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(NATURE, April 27). He adds, as an explanation, that | The telegraphs have been used to communicate in" the average college don” forgets an elementary law of structions and to keep the authorities informed friction. But the proper inference is that the definition of

regarding movements and requirements. The dock. the reviewer is different from that in common use. It is

yards and shipbuilding yards have been ready to difficult to believe in this general forgetfulness.

undertake repairs, and the arsenals and machine The various letters sent to NATURE sufficiently show what

shops to turn out war material of all kinds, as well as meaning is usually attached to the words.

appliances which aid operations in the field. Light June 3.


railways have been laid down on the way to battle.

fields, and wireless telegraphy and telephones to convey ------

instructions to the soldiers ; in short, all the latest WHY JAPAN IS VICTORIOUS.

applications of mechanical, electrical, and chemical

science have been freely and intelligently used. TEN years ago, after the conclusion of the war The Japanese have not only modified Western

1 between Japan and China, it was remarked that appliances to suit their conditions, but they have the sound of the Japanese cannon at the mouth of also made numerous distinct advances. The ships the Yalu River awoke the nations of the world to the of their navy are probably the best illustrafact that a new Power had arisen in the Far East tion of the Japanese method of procedure. In which in future would require to be taken into naval matters they accepted all the guidance the account when any political problems arose. It is, Western world could give them, but at the same time of course, recognised by all who know modern they struck out a line of their own, and the fleet Japan that the most important factor in the which they have created is unique in the character of making of new Japan has been the applications of its units. British designs have in many respects science to the arts both of peace and war. Without been improved upon, with the result that they have these, even the spirit of the samurai would have been obtained in their latest ships many features which as powerless before the attacks of Western Powers have won the admiration of the world. The training armed with all the latest warlike appliances, as were of Japanese naval officers is very complete in every the dervishes at the battle of Omdurman. Spectators way, and in some respects offers an example to the speak with admiration of the bravery of these men British authorities, and the men are devoted to their and with pity that their lives were thrown away in profession Japan now sends her picked men to a vain resistance. Without the help of science and its Europe to complete their studies, so that in every applications it is very certain that, before this time, department of national life they are kept up with Japan would have been overrun by a European Power the latest developments. The siege of Port Arthur, after immense slaughter, for the last man would have the battle of Mukden and the other battles in Man. died, fighting with his primitive weapons, rather than

churia, and the exploits of the Japanese Navy prove recognise a foreign domination.

most distinctly that they have profited by their A careful study of the evolution of modern experience. Japan shows plans founded on enlightened principles

The intense loyalty of the Japanese, which compels and carried out in every detail. In fact, one of

them to make any sacrifice, combined with their great the secrets of the success of the Japanese in the

intellectual ability, enables them to take full advanpresent war is that nothing is left to chance; every

tage of the modern science and organisation necessary detail is worked out and carefully provided for.

for the attainment of the objects of their ambition. They soon recognised that their national ideals would Their great power of foresight prepares them for all never be realised without a system of education, com

their enterprises, both of peace and war, with exact plete in every department, which would supply the

and scientific precision. While they are permeated by men who were required to guide the nation under

Eastern ideas they have been able to appropriate much the new conditions which had emerged. Elementary

that is best in Western thought, and thus they unite education was organised all over the country,

many of the best qualities of the East and the West. secondary education in central districts, and technical

The lesson which our educationists and statesmen education wherever it seemed to be required. Above all,

have to learn from Japan is that the life of a modern there are two national universities which in equipment nation requires to be organised on scientific lines in and quality of work done will bear favourable com all its departments, and that it must not be directed parison with similar institutions in any other country

chiefly to personal ends, the attainment of which in the world.

may, to a large extent, intensify many of our The educational work of the country was directed problems, but that it be consciously used for the pronot simply to personal or sectional purposes. as ismotion of national welfare. unfortunately too often the case in the West; it was But though the lesson is plain enough, apparently also consciously directed to the attainment of great it is not understood by those whose business it is to national ends. Every department of the national life promote national welfare by guidance or counsel. was organised in a rational manner, and, therefore,

