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clear that they had been so placed in order that their Thebes, and the formerly wealthy capital became faces might be protected by the soft earth and mud poverty-stricken. A serious trouble between the priests in which they were buried. The total yield from the and the people resulted in the departure of the former pit or well was about 450 statues.

to Nubia, and in consequence the temple of Amen fell As soon as the pit was emptied M. Legrain began into a state of decay. Worse than all, soon after his to examine the objects which he had found, and he l'accession, B.C. 668, Ashur-bani-pal, King of Assyria, saw that many of the statues were royal, and that, invaded Egypt, and, marching up the country, plunspeaking generally, the oldest belonged to the second dered Thebes and its temples. This blow the city or third dynasty, and the latest to the twenty-sixth

never to have recovered, and for about 300 dynasty. The greater number of them were, of course, years it held a position of no importance in the country. made for high officials, generals, architects, priests, Under the Ptolemies some attempt to rebuild certain &c., and we may be certain that from first to last they portions of the Temple of Amen was made, and it is represent the men who, during a period of about 3500 probable that the work was begun under the wise rule years, were the principal benefactors of the great of that astute ruler Ptolemy 1. It was, of course, temple of Amen-Rā, the “ king of the gods, at | impossible to restore the worship of Amen to its Thebes. The question which naturally arises is, How original glory, and the extent of the buildings of the came these statues to be in the place in which they god must have been considerably curtailed. were found? The answer is not far to seek. We Whilst the work of restoration was going on, the know that it was a custom among the Egyptians question of the disposal of the statues which M. for the kings and their nobles to dedicate statues of

Legrain has unearthed came up for decision. It was themselves to the temples of the god or gods whom felt that to destroy the statues would be a sacrilegious they loved to worship, and they did so with the idea and profane act, and therefore an old well was chosen that, after death, their spirits would come from their in which to bury them; as we have seen, they were graves and inhabit them, and would enjoy in their new carefully placed in layers of earth or mud, and it is existence the worship which had been their delight entirely to the religious instinct of the restorers of the when upon earth. As the spirits of the gods also temple of Amen that we owe the preservation of such dwelt in the statues which were dedicated to them in

a unique series of statues. In his “Notes prises a the temples, the spirits of the kings and their nobles Karnak," recently published in the Recueil, M. would thus dwell in divine company, and would par- Legrain directs special attention to the statues of three ticipate in the happiness which disembodied spirits were believed to derive from the chants and hymns of

kings, of whom previously no monuments have been the faithful, and the offerings and incense which were

known; these are :-Mer-hetep-Rā, Mer-sekhem Rā offered up by the priests. How these statues were

Mer-ānkh-Rā. It is early yet to attempt to assign arranged is not quite clear, but it is pretty certain that

exact places to these kings, but the discovery of they were placed in niches or on pedestals in the

their monuments is a striking contradiction of the chambers adjoining the sanctuary. As time went on,

assertion which has been made recently to the chamber after chamber would become full, and at

effect that our knowledge of Egyptian history is length it would be as difficult to find a site for a new

complete, and that there are more important statue as it is to find a site for a monument to some

discoveries to be made in Egypt. Already M. illustrious dead person in our own Westminster Abbey. Legrain's examination of the statues from Karnak It has been the custom to say that the temple of

enables

correct

views on Egyptian Amen-Rā at Karnak was founded by the early kings history, and we must be prepared to admit that the of the twelfth dynasty, about 3.c. 2500, but it is clear kings of Egypt were considerably more in number from the statues which M. Legrain has brought to

than the king-list of Manetho would lead us to suplight that a temple to Amen must have existed at pose, and that some of the dynasties were contemporKarnak at least some 1500 years earlier.

Some

M. Legrain's “ find ” also proves beyond all archæologists, basing their opinion on the evidence doubt the futility of limiting dynastic history to a derived from religious texts, have always maintained period of 3000 years, as some of the German savants that the twefth dynasty temple of Amen was merely have done, and the evidence which is accumulating a new foundation, and not the original temple, and rapidly all goes to show that the assertions concerning this was the view which Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B.,

the great antiquity of Egyptian civilisation made by arrived at in his investigations of the systems of the

