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tending the observations of Kühne and Lea on the pancreas, MR. EDGAR R. WAITE, curator to the Leeds Philosophical r. Langley showed in an elaborate series of researches, ex

Society, has received from the Government of New South Wales nding over the salivary and most of the important secreting ands of the body, that the formation, as a morphological

the appointment of assistant curator in the Australian Museum ement within the secrering cell, at the expense of its pro

at Sydney, where he will have special charge of the reptile and plasm, of the material to be used in the secretion is a general fish sections. The Yorkshire Post says that at Leeds Mr. Waite nction of secreting cells. The dependence of this function has in many ways actively identified himself with local scientific on the activity of nerves, and upon other forms of excitation,

research and studies, having for some years been, in conjunction ch as the action of drugs, has been greatly elucidated in e course of these researches. Concurrently with the morpho

with Mr. Denison Roebuck, responsible for the secretarial work gical changes within the cells, the chemical changes which

-an honorary position of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, cur within the secretion as the result of nerve activity or in and also editor of the Naturalist. :tivity have been investigated, and many important facts ON November i an industrial school which seems likely to ought to light regarding the nature of the action or modifi.

be of good service was opened at Lucknow by Sir Auckland itions of ihe action which may be brought to bear upon the creting cell through the nervous system. These researches

Colvin. It is intended to provide a suitable education for re published partly in the Philosophical Transactions, and

children of the artizan class—an education which comprises irtly in a long series of articles in the Journal of Physiology, instruction in reading and writing, arithmetic, elementary hich have extended over several years. It is not too much to

mechanics, physics, and drawing, the whole being in subordinay that these researches of Mr. Langley upon secreting glands ve him a claim to occupy the highest rank as a physiological

tion to manual training in the workshop, under skilled instrucIvestigator.

tors. Manual training will for the present be confined to The other most important researches which Mr. Langley has carpentry, but ultimately training in iron and other metal work ablished have been-(1.) Upon the central nervous system, will be added to the curriculum. Drawing will be taught to Icluding especially an investigation into the anatomical changes every pupil from the outset. hich result from central lesions ; (2.) Upon the sympathetic nerous system, and particularly a number of researches, based

VARIOUS members of the department of biology in connection pon physiological methods, into its peripheral distribution to with Columbia College, New York, are now delivering lectures voluntary muscle and glands... Mr. Langley's eminence in which are addressed especially to persons who, desire to keep ose branches of physiology to which he has mainly devoted his

abreast of the later advances in biology without entering any of ttention is universally admitted, and has been publicly recog. ized by his having been requested more than once by inter

the technical courses. The subjects of the lectures are the hisational assemblies of physiologists to investigate and report on

tory of the theory of evolution ; the cellular basis of heredity and ifficult cases submitted to them (vide Transactions of the development ; the origin and evolution of fishes; and Amphiternational Medical Congress," 1881, and “ Proceedings of oxus and other ancestors of the vertebrates. le Physiologica! Congress at Basel,” 1890). Prof. François Marie Raoull, of Grenoble (DAVY MEDAL).

The so-called “ Boxing Kangaroo” now being exhibited at

the Westminster Aquarium is a fine male of Macropus giginleus For his researches on the freezing points of solutions and on le vapour pressures of solutions.

There is, no doubt, a certain amount of humbug in attributing Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, F.R.S. (DARWIN MEDAL).

"boxing" qualities to this animal, but it is very interesting to Although the regulations relating to the award of this medal

find that a member of the low Mammalian order, Marsupialia," irect that it is to be treated rather as a means of encouraging

can be so well trained and instructed. Dung naturalists to fresh exertion than as a reward for the life.