With one consent our newspapers have attributed on scientific principles. In many departments there is Japanese success to all reasons except the right one: still much to be done, but past achievements promise and, instead of opening the eyes of the nation to our well for the future.

pressing needs and deficiencies, they have been blind Special attention has been paid by the Government leaders of the blind. Our public men and our Press to the applications of science. Without the rail

will not see that scientific education has brought ways, the telegraphs and telephones, the dock- | Japan to her present position in thirty years, and yards, the shipbuilding yards, the mines, and the that, if we choose to educate ourselves, we may engineering establishments, the existence of the army arrive at the Japanese standard of national efficiency. and navy would have been impossible; at least, if they The progress which this country has made since the did exist they would have been nearly powerless. Middle Ages is due to the discoveries of men of The operations of the present war with Russia have science, whose work has been done in spite of disclearly demonstrated the importance of the introduc couragement or national indifference. In the new tion of the scientific spirit into all the national activi- / atmosphere of Japan a scientific spirit prevails, which ties. The railways which have been built in Japan encourages development, with the result that the have been fully utilised to convey men and nation has in a generation arrived at a position which materials and the ships to transport them oversea. has taken us centuries to reach. It is not complimentary to us as a nation to say that our patriotism, already been suggested in the changes in the frequency fear of death, or nerves compare unfavourably with of prominences, which are, after all, allied to sun-spots. similar attributes of the Japanese; and, after all, this Up to the present time those who have been atis a matter of opinion. The fact to face is the trans- tempting to explain variations of weather on the formation which science has effected in Japan, and supposition of solar changes have been looking for the sooner our statesmen are educated to see it, the the effect of solar action as either increasing or more promising will be the outlook for the British decreasing simultaneously the rainfall over the whole nation.

earth. The consequence has been that a study

of a great number of statistics has shown that in SOLAR CHANGES AND WEATHER.

some regions the rainfall varies directly with the

number of sun-spots, and that in others the variation DURING the last few years more than usual attention has been paid to

| is inverse, while, again, in other parts there seems to the question of the

be no apparent relation at all. In fact, these deducrelationship between sun-spots or prominences and

tions, though quite correct, have led to the conclusion ** weather," and to the possibility of being able in the near future to forecast the characters of approach

that the solar connection is of a very questionable

character, as it was considered impossible for such ing seasons. Quite recently in this Journal (vol. Ixxi.

opposite results as the first two just named to have p. 493, March 23) we referred briefly to a pamphlet

their origin in one solar change. published by the United States Department of Agricul

It is the employment of this incorrect working ture, Weather Bureau, summing up the general state

hypothesis that has probably retarded the progress of of the problem of long-range weather forecasting.

| the study of the connection between solar and meteorIn this it was stated that advances in the period and

ological changes, accuracy of weather forecasts depend upon a more

The now recognised existence of this barometric exact study and understanding of atmospheric pres

see-saw shows that the sun's action must have a sure over large areas, and a determination of the influences, probably solar, that are responsible for

double effect on our atmosphere, and this of an

opposite nature. Such a result is quite natural, and normal and abnormal distributions of atmospheric pressure over the earth's surface.

it is curious that use has not been made of it before.

When it be considered that the amount of air in our In the April number of the Popular Science Monthly

atmosphere is a constant quantity, a greater piling up the question of the relationship between sun-spots and

of it on one side of the earth must necessarily mean weather is summarised in an article by Prof. Ernest

a diminution in the antipodal regions. If greater W. Brown, of Haverlord College. In this we have an interesting account of the problems waiting solu

heating power of the sun takes place, then the atmotion, and he brings together in a very clear manner

sphere must also be heated to a greater extent, and

consequently more intense up-currents of warm air a general survey of the relationship, or rather nonrelationship, as he concludes to be the case.