Herodotus and other Greek writers, and the opinions orientation of Egyptian temples. We now know that of modern experts like Mariette, Chabas, and our own o early as s.c. 4000 an important temple of Amen Hincks, are generally correct. stood at Karnak, and that even in that early period The statues recently found belong to all the dynasties it was already só old that kings held it to be one of which are most famed for the production of fine the highest honours attainable to have their statues artistic efforts in sculpture and statuary, and many of included among the monuments of the glorious and them may well be considered to represent with great mighty dead " who were commemorated there. The fidelity the features of the men they commemorate. temple of Amen represented the roll of fame for the Nearly all the great kings of Egypt took care to have Egyptians, and M. Legrain's " find” helps us to their portrait-statues added to the Karnak collection, understand why Karnak was declared by the priests to and down to the Ptolemaïc period the lover of be the “ throne of the two lands” (i.é. Egypt), and antiquity in Egypt could look upon contemporaneous the “* seat beloved of the heart of the god.” Now the portraits in stone of the kings of the Archaic period, fortunes of the god Amen and of his temple varied of Cheops, the builder of the Great Pyramid, of the with those of the king, and the glory of his sanctuary great warriors of the eleventh, twelfth, and eighteenth Faxed and waned according as the prosperity of the dynasties, of the bombastic Rameses II., and of the country increased or decreased. During the fourth, Nubian king Tirhakah, who, to his credit be it said, fifth, and sixth dynasties the chief centre of power lay left the shrine of Amen at Karnak uninjured, and between Heliopolis and Memphis; from the twelfth to humbly worshipped in that great symbol of the solar the twentieth dynasty it rested at Thebes, and the worship of the ancient Egyptians. It is greatly to be temple of Amen between B.C. 2500 and B.c. 1050 was

regretted that the Ptolemies did not cause portraits of the greatest in the land, just as Amen himself was the themselves and their queens to be included among the greatest of the gods.

statues of the great kings and priests of the country Between B.c. 1000 and B.C. 650 evil times came upon over which a strange fate called them to rule.

us

to

our

aneous.

THI

COMPULSORY GREEK AT OXFORD AND

opinion it_needed no such paltry prop to hold it CAMBRIDGE.

upright. To force upon students of another bent the

wasteful drudgery of six months' cramming in Greek HE statute enabling students of mathematics and accidence and the perfunctory conning of a set book

natural science to proceed to a degree at Oxford, with the help of a translation, was not only an without previously passing in Greek, has been rejected educational blunder, but a grave moral wrong. It in the larger house by 200 votes to 164. At an earlier was bad for the student, it was bad for the stage the proposal was adopted in the smaller assembly master, it was bad for the university, and it was by the narrow majority of two votes. The discussion worst of all for the cause of Greek learning accorded to the statute was brief, for the voters had itself. It was breeding a race of students who, able probably made up their minds; but it revealed the and brilliant and influential in other paths, cherished fact that, while the familiar arguments as to culture a positive hostility to the distasteful subject that had and the humanities held sway with those who have raised itself as a needless obstacle in their way. But “ learned nothing and forgotten nothing," some con- for compulsion they might have remained at worst demned the proposal, at least ostensibly, because it indifferent, at best distant admirers of Greek. Now was too narrow. It would shut up school boys with their only thought of it was associated with grievance a bent for mathematics or science to a “ premature and injustice. Times had changed, were changing specialism,” if they alone had to be segregated, years fast; new methods of education were afoot in the before the university stage, from their happier fellows schools. The bifurcation of studies-classical and nonon the “classical side.'

