisfactory one. But the fubject of which it treats, is no less important than difficult. It was written upon occafion of the fuicide of Marc. Anth. Calas, for whofe fuppofed murder his unhappy father was executed; his judges being greatly influenced by the depofitions of the phyfician and furgeon who infpected the dead body. Mr. Louis very judiciously and humanely obferves on this head, how very cautious gentlemen of the faculty fhould be, in trufting to equivocal appearances on fuch occafions.
Par M. l'Abbé
Art. 6. Leçons de Phyfique Experimentale.
This volume, being the fixth, of thefe lectures, contains four others never before published; the first on the motions of the planets and the phenomena refulting therefrom: the fcond on the properties of the loadilone; and the two laft on natural and artificial electricity. In the latter, our ingenious Experimentalift endeavours to reduce all the phenomena of electric ty to his hypothesis of, what he calls, the effluent and afunt currents of electric matter.
Art. 7. Hiftoire Naturelle, Generale et Particuliere, avec la Defeription du Cabinet du Roi. Tom X. Paris. 1763.
The Natural History and Description of the Curiofities in the Royal Cabinet.
There are two volumes of this celebrated work, viz. the 10th and th, lately published; The former, however, is as yet only come to hand; and in this, we have the history and defcription of twenty foreign quadrupeds; diftinguished in this work by the following names, the Oudatra, the Defman, the Pecari, or the Tajacu, the Roulette, the Raugette, the Vampire, the Polatouche, the Petit-gris, the Palmifte, the Barbarifque, and the Suiffe; the Tamanoir, the Tamandua, and the Fourmillier; the Pangolin, and the Phatagin; the Talous, the Paca, the Sarigue or Opoffum, the Marmose, and the Cayopollin. We need not acquaint the Reader with the obvious impoffibility of our being particular on fuch a work as this; we cannot difmifs it, however, without inferting the following reflections of Mr. de Buffon, refpecting the nature of quadrupeds in general.
When we speak of a quadruped, the name alone feems to import an animal covered with hair; juft as when we speak of birds or of fifhes, their wings and their fcales prefent themselves to our imagination, as infeparable from their very being. But nature is fo little açcordant with our ideas, that the feems to delight in contradicting our molt general fyftems; allonishing us even more by her exceptions than her laws. Quadrupeds may be ranked, after the human fpecies, in the first clafs of animals; they are not fuperior nevertheless to all others in every refpect, nor diftinguished from them by invariable qualities. Their first characteristic from which they are denominated, viz. their having four legs, is common alfo to lizards, frogs, &c. which are fo dillimilar to quadrupeds, however, in other refpects, that they are juftly diftinguifhed as a feparate clafs of beings. Their fecond general property is that of being viviparous; but this belongs not exclufively to quadrupeds; as it is equally common to all cetaceous animals. Their third general property of being covered with hair, which feems fill lefs equivocal, as it is the most apparent, is incompatible with the two former properties in many fpecies of animals; which neverthelefs cannot be feparated from the order of quadrupeds; for if we except this fingle quality, they refemble that order in all others. But as thefe apparent exceptions to the rules of nature are, in reality, only the thades of difference which the employs to unite beings, the most diftant in other refpects from each other, we should never lofe fight of these fingu lar relations, but endeavour to obferve them accurately whenever they prefent themselves. The Tatous, inftead of being covered with hair, have fhells like tortoifes, lobsters, and other cruftaceous animals. The Pangolin is covered with scales, resembling thofe of fish. Again, porcupines are armed with pointed quills without feathers, but the quil itself exly refembles thofe of birds. Thus we fee that, in the class of quadrupeds alone, and even in the most general and obvious property of fuch animals, Nature hath diverfified her defigns, in approaching three other elaffes very different; viz. birds, fcale fish, and fheilfif
It is for this reafon, continues Mr. de Buffon, that Naturalifts fhould be cautious of arranging animals, from one fingie characteristick or pro, perty, which they will ever find defective. Nay, he obferves, that fometimes even two or three very general ones are infufficient to this end; it being only by an union of all their properties, that we can judge of the effential forms or characteristics of any of the productions of nature.
Art. 8. Opufcules Mathematiques. 4to. Paris. 4to. Paris. 1764. Mathematical Mifcellanies. By Mr. d'Alembert. Vol. 3.
The principal object of this third volume of M. d'Alembert's Mifcellanies, is the improvement of Telescopes. To this end he hath folved a number of ingenious problems; to which the opticians have hitherto paid too little attention. He treats particularly on the influer.ce which the thickness of the glaffes hath on the aberration of the focus, and of the means of remedying. fuch defect: of the means of rendering the total effect of combined aberrations as little as poffible: of the ftruc- ' ture of the eye; on the proportion which the eye-glafs and aperture fhould bear to the object-glais, at any given aberration how small foever: of the means of diminishing, as much as poffible, that fall aberration which remains after the greater part is annihilated: of the conftruction of microfcopes, profpe&t-glaffes, &c. concluding the whole with fome judicious reflections on the laws of refraction in genera!.