The weather during the past week has remained very dull in ing labours of the veteran, there would seem to be a special ppropriateness in awarding it to one who was intimately

all parts of the country, with occasional fog in London and other ssociated with Mr. Darwin in the preparation of

places, while some heavy rain has fallen in the north and west. je “Origin of Species.” That no one was more closely | The anticyclone which for some time past nad

The anticyclone which for some time past had been situated over ssociated than Sir J. D. Hooker with Mr. Darwin in the the eastern portion of the United Kingdom gradually dispersed ork is abundantly proved by the following passage in the and the distribution of pressure became favourable to the passage ttroduction to the Origin of Species” :-"I cannot, however, t this opportunity pass without expressing my deep obliga.

of cyclonic disturbances across the country. Towards the close ons to Dr. Hooker, who, for the last fifteen years (1844-59),

of the period an area of very high pressure formed to the southis aided me in every possible way by his large stores of know

ward of our islands, the barometer reading 30.5 ins. and upwards, dge and his excellent judgment."

while to the north of Scotland it was more than an inch -

lower. Under these conditions strong westerly winds became NOTES.

general, and gales were experienced on our exposed coasts. MR. W. FLINDERS PETRIE has been appointed to the chair Temperature was at first mild and very uniform over the whole

Egyptology, founded at University College, London, under country, there being generally little difference between the day e will of the late Miss Amelia B. Edwards. He hopes to and night readings, while the air was very damp. On Tuesday, gin bis new duties soon after Christmas, and to undertake the | however, the thermometer fell several degrees, with some snow lowing work :-(1) Lectures on current discoveries, on history, and hail in Scotland and Ireland. The Weekly Weather Report d on the systematic study of Egyptian antiquities ; (2) lessons shows that for the period ending November 26 rainfall was the language and philology of Egypt ; (3) attendance in the deficient in all parts of the country except the south of Ireland, rary on fixed days for the assistance and direction of students where more than twice the average amount sell. Bright sunshine

king there ; (4) practical training on excavations in Egypt. was considerably below the mean in all districts, except in the The American Philosophical Society, as we have already north of Scotland, where there was 22 per cent. of the possible ted, proposes to celebrate next year the one hundred and amount, while the Channel Islands had 16 per cent. It ranged ieth anniversary of its foundation. It has now been arranged from 3 per cent. in the south-west of England (where the amount it reunions will be held at the Hall of the Society in Phila- quoted for the previous week should have been 20) and midland phia from May 22 to 26, 1893, "at which papers may be counties, to i in the east of England and less than o'5 in the ured by title by such delegates as may honour the Society with north-east of England. ir presence."

On the 18th ult. Captain H. Toynbee, late Marine Superinl'he foundation stone of the new buildings of the Durham tendent of the Meteorological Office, delivered a lecture before llege of Science, Newcastle, will be laid by Lord Durham on the Shipmasters' Society on “Weather Forecasting for the Inday, December 5.

British Islands." The chief object of the lecture was to explain how a careful observer in the British Islands may form a good two or three feet in diameter connects one room with anche judgment of the coming weather. The lecturer showed, with

and a small orifice in the ceiling gives access to the room aber the aid of diagrams, the tracks followed by storm centres, with

The openings in the ceilings are never directly under ote 2 reference to the conditions of areas of low and high pressure. other, so that any one who might stumble could only fal : The reason why storms usually proceed in a north-easterly direc. | height of one story. The foors are mostly of flat stones 2 tion across or skirting these islands was explained as owing to ported on timber cut from the surrounding mountains. Vir the high barometer generally to be found in the Atlantic in the of the timbers are still sound. The rooms all show consiz vicinity of the Azores, while in the neighbourhood of Iceland

able skill in their construction. Those in the rear are dari there is a region where the barometer is generally lower dungeon-like caves hollowed from the solid rock, and are no than in the space surrounding it. The storms generally advance

the abode of thousands of bats, which fly about in great so as to leave the low pressure on their left, and the high pressure bers when disturbed by visitors. A few miles above Me on their right-moving round the south and east sides of the

zuma's castle, on the opposite bank of the creek, a conspicza prevailing low pressure. Considerable stress was laid upon the

cone-like mountain rises a few hundred feet above the surros importance of observing the cirrus clouds, the different motions

ing country. The summit is a narrow rim enclosing a ce of which, in conjunction with the indications of the barometer,

some three hundred feet in diameter and with nearly pera are useful guides both as to the approach of a storm and the

dicular walls. Standing on the rim one can look down track along which the centre is moving. Several illustrations of

hundred feet upon the dark-blue water of a small lake it these facts were given by the lecturer, who also gave many

bosom of the mountain. The lake, a hundred yards in diane. valuable hints as to what may be learnt from the published

and of unknown depth, is known as Montezuma's well daily weather charts.