scientific on the one hand, modern and scientific on The Cambridge proposals avoid at least this latter the other—had become an accomplished fact. It was objection. They recognise that the examination which for the university frankly to recognise the change, and admits to the university should be one, in the sense to give equal opportunity for both curricula. Cam. that it allows the student who has passed it to enter bridge had amply provided for the needs of the modern any faculty or department of the university. He need and scientific student once the barrier of the classical not, while still at school, decide finally as to his previous was passed. Why should the student, whose special subject or subjects; and if he changes his mind school and university course alike bore in one and as to the course he desires to pursue he need not re- the same direction, say towards natural science, be trace his steps, and begin to "get up" a new set obliged to deviate during the last months of his of “ little-go subjects after he has entered the school-time in order to pass through a wicket that university. For three days high debate on the new lay straight in the path of his classical comrade, but scheme was held in the Cambridge Senate House, and far out of his own? True, a great teacher, a Porson so far as argument goes the impression produced is or an Arnold or a Gow, might make even “ Little-go that the placets have the best of it. The official de Greek " a thing of life and light for his pupils; but fenders of compulsory Greek spoke, naturally and what of the schools the head of which was a "mere properly, of the ennobling influence of Greek literature Newton or Darwin”? Must the many be sacrificed and philosophy. They scornfully derided the lack of for the few ? culture disclosed by the false quantities of the mere man Then another issue was raised by the clerical memof science who is Greekless. But they failed to make bers of the Senate, an issue on which, seeing the clear the connection between the paltry rudiments, actual composition of the register, more will ultimately half grammar and half “crib,” by which Greek is turn than on the educational question. If Greek is now represented in the previous examination, and not compulsory, it will cease to be taught to and humanistic culture or literary training of any sort. cease to be learned by candidates for ordination. It was practically admitted that half the boys, even The bishops of the Church of England will no from classical schools of the straitest sect, might longer be able to require a knowledge of the spend eight formative years over Greek and be Greek Testament from the aspirant to holy orders. no Hellenists in the end. But the conclusion It is admitted that the Presbyterian Church exacts was that time must be given for the improve- both Greek and Hebrew as a condition of admis. ment of school-teaching in classics, and that, in sion to its theological schools. But the heads of order to secure this improvement, the artificial sup- the Anglican Church are weaker than the General port of the subject afforded by the present regu- Assembly; the university must reinforce them, whatlations is necessity. The monopolists asked ever the consequences to sound learning and unfet. for more protection that they might mend their tered research. machinery.

Grave warnings were uttered that the non possumus One or two headmasters pleaded their helplessness of the Senate on this question would not be the final before the uncultured parent if the shelter of academic word. Revolution, in other words a Royal Commiscompulsion were denied them, and the inconvenience sion, would be the inevitable Nemesis of reform they would suffer if they had to rearrange their time- denied. And there is no doubt that this thought will tables to make room for science and modern lan- weigh with some waverers, who love learning and guages, with all their complexity. Greek for all who fear for its displacement by modern studies, but who aspire to enter the university is so much simpler than love the university more and dread the changes French and German and science for some, which a liberal government might impose on it from “ modern-siders," and Greek and Latin for others, without. the pick of the school.” If compulsion is done The report of the syndicate will doubtless be referred away with, schools will soon give up Greek altogether; back for reconsideration of details in the light of the in ten years it will be as dead as Hebrew," was the discussion. But the principle that modern subjects cry of these despairing headmasters. There were not shall be recognised will certainly be retained, and on wanting others to answer them, no less distinguished this principle issue will be joined early next term. as scholars and teachers. The masters of Trinity and The result no man can predict, for it lies with the Christ's, the president of Queens' and Dr. Jackson, and silent voters who will flock from the country to the other Grecians of established fame had such faith in poll. But the debate has cleared the air, and the the vitality of Greek-in its undying charm and its reformers are sanguine that this time something will unrivalled power over the human spirit—that in their be done.

a

mere

PROF. KARL SELIM LEMSTRÖM.

His frost experiments directed attention to the pre

vention of frost damage in several countries, and also AS S has already been announced, Prof. Karl Selim

gave rise to new scientific investigations (for instance, Lemström, whose name is known to our readers by Th. Homén). It is to be hoped that further work by his investigations on the aurora borealis and the may be devoted to this important subject as well as influence of electricity on plant growth, died on to the electrocultural question, which have both but October 2 after a short illness.

very little advanced from the point to which they were He was born in 1838 not far from Helsingfors, and brought by the warm-hearted, indefatigable pioneer, entered the university in 1857, where he devoted him- Selim Lemström.

ARTHUR RINDELL. self to studies of physics and mathematics. His first scientific work, published in 1868, was founded on experiments made in Stockholm under the guidance

NOTES. of the late E. Edlund, the celebrated physicist, and dealt with the intensity curve of induction currents

It was announced last week that the Royal Society of in relation to time, the intensity of the inducing Edinburgh has awarded the Gunning Victoria Jubilee prize current, &c. A summary was published in French in for 1900-4 to Sir James Dewar, F.R.S. We now learn the Proceedings of the Swedish Academy of Sciences that the following additional awards have been made :in 1870.

the Keith prize for 1901-3 to Sir William Turner, K.C.B., Lemström joined the late Baron A. E. Nordensk- | F.R.S., for his memoir entitled “A Contribution to the jöld's expedition to Spitsbergen in 1868 as physicist. Craniology of the People of Scotland," and for his “ ConIn the two following years he worked in the laboratory tributions to the Craniology of the People of the Empire of V. Regnault in Paris; in 1871 he made a journey of India": the Makdougall-Brisbane prize for 1902–4 to to Lapland; in 1872 he continued his researches on the induction currents at the St. Petersburg Academy

Mr. J. Dougall for his paper on an analytical theory of the of Sciences. His papers during these years are printed equilibrium of an isotropic elastic plate; the Neill prize in the Proceedings of the Swedish Academy and of the

for 1901-4 to Prof. J. Graham Kerr for his researches on Finland Society of Sciences.