are formed, resulting in more pronounced low-pressure Thus

areas. There must, however, be a compensating he says, * it is highly probable that the direct effect

effect somewhere, and this is found on the opposite of the spotted area is unimportant compared with the

side of the earth when the previously heated air effects produced in our atmosphere by other causes." In his final summing up he remarks that his opinion

arrives, descends, and creates an area of excess is expressed by Prof. Cleveland Abbe, who stated


This backward and forward transference of air that:-" The key to the weather problem is not to be found in the sun or indeed in any external influence,

becomes, therefore, of great importance in studying but that the solution is to be worked out by the

the weather changes in any one region, because the

rainfall phenomena are so closely related to the conditions which hold in the atmosphere itself-conditions which can only be discovered by a thorough

pressure changes.

Away from the middle portions of those two large examination of the internal laws of motion, quite apart from any external forces which may modify

areas which behave in this see-saw manner, the varia

tions of pressure should, and actually do, have a the results." In referring to the difficulties which are met with

different periodic nature. It is of extreme importin examining the meteorological conditions on the

ance, therefore, when trying to trace the sun's action earth's surface, Prof. Brown points out that observ

on our atmosphere, to separate the regions over which ations made “at one place should be kept separate

the variations may be truly solar from those which from those at other places, for it is theoretically

exhibit variations modified by the mechanism of the

atmosphere itself. possible and even probable that a maximum at one place of observation may occur at the same time as a

There is therefore no reason why we should take a minimum at another place. For example, the yearly

pessimistic view of the attempts made to solve this

fascinating riddle of the relationship between changes averages might show that a maximum rainfall in one place always occurred with a minimum rainfall

of solar activity and the vagaries of the weather. in another and vice versa.

An enormous amount of accumulated material is ready In the last quotation Prof. Brown makes a sugges

for discussion, and efforts should be made to secure

the continuity of these observations and at the same tive remark which recent work has shown to be an

time to coordinate the data along lines most suitable actual meteorological fact; it has already been completely established for pressure, and must therefore

for this particular research.

WILLIAM J. S. LOCKYER. hold good as regards rainfall, since the latter depends on the former. In the case of these variations of barometric pres

THE SURVEY OF INDIA. . sure it has been shown, and referred to at some THE extracts from the narrative reports of the length in this Journal (vol. lxx. p. 177, June, 1904), | I Survey of India for the years 1902-3 are conthat there exists a barometric see-saw on a large tained in a thin and attenuated volume of some eighty scale the presence of which has been amply corro- pages, which, as compared with previous reports, reborated by Prof. Bigelow, of the United States presents the effects of Indian financial economy Weather Bureau. There seems little doubt that it is applied to one of its most interesting departments. this pressure change that will eventually prove the i Turracts from the Narrative Reports of the Survey of India for the "key" to the situation, and its solar origin has Season 1902-3." (Calcutta : Government Printing Office, 1905.) Price 2s. 3d. A committee is now sitting somewhere in India to 'surveyed thirty-eight years ago, and the source of decide on the best method of increasing the efficiency supply carefully examined then. Probably the report of the Indian survey department from the point of was pigeon-holed. view (amongst others) of the English expert. It may It would be pleasant to congratulate Colonel Longe be doubted whether the Indian surveyor has much to on the success of his first administrative report as learn from the English expert, excepting in the science Surveyor-General of India, but, as a matter of fact, of map reproduction; but it may be that the Indian it is obvious that hardly even the skirts of narrative financier will learn therefrom that the way to improve have been touched so far as the Survey of India is and develop a department is not to starve it under the concerned, and we can only hope that there may be pressure of each successive spasm of financial de another and a more comprehensive report issued herepression, but to give consistent support to its work after in some other form.