the steep sides of the crater are a number of caves, whicho The Leeds Naturalists' Club seems to be in no hurry about one time were the abode of man. A few are natural, but a the publication of its Transactions, those for the year 1890 having greater number are the result of human effort. The rio i only just been issued. The volume, however, has been prepared crowned with the fallen walls of an ancient ruin more than with great care, and shows that much good work is being done hundred feet long. Far down the mountain-side, below by the Club. Among the contents is a most interesting abstract level of the water in the crater, the outlet of the well flows irat of a lecture by the Rev. Edward Jones on relics found in York between an opening in the rocks. This stream is large at shire caves. Reference was made to the cave at Kirkdale, near constant, and at present is used to irrigate a ranch in the vaz York, and the Victoria Cave of Settle, both of which have been below. Ages ago the builders of caves and castles utilized by well worked and have given valuable results ; but attention was same stream to irrigate portions of the neighbouring directed mainly to the cave found at Elbolton or Thorp, which

valley. is situated ten miles north of Skipton and two miles from Grass

The fourth volume of “Reports from the Laboratory ington. Through the energy of the president and members of

the Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh,” edited by !. I the Skipton Natural History Society, this cave, which has been

Tuke and D. Noel Paton, has just been published. The sa handed over to them, has been worked with great earnestness,

completed in the Laboratory during the past year was so long and many bones have been turned up. Human remains, repre senting some thirteen bodies, have been found in an excellent

that an account of the whole of it could not be included is

present volume.
state of preservation. These human beings must have been
buried there, as they were all found in a sitting position, with

A LARGE dirigible balloon is being constructed (La Nort the knees brought under the chin. The cave, however, was not

informs us) at the military balloon works at Chalais-Mendri used only as a burial-place, for the remains of charcoal fires. | under the direction of Commandant Renard. It will be so burnt bones, and pieces of pottery have been found. At the

in form to the La France of 1884-5, but longer ; measen time when the lecture was delivered, the excavations had not

about 230 feet in length and 43 feet in its greatest diameter.. revealed anything older than the Neolithic period. Among the a new arrangement of motor it is expected to be able to me. finds are several specimens of bones of bears, red deer, foxes,

headway against air.currents not exceeding 40 feet per ses 1 dogs, badgers, grizzle and brown bears, &c. Some time after

(or 28 miles an hour). The motor is not fully described, but the delivery of the lecture the members of the Club made an ex

will act either with gasoline or the gas of the balloon, giviza cursion to this interesting cave, which was explored for a distance

effective force of 45 horse-power on the shaft. The total wat of a hundred seet, and to a vertical depth of thirty feet. The of machinery, with supply of gasoline, &c., will be aboc visitors saw many stalactites and stalagmites in course of forma- | kilogrammes (or 66 lbs.):per horse power. Previously tion, and the osseous remains of animals, including some now not been possible to make petroleum motors with a less we extinct. Mr. Jones pointed out the former location of several than 150 to 200 kilogrammes per horse-power. The screen human skeletons.

be in front, and a large rudder behind ; the former will sur

about 200 turns per minute. The first experiments wil MR. J. W. TOURNEY contributes to Science (November 11)

balloon are to be made in the early spring.
an excellent paper on cliff and cave dwellings in Central
Arizona. He refers especially to dwellings in cliffs rising a

DR. HEYDWEILER, of Würzburg, has constructed a ma| hundred feet or more above Beaver Creek, which flows into the mirror electrometer for high potentials (Zeitschr. fur dhum Verde river. In the perpendicular walls of one of these cliffs

It is a kind of torsion-balance with bifilar suspension * | is a well-preserved ruin known as Montezuma's castle. It is charged bodies being a sphere and a ring. The altra midway between the rim of the cliff and the bed of the stream, between the two, when at different potentials, is zero wb-1 and is neither house nor cave, but a combination of the two. sphere is at the centre of the ring, and also when it is Not accessible from the summit of the cliff, it can only be | removed. Hence at some intermediate distance it is a se reached from below, and even here not without the use of a mum. In the instrument as constructed there are two spire ladder, which, if short, the climber must pull up from one ledge of 2 cm. diameter attached to the ends of a conducting barte to another in making the ascent. The entire front is of artifi-| in the form of an S. The combination is suspended in 22 cial walls built of large, flat pieces of limestone, with openings zontal plane by two brass wires O'i mm. thick attached ? here and there for doors and windows. The rooms are small, middle of the bar. Two brass rings 10 cm. across are fuse only about five feet to the ceiling. Generally a small opening | vertical position such that the spheres can be made to cromo