Art. 9. Mufaum S. R. M. Ludovica Ulrica Reginæ Suæcorum, &c.
A Description of the curious Animals, Infects, Shells, &c. contained in the Royal Cabinet of Curiofities, belonging to the Queen of Sweden. By M. Linnæus. 8vo. Stockholm, 1764.
The Mufæum, whose contents are here defcribed, is Gtuated at Drotningholm, and is elleemed one of the finest collections of natural curiofities in Europe. In the prefent volume M. Linnæas gives a defcription only of the infects and fhells. He thought it most expedient to begin with the former, as being the leaft durable of this kind of curiofities.
To this work is alfo added an extract from the Continuation of the Defcription of the King's Cabinet of Curiofities; the firft volume of which was published in the year 1754, in large fo io, with elegant plates. In this extract from the fecond volume, which is faid to be now preparing for the prefs, is given a defcription of many curious birds; and fome amphibious animals extremely rare; as alio of the feveral kinds of fish in the Nile, collected on the fpot by Dr. Haffelquist. On the whole, the curious Naturalift will meet with a variety of entertainment in this volume.
Art. 10. Lettera di Domenico Vandelli al celebre Sig. Dottore Carle Gandini in Genova. 8vo. Genoa. 1764.
An Epiftle from Mr. Vandelli to Dr. Gandini, of Genoa.
Among other curious topics that are very curforily treated of in this epiftle, the Writer informs his correfpondent of a learned friend's affur, ing him, from Vienna, that the famous remedy newly revived there, by Nn3
Dr. Storcke, viz. bemleck, has been publickly tried, and without fuccefs, in above an hundred and twenty cafes. As this, however, is only a fecond-hand kind of information, it may poffibly not appear of fufficient weight, to deter the many poifon-dealers which Dr. Storcke has fet to work in thefe and the neighbouring kingdoms, from the very exceptionable occupation of making fuch dangerous experiments. But it is confirmed from other quarters; and indeed were it not fo, if we turn to our pharmacopeias, we fhall find no fuch dearth in the Materia Medica, as to warrant this application to violent remedies.
Art. 11. Elementa Metaphyfice Mathematicum, in morem adornata, &c. 5 Vol. 5 Vol. 8vo. Naples. 1763. The Elements of Metaphyfics, digefted into Geometrical Order. By Antonio Genovefi, Profefior of Moral Philofophy in the Royal Academy at Naples.
This work is divided into five parts, agreeably to the number of volumes. In the first the author undertakes to refute the doctrines of Fatalism; in the fecond Deifm; in the third Epicureanifm, and in the fourth Libertinifm. Volume the fifth, contains four differtations; the first on the origin and primitive ftate of things: the fecond, on the eternity of the world; in which the author attacks the Platonifts and Peripatetics; the third treats of the nature of God; and the fourth of the origin of Phyfical and Moral Evil,
Of the fubjects of the three firft of thefe differtations, it is impoffible for the author to know much; and on the fourth it appears he does not know a great deal. In treating this last, however, he gives a concife hiftory of the various fyftems of religion and irreligion that have prevailed in the world. He examines into the metaphysical fyftems of King and of Leibnitz; and is of opinion that they are very visionary, and at best mere paraphrafes of Ariftotle. We have no very great opinion, it is true, of the depth and folidity of this Writer; but we admire his courage, in daring to ftand up for the reputation of that immortal Genius, which has of late years been as unreasonably depreffed, as it was once ridiculously exalted. Our modern philofophers, mecha nics, and experimentalifts, may probably ftare at what we are going to affirm, because they never read Ariftotle, or at leaft not with fufficient attention to understand him; but we will venture to say that, if we except Lord Bacon, there never hath appeared a Genius for Phyfics, fince the days of Ariftotle, that hath been even capable of understanding the profound, and at the fame time, the fublime truths, contained in the Phyfics of that celebrated antient. We admit that he wanted innu. merable data that we are poffeffed of; and that therefore half the experiment mongers in London know more than Ariftotle. But what would they fay, if it should be fhewn that (among numerous inevitable errours, the effects of ignorance) the amazing genius of the Stagyrite fuggefted thofe principles which the difcoveries of fucceeding centuries ferve but to confirm? We are far from depreciating the labours of those who can do nothing more than make experiments, or by diot of conflant enquiry, ftumble on difcoveries: as far as they are accurate they are useful; but we cannot help admiring infinitely more that ia