T. H. H. in the field and encourage the publication of such

-- results as are of world-wide interest. · Compare this half-starved production with the survey reports of

NOTES. North America, of Canada, of any Continental country, or even with the intermittent publications of

It cannot be too often emphasised that Japan owes its South America, and it would really appear as if India

triumphs chiefly to the adoption of the scientific spirit as offered no field for scientific research that was worth

the essential principle of national progress. The State a descriptive record. The report is unworthy of the that accepts this axiom of practical politics secures for Government of India.

itself a place among leading nations; while, on the other There is apparently but one triangulation party hand, the country that gives little or no encouragement to now existing in India which works on geodetic prin science must fall behind in the future. The Paris corre ciples, and this is gradually pushing its network of spondent of the Times states that this view is taken by triangles through Burma, giving a good basis for

M. Ludovic Naudeau, who, in the course of a telegram two topographical surveys to extend their minor

from Tokio on the causes of the Russian defeat, retriangulations and lay out a framework for detailed

marks :-“ It is now idle to attempt to hide the fact that mapping. Only these two topographical parties figure in the report, and the narrative of their pro

never was the Russian lack of science, of the modern gress is confined to the dullest of all dull statistics.

spirit, or, to speak frankly, of intelligence-never was the Yet one of them is working in the Shan States on absence of training and of enthusiasm which retards the the Chinese frontier, where, if anywhere in the efforts of the whole Empire displayed in a more melaneastern world, there must be a most delightful field choly fashion than in the Sea of Japan. All the Russian for new experiences and original observation.

inferiority is in the intellectual sphere." We understand Of geographical exploration on or beyond the Indian that even in the midst of the war, the subject of education frontier, or of scientific investigations in the Hima.

is being keenly discussed in Japan. In our own country layas, there is not a word in the report; nor, for that

it is necessary to urge that satisfactory provision for the matter, is there the faintest reference to the solid work of the revenue and forest surveys which are

future can only be made by taking a wide view of scientific spread in more prosaic form over half the continent.

education, and by insisting that all who have the affairs Possibly there may be much of really stirring narra

of State under their control should possess such a knowtive rendered by the officers concerned in trans-frontier ledge of the methods of science as will enable them to work to which it is not deemed well to make any understand that the most potent factors of success in the allusion. This is comprehensible on the grounds of arts of peace or of war are scientific education and political prudence, but the worst feature of this form of suppression is that it is apt to be permanent. A report once pigeon-holed in an Indian office might

Under the name of the Potentia Organisation, an interalmost as well be solemnly committed to the earth national association has been formed with the object of with a spade. The man who wrote it, and who knew establishing among nations a mutual relationship and what he wrote about, leaves India at the mature age of cooperation for the diffusion of accurate information and fifty-five, and thereafter has nothing further to say to

unbiased opinion concerning international events and it. His opinion is never consulted, and it becomes

movements, and to combat narrow, prejudiced, and often merely a matter of academic interest to him to watch

interested views and news that contribute so much to a new generation of frontier administrators flounder

international mistrust and misunderstanding. It is proing along by the light of experiences gained, let us say, in South Africa or in Egypt. He faintly wonders

posed to publish throughout the world, through the medium what has become of all the detailed information of

of newspapers and reviews, statements of simple fact and the Indian frontier gathered in his time at the cost expressions of opinion by eminent public men of all of so much labour and expense.

nations on all important political, social, philosophical, There is, however, doubtless much to be learnt from economic, scientific, and artistic questions, to present the the series of tidal, levelling, and magnetic tables sincere views of experts on all current international events, which take up nearly fifty of the eighty pages of the

and to refute false or biased news and views calculated report, although it is not easy to recognise their

to spread error and to endanger the peace and progress claim to be considered narrative. Presumably these

of the world. A cosmopolitan alliance of this kind should tables are published for the benefit of the comparatively few men of science who are interested in these

meet with many adherents in the world of science, in special classes of investigation, but they hardly seem

which the sole aims are the discovery of truth and the to justify the title of the report, and should certainly

extension of natural knowledge. We trust that the be preserved (as they probably are) in other forms organisation will do something to show that scientific more readily accessible for purposes of reference. culture is at the foundation of all national progress.