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their centres. In the zero position the spheres are at a dis- / report he has tried to keep it as free as possible from technical e of 3.1cm., this being a little less than the distance of terms, and, without sacrificing scientific accuracy, to present mum attraction. The deflections are indicated by those of the facts in such a way as to make them intelligible to the rror carried by a thin glass rod attached to the curved arm largest possible number of readers in the region under conw, and the motion is damped by a vane immersed in some sideration. Many details which would be of interest to the table oil. The tangents of the angle of deflection are pro geologist have been purposely omitted, and only those which onal to the differences of potential to within o'9 per cent., | were considered essential are given. It is expected that the een the scale readings 0'05 and 0'4. The instrument is atlas sheets covering this region will shortly be published by adapted to potentials ranging from 6000 to 60,000 volts, but the U.S. Geological Survey, and supply the details to those potentials above 35,000 it is best to immerse it entirely in specially interested which are omitted from the report.

į A SECOND edition of Prof. Oliver J. Lodge's “Modern Views N account of a series of experiments to determine the tem of Electricity” has been published by Messrs. Macmillan and ture of the flame of water-gas is given by Mr. E. Blass, of Co. A new chapter on recent progress has been added. n, in Stahl und Eisen. The instruments employed were orgh's air pyrometer, Chatelier's electric pyrometer, Hart. |

A VOLUME on "The Pharmacy and Poison Laws of the A and Braun's telephonic pyrometer, and others by Siemens,

i United Kingdom” has been issued from the office of The Chemist Jer, and Ducretel. It was found that Chatelier's formula

and Druggist. It contains also a brief account of the pharmacy the variation of the specific heat of water vapour and other

laws in force in Australasia, Canada, and Cape Colony. s at high temperatures was practically reliable. The tem

MR. CHARLES E. Munroe, Torpedo Station, Newport, tures of combustion were taken for various proportions of

Rhode Island, U.S.A., has completed the manuscript of the and gas, beginning with a large excess of the latter. With

second part of his index to the literature of explosives. The 1 cubic metres of air to one of gas, the temperature was

first part was issued in 1886. The second will be issued in C. Calculated according to the old formula this would

pamphlet form if an adequate number of subscriptions is + been 521. Allowing for variation of specific heat, the

obtained. retical value becomes 409. For 0-714 of air, the temperawas 1170, for 4'18 it was 1218, for 9.79 it was 655, and for MESSRS. FRIEDLÄNDER AND SON, Berlin, send us the latest proportion of air just sufficient for combustion the flame of their lists of the books which they offer for sale. It is a list perature was 1169o.

of works relating to ornithology. NEW “shortened telescope," constructed by Dr. R. Stein- PENTA-IODIDE and penta-bromide of cæsium, together with is described in the Zeitschr. für Instr. for November. The several other penta-halogen compounds of the metals of the ciple resembles that adopted by Dallmeyer and Dr. A. Stein- alkalies containing mixed halogens, have been isolated by Messrs. in their telephotographic objectives. A negative system is Wells and Wheeler, and are described by them in the current duced between the object-glass and the eye-piece, thus in number of the Zeitschrift für Anorganische Chemie. Cæsium pentasing its equivalent focal length. If a be the focal length of iodide, Csis, is obtained in an impure form when the crystals of objective by itself, r its distance from the negative lens, and the tri-iodide of cæsium, Csig, previously obtained by Prof. magnification times that produced without the negative Wells and described in our note of February last, vol. xlv. p. , the total length of the tube is given by l=r+ m (a - r). 325, is treated with hot water, or when solid iodine is treated