Lepidosiren paradoxa. During the journey to Spitsbergen Lemström was

A VALUABLE collection of specimens illustrative of the engaged in observations on atmospheric electricity, terrestrial magnetism, and the aurora borealis. These

fauna of the deep sea has recently been received at observations, continued in Lapland, suggested to him

the British (Natural History) Museum as a gift from a new theory of the last named phenomenon, so enig

H.M. the King of Portugal. The collection is reported to matic even after the investigations of De la Rive, | include a number of deep-sea fishes, among which are Loomis and others. This theory he expounded in a

sharks of considerable size, captured during His Majesty's dissertation entitled “ The Electrical Discharge in the

recent cruise in Portuguese waters. Several of these may Aurora and the Auroral Spectrum " (1873).

prove to have been previously unrepresented in the British His next work, on the causes of terrestrial mag- Museum collection. King Carlos, like the Prince of netism, was published in 1877. Starting from Monaco, is much interested in the fauna of the deep sea, Edlund's well known theory on the nature of electricity, of which he himself has done much to increase our knowhe argued that the rotation of the earth in an atmo- ledge. The collection sent to the museum is also stated to sphere of non-rotating ether causes the electric contain a series of contributions to our knowledge of the currents of which the terrestrial magnetism is a manifestation, and he described several experiments deep-sea fauna from the pen of His Majesty. in confirmation of these views.

The sale of Chartley Park, Staffordshire, the hereditary Appointed in 1878 professor of physics at the seat of Lord Ferrers, involves also a change of ownership Helsingfors University, he continued his investigations of the remnant of the celebrated herd of white cattle which on the aurora borealis in Lapland in 1882-4, where he have been kept there for the last 700 years. It is much organised two stations for taking part in the inter

to be regretted that the cattle could not have gone with rational polar exploration of these years. The investigations carried on by this expedition were published the park, and have been maintained there by the new in a large work, “Exploration internationale des

owner ; but as this is not to be, it is to be hoped that they Régions polaires, &c.," of which vol. iii. (1898) con

will be given a safe home elsewhere, where they will nourish tains his auroral researches.

and increase. It was long considered that the herds of wild One very interesting work by Lemström is devoted cattle in various British parks were direct descendants of to the study of night frosts and the means to prevent the wild aurochs, but it is now generally admitted (largely their devastations, so frequent in Finland. Lemström owing to the writings of Mr. Lydekker) that they are emphasised the nocturnal radiation of heat as the derived from domesticated albino breeds nearly allied to principal cause of the night frosts, and showed that the Pembroke and other black Welsh strains, some of which in calm and clear summer nights the air, cooled by show a marked tendency to albinism. This view, as pointed the radiating soil and plants, must remain at the sur

out by a writer in the Times of November 29, is strongly face of the earth, and, flowing like water, gather on lower grounds, which generally are most exposed to

supported by the fact that the Chartley cattle frequently

The theory advocated by a later frost. He proposed to prevent the radiation by artificial produce black calves. clouds of smoke, and invented for this purpose

writer in the same journal that the British park cattle are * torches " or tubes of peat (described in Acta Socie- | the descendants of a white sacrificial breed introduced by tatis Scientiarum Fennicae, Tome xx.).

the Romans rests upon no solid basis. The Chartley cattle, Moreover, Lemström made important experiments believed to be reduced to nine head, are to be captured by on the influence of electricity on growing plants, on the purchaser--no easy task. which subject he read a paper before the British Association at Bristol in 1898. ' The influence in ques