There is an account of a local survey (including levelling operations) which was undertaken for the

MR. STANLEY GARDINER, leader of the Sladen Trust Ex benefit of the salt revenue department in order to pedition for the exploration of the Indian Ocean between ascertain the source of the Sambhar Salt Lake water Ceylon and the Seychelles in H.M.S. Sealark, has sent supply. The result of the investigation would have Prof. Herdman a letter from Colombo (May 7) in which be been interesting had it been stated. The lake was i gives the following provisional programme :-Leave


Colombo May 8, arrive Chagos Archipelago about May 20, heavy downpours in the early part of this week will have and work there until about July 15: arrive Mauritius contributed something towards making up the deficiency, about August 1, and stay until about August 15; arrive ! especially in the eastern and southern parts of the kingdom. Seychelles about September 8, leave about September 15, The Daily Weather Report of Monday last showed a great and return there on October 15 after visiting the various change in the distribution of barometric pressure, there Amirante Islands. A second steam-launch has been , being a steady increase over the northern and northaoquired, and Mr. Stanley Gardiner considers that he is western districts, and a shallow depression having formed now fully equipped for work. The expedition will probably over France. During the twenty-four hours ending at be next heard of from Peros Banhos, which ought to be 8h. a.m. on Tuesday, the rainfall was continuous and reached early in June.

heavy over the south and south-east of England, amountA RE TEK telegram of June 1 states that a severe earth ing to nearly 2 inches at Dungeness, 1.5 inches at Clactonquake shock was felt in the morning of that day through on-Sea, and to an inch in London, the rain still continuing, out the whole of Montenegro.

practically without cessation, during the whole of Tuesday.

The heaviest falls reported for the twenty-four hours ending We regret to see the announcement of the death of

8h. a.m. on Wednesday were 0.57 inch in London and Mrs. Emma Hubbard, who at various times contributed

nearly half an inch at Oxford and Bath. to our correspondence columns interesting observations on natural history, more particularly on the subject of birds

The Engineering and Mining Journal records that payand their ways. Mrs. Hubbard also did useful service to | able ore has been reached at the New Chum Railway science by indexing scientific works, among them being

Mine, at Bendigo, Victoria, at a depth of 4:62 feet. This Sir Michael Foster's “ Physiology” and her brother's

is the greatest depth at which gold mining has been carried ** Ancient Stone Implements."

on. It has, however, been exceeded at the Lake Superior

copper mines. THE first loternational Congress of Anatomists will be

THE plans have been completed for the fifteen-story held at Geneva, Switzerland, on August 7 to 10. The following national societies are to participate in this con

building, to cost 195,oool., which Mr. Andrew Carnegie gress ;-the Anatomical Society of Great Britain, the

is to present to the engineering societies of New York. Anatomische Gesellschaft, the Association des Anatomistes,

Adjoining it in the rear will be a thirteen-story house for the Association of American Anatomists, and the Unione

the Engineers' Club, which is to cost an additional Zoologica Italiana. The organisation of the congress has

75,000l., and is also part of Mr. Carnegie's gift. been entrusted to a committee representing these societies, In the Engineer there is a long and interesting deand consisting of Pross. Minot, Nicolas, Romiti, Syming. scription of the instructive case of models showing the too, and Waldeyer. The presidents thus far named are construction of the leading types of expansion and plain Prof. Sabatier, of Montpellier; Prof. Romiti, of Pisa ; and slide-valves lately placed on view in the Victoria and Prof. Ninot, of Harvard. The congress owes its successful Albert Museum. The collection forms a complete record initiation largely to Prof. Nicolas, of the University of of the progress made in this important branch of steam Nancy, to whom inquiries may be addressed.

engineering ON June : the Prince of Wales paid a private visit to

It is reported in Engineering that the world's copper the Cotton Exhibition at the Imperial Institute, which is

production in 1904 amounted to 613,125 tons, the United being held by the Board of Trade in conjunction with the