telescope actually constructed on this system, the object with a hot solution of cæsium iodide. Either of these processes s had a focal length of 16*2 cm. Its distance from the produce it in the form of a black liquid, which solidifies in the 'est surface of the negative lens was 12 cm., the equivalent neighbourhood of 73o. The tri-iodide of cæsium, moreover, l length 60-8 cm., and the total length 27.8 cm. Hence the which is only sparingly soluble in alcohol, is found to be much nification was 3.75 times that obtained by using the objec more readily soluble when a quantity of iodine, corresponding to alone. In this case, then, a magnification of 22 diameters two atoms for each molecule of the tri-iodide, is added. Upon obtained with an effective aperture of 4 cm., a total length cooling, crystals of the penta-iodide of cæsium are deposited. 7.8 cm., and a one-inch eye-piece. If the same magnification Remarkably well-formed crystals are obtained upon evaporation illumination had to be obtained by a long-focus objective, of a more dilute solution over oil of vitriol. The crystals are ength would have to be 6,8 cm. Thus the length is reduced black and the faces extremely brilliant ; they sometimes attain a ore than one-half without the usual disadvantages of short diameter of a centimetre. They belong to the triclinic syscopes and eye-pieces of high power.

tem according to Prof. Penfield, by whom they have been

measured. They are at once distinguished from crystals of CORDING to a writer in the Pioneer Mail of Allahabad,

iodine by their form and brittleness. hatch on Burmese houses gives a tempting shelter to snakes,

They melt at about 73o.

When exposed to the air they lose iodine about as rapidly as ially during the rains, and many of the occupants of the

crystals of free iodine. These crystals are anhydrous, and yield is would be surprised if they knew the number of snakes hare the shelter of their roof on a rainy night. One night

analytical numbers agreeing with the formula Csig. The pentaicer was wakened up by a noise in his room ; and by the

bromide of cæsium may be similarly obtained by agitating a of a lighted wick, floating in a tumbler of oil, he made out

concentrated solution of cæsium bromide with a large excess of

bromine. When such a mixture is allowed to stand at a low wo combatants were disputing the possession of the small

temperature the excess of bromine slowly evaporates and the in the centre of the bedroom. The belligerents turned

penta-bromide separates in the form of a dark red solid substance. be a snake and a rat, that somehow had jostled against

Cæsium penta-bromide CsBrg, is a very unstable substance, ther in the tiny tenement.

losing bromine rapidly at the ordinary temperature. Anothe 'ALUABLE report on the geology of north-eastern Alabama interesting compound is cæsium tetrachloriodide, CsCl I, which ljacent portions o Georgia and Tennessee, by C. Wil. was obtained by dissolving forty grams of cæsium chloride in Layes, has been published as a Bulletin of the U.S. mixture of six hundred cubic centimetres of water and two hun. gical Survey. Mr. Hayes explains that in writing the dred cubic centimetres of concentrated hydrochloric acid, adding

thirty grams of iodine, and then saturating the liquid with places observed on November 9, 13, and 17, and chlorine gas. The temperature was raised slightly during the

ly during the follows:operation, and upon subsequent cooling the compound CsCl, I was

Epoch 1892 Nov. 17:5 M. T. Berlin. deposited in the form of pale orange-coloured prismatic crystals

M = 22 18 37 1 belonging to the monoclinic system. The compound is only

w = 13 37 490 slightly soluble in water, but, with a little loss due to decompo

8 = 331 31 37 1892 0

i = 20 54 811 sition, may be recrystallized from that liquid. It is, however,

= 24 39 30*7 quite stable in the air, and only decomposes upon heating,

t = 500":407 thereby producing the tri-halogen compound, CsC1,1, fusing at

log u = 0'567123 238', the melting point of this latter compound. A similar com

U = 709 years. pound, containing rubidium instead of cæsium, RbCI,1, may be further observations of this comet are reported (CE obtained in like manner in large orange-coloured tabular crystals, rendus, No. 21). At Algiers, MM. Trépied, Ramband, ani likewise belonging to the monoclinic system, but of different

found its position on November 15, at Sh. 53m. 415., 4 habitus to the crystals of the cæsium compound. An analogous

mean time, to be : App. R.A. oh. 43m. 22-285. Apa

+ 37° 43' 3":9. The corresponding values found at Lyon compound containing potassium, KCI,1, was prepared so long