States furnishing more than half the total. Great things British Cotton-growing Association. The exhibition, which

in the way of copper production are expected from Alaska, has been arranged by the scientific staff of the Imperial

where development is being carried on rapidly, especially Institute under the direction of Prof. Wyndham Dunstan,

in Tanana County. In the same journal, attention is F.R.S., in consultation with Sir Alfred Bateman and Sir

directed to an important discovery of tin ore in the Cecil Clementi-Smith, the managing committee of the

Vlaglaagte district of the Transvaal. The world's sources institute, is intended to show not only the progress of

of tin supply are so few that interest must always attach cotton cultivation on British soil, but also to indicate the

to reported new finds. stages in the conversion of the raw material into the manu We have received a copy of a paper reprinted from the factured fabric. Bulk samples of commercial cottons Transactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers, read grown in different parts of the Empire are supplemented on January 10, by Mr. James Ashworth, on outbursts with small specimens arranged to show the length of of gas and coal at the Morrissey collieries, in the Crow's staple, and are accompanied by photographs of cotton fields, | Nest Pass Coalfield, British Columbia. A huge outburst ginneries, &c., and statistical diagrams and maps. The on November 18, 1904, caused the death of fourteen miners, British Cotton-growing Association, in addition to their and it is estimated that some 3,000,000 cubic feet of gas, raw cottons, exhibit a unique collection of native textiles. at atmospheric pressure, were set free by the outburst in The machinery section includes models of Arkwright's thirty-five minutes. Mr. Ashworth suggests that these machines, a power-loom in operation, and several testing

unusually large outbursts may have some connection with machines. Manufacturing processes are illustrated by the petroleum occurring in the district. specimens and explained by means of diagrams, and At the forty-second general meeting of the Institution samples of goods produced by special processes, including of Mining Engineers, held in London on June 2 and 3, the making of " selvyt," are on view.

several interesting papers were read. Mr. T. Y. Greener Tue weather report issued by the Meteorological Office

dealt with the firing of boilers by waste heat from coke for the week ended on June 3 showed that the rainfall ovens. Mr. M. R. Kirby described the compound winding since the beginning of the year had only exceeded the engine at Lumpsey iron mine. Its steam consumption is average in the north of Scotland (excess 5.4 inches) and only 38 lb. to 40 lb. per indicated horse-power hour. Mr. in the north of Ireland (excess o8 inch). The greatest, F. Hird gave the results of tests of the electric winding deficiency was in north-east England (3.2 inches) and in i engine at Friedrichshall, and Mr. E. Lozé described electric the midland and southern counties (2 to 2.6 inches). The winding engines installed at French collieries. Mining cducation in the United States was discussed by Prof. H. but when this was replaced by a young wren, the latter Eckfeldt, and in New Zealand by Prof. J. Park. Coal was ejected under the eyes of the observer in the usual mining in India was dealt with by Mr. T. Adamson. Mr. manner. On June 22 the young cuckoo left the nest. J. Jeffries described the occurrence of underground fires

In discussing certain habits of British bats in the eighth at the Greta colliery, New South Wales. Mr. W. C.

article of vol. xlix. of the Memoirs of the Manchester Blackett and Mr. R. G. Ware described a striking innova

Literary and Philosophical Society, Mr. C. Oldham refers tion in mining practice, the use of electrically driven

in the first place to the winter sleep, and points out that, mechanical conveyors for filling at the coal-face. Two

from observations made in the disused copper mines of years' experience has shown a saving of 48 per cent. over

Alderley Edge, in the case of the long-eared bat this the ordinary pick and shovel method. Lastly, Mr. A. R.

sleep is interrupted, the bats probably feeding at intervals Sawyer gave an account of the geology of Chunies Poort,

on the insects which abound in the tunnels in winter, even Zoutpansberg, Transvaal. Incidentally, he mentioned some

if they do not venture forth into the open. The same is old copper workings where native copper occurs in some

probably true of Daubenton's bat, the whiskered bat, and abundance in dolomite. The proceedings terminated with

the lesser horse-shoe bat. There appears to be nothing to a vote of thanks, proposed by Mr. Bennett H. Brough, to

show that the bats occasionally seen abroad on mild days the Geological Society and to the Royal Astronomical

in winter are pipistrelles. Two popular fallacies are conSociety for the use of their rooms for the meeting.