G. Le Cadet at Sh. 47m. 335., Paris mean time, were ago as the year 1839, by Filhol. Messrs. Wells and Wheeler R.A. oh. 43m. 22 725. App. Decl. + 37° 43' 5*9. finally describe sodium and lithium salts of this description, both comet presented a bright nebulosity in the form of an e of which, however, contain water of crystallization. They are segment with its axis directed in the position angle 15

o length and breadth both being 10'. The northern edge appe represented by the formulæ NaC141.2H,O and LICI,1.4H,0.

rounded and well defined. At the focus of the ellipse 12 Both crystallize well, the former in rhombic prisms; the latter,

densation could be distinguished, about 20“ broad, vc however, is so extremely deliquescent that measurements of the prolongation inclined to the axis of the ellipse. An artes: crystals have not been obtained.

calculating the elements of the orbit has been made

Schulhof. The slow motion of the comet renders this tas The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the difficult. Among the various systems of elements tenie past week include two Common Marmosets (Hapale jacchus)

fixed there is only one which fairly agrees with all observa 1

In this the excentricity is as small as O‘355386, so that is o from South-east Brazil, presented by Mrs. Comolli ; an Otter

probably be possible to follow the comet throughout its | (Lutra vulgaris) British, presented by Mr. Frederick Collier ;

with the most powerful instruments. The other elemets 1 a Black-backed Jackal (Canis mesomelas, jv.) from South determined are: =0°0' 39":1, 2 = 328° 32' 40"-7, i= 20 20 Africa, presented by Miss Thornton ; a Common Jackal (Canis | and log g = 0-360966. aureus, ! ) from Fao, Persian Gulf, presented by Mr. W. D.

bů Mr w D i At Bordeaux, M. F. Courty succeeded in photographies Cumming, C.M.Z. S. ; two Short-headed Phalangers (Belideus

brighter portions of the comet on Novemher 13. sit

hour's exposure. Another photograph, taken by MM. PE . breviceps, 8 9 ) from Australia, presented by Capt. S. M. Orr;

Prosper Henry at Paris, was presented to the Academy !! a — Lemur (Lemur — ) from Madagascar; six Crab-eating | Tisserand. It was obtained on November 14, with the Opossums (Didelphys caucrivorus), four Y pecha Rails (Aramides photographic equatorial. The exposure lasted two hours: vpecha) from South America, a Green-cheeked Amazon

a very fine photograph, showing a well-defined and

circular contour. The nucleus is bright, excentric and lengtis (Chrysotis viridigenalis) from Columbia, a Yellow-cheeked

out. Several stars can be seen through it. There is Amazon (Chrysotis autumnalis) from Honduras, purchased ;

except the lengthening of the nucleus, which does noite a Nilotic Monitor (Varanus niloticus) from Africa, received in beyond the limits of the nebulosity. exchange ; two Shaw's Gerbilles (Gerbillus shawi) born in the A Bright Comet.-A telegram from Kiel states tha: Gardens.

| W. R. Brooks has discovered a bright comet. As deterza
at Cambridge, U.S., its place was, on November
16h. 44*6m. Cambridge M. T.

R. A. 12h. 59m. 15'6s.
OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

Decl. +13° 50' 27" o
COMET HOLMES (November 6, 1892). -The elements and

Daily motion + Im. 323., and +25' respectively. ephemeris of this comet have been the subject of much cimputa- | Another telegram, also from Kiel, gives the positie tion during the present month. The first result obtained gave obtained at Vienna on November 24, at 15h. 497m. 115 a place resembling in many particulars that of the long-sought. M.T.), as for Biela comet ; but owing to an error in one of the observa

R.A. 13h. 3m. 645. tions, the corrected elements stated otherwise. The current

Decl. +15° 0' 36". number of Astronomische Nachrichten (No. 3129) gives four different systems of elements which have as yet been deduced,

ASTRONOMICAL INSTRUMENTS UP TO DATE. WE and it is quite worth while to produce them here, showing also

received a circular signed by Dr. L. Ambronn, of the G the difference between the observed and reduced places for each

Observatory, and Herr Julius Springer, publisher in be in particular :

| setting forth the contents of a work which they propis Elements, Berlin M.7.

publish with regard to the general principles, constructies

methods of using astronomical instruments in general 1892. - 1892. 1892. 1892. a book, of course, to be of the greatest value to T = Feb. 28 362 Mar. 19*630 May 6'301 June 6-841 must be completely done, but any one who is acquainted w = 340 25'82 339 11.87 334 46 90 328 19'09

the compiler and publisher mentioned above will be sent 329 21:15 332 7'30 339 378 346 23'01

each will do his share thoroughly and honestly. In consta 24 55'15 24 54'91 24 55'33 25 6'06 such a compendium of instruments as this is proposed 3 log 9 = 0.27766 a'26144 0'20868 0'14910

we might say it would be impossible for one man to do Mean place da... ... -1:04

+020

for the present state of the feintechnik has reached suca (0 - R) ) dB... ... +0.86

to 84
to'58 to 41 pitch and the branches of astronomy are so numerous, ik

an undertaking would simply be out of question The latest information about the elements is that which has object of this circular, besides stating the lines on w originated from Prof. Kreutz, who has found elliptic elements work will be written, is to request the co-operation of all 33 for the comet ; he also says that the elements indicate that per: tories. Astronomical science, especially the theoretic turbations have taken place on account of the comet's proximity owes much, as we all know, to German workers, so that to the planet Jupiter. The elements are reduced from the three rely on a good response being given to this request.

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I is that descriptions, together with drawings or photo- , same scale below it, for the purpose of ready comparison of disis not only of typical instruments but of the important parts tances. m, should be sent. Technical drawings also are requested, MR. AND MRS. THEODORE BENT have arranged to spend the ainable, and these very probably could be obtained from winter in Abyssinia studying the ancient monuments of Axum. nakers of the instruments in question. Of course it is not They will leave this country about the middle of December, red that each observatory should send say a description, &c., We understand that Mr. Bent would welcome a scientific man e transit instrument there in use, but it is hoped that any who might wish to work at any of the natural conditions of iment of peculiar construction or special merit should be

eastern Abyssinia, and take advantage of the arrangements ed to. It is needless to add that all drawings, &c., if re which have been made for the safety and comfort of the party. It ed, will be returned with as little delay as possible, and the | would, of course, be necessary for such a companion to pay his rsigners of the circular thank in advance all those who

own expenses and provide his own outfit. nd towards the completion of this undertaking. The address

A SPECIAL general meeting of the Royal Geographical Socieiy ich the drawings, &c., may be sent is as follows :-Dr. L.

was held on Monday afternoon to consider some alterations in ronn, Göttingen, Kgl. Sternwarte.

the rules, recently decided on by the Council. It was agreed DTION OF B PERSEI.-Astronomical Journal, No. 277, con to raise the entrance fee to the Society from £3 to 65, and a short note calling the attention of transit observers to | to augment the life-composition accordingly, relief being, howmportance of observation of this variable, to confirm the ever, granted by a diminution of the commutation fee to memularity in its proper motion. At the present time Algol bers of long standing. Other changes were made to bring the his neighbouring stars are conveniently situated, and it is laws into harmony with the present practice of the Society in d that the following list of stars will be added to working several minor matters. The meeting also passed a resolution generally where their observation is not inconsistent with associating itself with the act of the Council in no longer r work. The places are for the year 1875:

withholding the Fellowship of the Society from women. R.A.

--- h. m. S. g Andromeda ... I 56 14

41 437 MR. JOSEPH THOMSON'S JOURNEY TO B Trianguli ... 2 2 7 34 237

LAKE BANGWEOLO. e Persei

35 40

48 419 41 Arietis...