tradicted, firstly, that bats cannot walk, or can only In the Biologisches Centralblatt of May 15 Dr. O. shuffle awkwardly, along a Mat surface, and secondly, that Zacharias brings to a conclusion his article on the relations they cannot take Aight from such a surface. The different of modern hydrobiology to fish culture and fisheries. Dr. G. Schneider also discusses the origin of species among cestode worms. He concludes that morphological variation in union with biological isolation through parasitism are insufficient to form species unless aided by physiological, that is, sexual, isolation.

IN the Nouveaux Mémoires of the Moscow Academy, vol. xvi., parts ii. and iv., the well known Russian ornithologist, Dr. P. Suschkin, commences an important work on the osteology of the avian skeleton, the second part, which is alone before us, dealing with the osteology and classification of the diurnal birds of prey (Accipitres). This part is illustrated with four plates of various parts of the skeleton.

During a recent visit to the Victoria Falls of the Zambezi, Mr. W. L. Sclater, director of the South African Museum, obtained three fishes from that river which were sent to the British Museum for examination. One of these proved to be new, and is described by Mr. G. A. Boulenger in vol. iii., part vii., of the Annals of the South African Museum under the name of Paratilapia carlottae. The genus is widely spread.

Fig. 1.-Lesser Horseshoe Bat in Repose. We have received from the author, Mr. C. C. Hurst, a copy of his paper on experiinental studies on heredity in | postures assumed by British bats in repose form the subrabbits, published in vol. xxix. of the Journal of the 'ject of the plate illustrating Mr. Oldham's paper. The Linnean Society. The experiments were commenced in lesser horse-shoe bat, of which one of the figures is repro1902, with the object of ascertaining whether the Men duced, recalls the posture assumed by the fox-bats, or delian principles of heredity were applicable to animals as flying-foxes, when at rest. The posture of ordinary bats well as plants, the animals selected being the white Angora | is quite different, and it is a curious fact that while the rabbit and the Belgian hare. The results confirm, and lesser horse-shoe alights from the air in an inverted posiextend to rabbits, those already obtained by Prof. Cuénot tion, other bats, on first coming to rest, do so with the in the case of mice, though it would appear that the head upwards, and then reverse their position. heredity of Dutch markings in rabbits differs in some

The foregoing paper is supplemented by the observations respects from that of the " panachure" in mice.

of Mr. C. B. Moffat on the duration of fight among bats, In the Zoologist for May, Mr. J. H. Gurney records the published in the May number of the Irish Naturalist. In early history of a young cuckoo. On May 22 last year this communication it is shown that while the long-eared a hedge-sparrow's nest was found containing three eggs bat and the pipistrelle are all-night Aiers, the hairy-armed laid by the owner, and one egg deposited by a cuckoo. bat only ventures forth for a short fight in the evening. The cuckoo's egg was of the ordinary brown type, present- ) and again shortly before dawn. The hairy-armed bat thus ing no resemblance to the hedge-sparrow's eggs. On enjoys a daily rest of 211 hours, taking all its exercise and June 2 the young cuckoo and two hedge-sparrows its food in two periods (which in summer may be very were hatched, the third young hedge-sparrow, which had close together) of one and a quarter hours each. There been hatched earlier, having previously disappeared. The is a suggestion that the great bat, or noctule, indulges only next day the two nestling hedge-sparrows were found lying in an evening flight, but additional evidence is required dead outside the nest. When one was replaced, no attempt before this can be definitely accepted, and it appears to be was made to eject it by the cuckoo. The same result contradicted by certain observations which the author did happened when a young wagtail was put into the nest ; l not see soon enough to incorporate in his text.

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