446

MR. JOSEPH THOMSON read a paper on his expedition g Persei

09

V to Lake Bangweolo in 1890-91 to the Royal Geographical • Persei

meeting on Monday night. The paper was not only of a B Persei

thoroughly scientific character, but also a model of literary

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grace, Mr. Thomson having the trained eye which enables him & Persei

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to detect and throw into prominence the really important » Persei

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features. The expedition went up the Zambesi by way of the 7 Tauri

Kwakwa creek, encountering considerable hostility and ob

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struction from the Portuguese authorities on the way. Mr. 3 46 17

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Thomson speaks warmly of the great work done by the Scottish 3 49 28

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missionaries in the Blantyre and Nyassa districts. Under the

kind but firm control of the missionaries the warlike Angoni ROPER MOTIONS.-M. Deslandres, in Comptes rendus of Nov. tribes came in thousands to cultivate the fields, which formerly er 14, communicates the recent work he has been carrying out they visited only for plunder, and for the first time in all his regard to the spectroscopic determinations of proper motions, African travels Mr. Thomson found a spot where the advent first part contains a description of the apparatus employed, of the white man was an unmitigated blessing to the natives. ring how he has completely altered one instrument specially Barometric observations made while waiting for porters on his work. During the ten months of the year he has obtained the western coast of Lake Nyassa made the elevation of the lake ral proofs of stars susceptible of furnishing radial velocity. | 1430 feet, a somewhat lower result than was formerly arrived following are among some of the important methods of lat. On August 23, 1890, the expedition, comprising Mr. edure :-(1) The luminous “ faisceaux” of the star and of the | Grant, Mr. Charles Wilson, and 153 porters, started from ce of light have the same aperture, and are thus as identical

Kotakota and struck westward through unmapped country, a ossibie, a condition necessary to the absolute measure of rough and sparsely wooded plateau with little running water. acements. (2) The displacements of spectra is measured The route lay along a strip of debateable ground, inhabited by only with the Hy line of hydrogen, but with all the hydrogen, an excitable, warlike tribe, and raided equally by Mwasi's um, and iron lines. (3) The large surface of the mirror people froin the north and Mpeseni's from the south. Great ers the possibility of measuring the velocities of 250 stars. tact was required to avoid bloodshed, but the expedition passed

of the results already obtained show that the work, when safely. Then crossing the fine fertile plain of the Loangwa jed, will be of a very reliable and accurate kind. For

river, they passed over and climbed the steep Muchinga moun. ace, the velocity of Venus has been obtained instrumentally

tains to the high plateau beyond. So far the rocks had been kilometers, while that calculated amounted to 13:55 k.m. metamorphic, with intruded masses of granite, overlaid relocity of a Auriga on February 5, employing 30 lines of

in the valley by sandstones, shales, and marls. At one place arison, came out as 43.5 k.m., and the velocities of the great fossil-tree trunks were found. The Loang wa-Kalue onents of B Auriga, a spectroscopic double, were obtained plateau was magnificent country, glorious with the tints of same day as - 845 k.m. and + 97 k.m.

early spring on the stunted trees which formed a scraggy forest over most of the surface. But no sign could be seen of the

Lokinga mountains, nor was any word heard from the natives GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES.

of that range so conspicuous on the maps ; but on the water

shed of the plateau, 5000 feel above the sea, rose the Vimbe E measurement of an arc of the meridian between Dunkirk

| hills in a series of isolated domes, perhaps rising 1000 feet le Spanish frontier, which has recently been completed higher. A new lake. thirty square miles in area, was found in the highest precision by the French Government,

a dip of the plateau, and named after the Moirs. Then that the measurement by Delambre and Méchain in troubles began. Small-pox broke out amongst the porters, and rining the length of the metre was 146.6 feet, or otooth

when Chilambo's was reached no trace could be sound of the ort. The new measurement accords very closely indeed

lake, on the margin of which it was supposed to stand. While be value as deduced from Clarke's ellipsoid.

the white members of the expedition were attending to their NEW weekly paper devoted to African geography, sick followers some of the healthy Swahilis marched to Old the title of Kettler's Afrikanische Nachrichten, was Chilambo's (which is not in Ilala but Kalinde), now deserted, at Weimar in July last, with the object of collecting and and twenty miles distant from the present village, finding the ring the most recent information on all matters con tree under which the heart of Livingstone was buried still with Africa and the Africans. An ingenious feature is

standing, and the inscription on it legible. In the dry season giving a sketch map of parts of Africa, with a small the Chambeze does not enter Lake Bangweolo at all, but flows of a map of some well-known part of Germany on the direct across the marsh to the Luapula, but in the wet season

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