The anniversary dinner of the Royal Society was being tion was found by exposing the plants to electric tension held last week as we went to press. In proposing the toast trom a metallic wire net, provided with points and of the Royal Society, Mr. Arnold-Forster said that every connected with the positive pole of a Holtz machine, day he has lived in a public office he has been more and more the negative pole being conducted to the earth. impressed with the need for a greater knowledge in our public life of what men of science are thinking, what they lives. In early operation with complete removal of disease, are doing, and what they hope and mean to accomplish together with a wide margin of healthy tissue, our hope of in all the great departments of scientific life throughout the cure must depend. Medical treatment could not cure, and globe. There is absolutely infinite opportunity for the work could do little to prolong life. There was hardly any of trained minds in that important department of our situation in the body in which an operation for removal national life, the public service. Even in his short official could not be performed provided the disease were recognised life he had lived to see some progress made in the direction sufficiently early, and the results of surgical treatment were in which he wished to see this nation travel. Sir William by no means so hopeless as generally supposed. Huggins responded ; and among other speakers were Lord Strathcona, Sir J. W. Swan, Mr. W. Bateson, and Mr. We learn from the Athenaeum that M. Paul Tannery, Leonard Courtney.

whose death is announced, was born at Mantes on December Tue annual dinner of the Institution of Electrical

20, 1843, was president of the Congrès d'Histoire Générale

des Sciences held at Paris in 1900, and had written er. Engineers was held on Thursday last, December 1, Mr. Alexander Siemens, the president, being in the chair. In

tensively on philosophical subjects since 1876. His principal

works include “ Pour l'Histoire de la Science Hellene," proposing the toast of the institution, Lord Alverstone re

1887, and “ Recherches sur l'Histoire de l'Astronomie marked that its high standing among scientific organisations was due to the fact that it had kept pace with the

Ancienne," 1893 ; he edited with M. Ch. Henry the works times, had been the first to promulgate and promote among

of Fermat, and with M. Ch. Adam an edition of Descartes. its members all the information about electrical science Prince ROLAND BONAPARTE has resumed the presidency that could be obtained, had been willing to welcome of the committee of the Aëro Club of Paris, which he had electricians from all parts of the world, had kept its students previously to relinquish on account of ill-health. At the and its members acquainted with every modern develop meeting of the club on November 28, the report of the St. ment, and had given them the means of cultivating the Petersburg congress was read. The suggestion was made technical knowledge of their science to the highest extent. to ask the Government to lend a torpedo-boat for experiIn the course of his response to the toast, the presidentments in starting sounding-balloons over the Mediterranean announced that telegrams of congratulation and sympathy when the scientific congress meets at Algiers next April. had been received from the Belgian and Italian Societies In connection with proposed ascents during the solar eclipse of Electrical Engineers. In their visits to foreign countries

of August 30, 1905, it is unfortunate that one of the towns the international character of electrical engineering had having the best situation on the line of totality-from come out, and it was this which had contributed not a little Philippeville to Sfax-Batna, with a population of 6000 to the development of electricity throughout the world. or 7000, is lighted by electricity, and there is no gas

The death is announced of Dr. T. M. Drown, president reservoir. It will therefore be necessary for the aëronauts of Lehigh University, and previously professor of chemistry

to manufacture hydrogen on the spot, or else to bring it at Lafayette College and the Massachusetts Institute of

from a distance. Technology.

The following are among the lecture arrangements at It is reported in the Pioneer Mail that the Secretary the Royal Institution, before Easter :-a Christmas course of State for India has sanctioned the creation of the appoint- of lectures (experimentally illustrated and adapted to a ment of electrical adviser to the Government of India, with juvenile auditory) on ancient and modern methods of headquarters at Calcutta. The present post of electrical measuring time, by Mr. Henry Cunynghame; Prof. L. C. engineer to the Government of Bengal will be abolished. Miall, adaptation and history in the structure and life of ACCORDING to the correspondent of the Daily Chronicle

animals; Prof. Karl Pearson, some recent biometric studies ; (November 25) the German Commission that is investi

Prof. W. E. Dalby, engineering ; Mr. A. H. Savage Landor, gating tuberculosis has come to the conclusion that two

exploration in the Philippines; Prof. W. Schlich, forestry distinct forms of tubercle bacilli exist, the human and the

in the British Empire ; Mr. J. J. H. Teall, recent work of bovine. Out of fifty-six cases of human tuberculosis ex

the Geological Survey ; Prof. H. H. Turner, recent astroamined fifty showed human bacilli only, five (three being

nomical progress; Prof. R. Meldola, synthetic chemistry children) showed bovine bacilli, while the remaining one

(experimental); Mr. D. G. Hogarth, archæology; Prof. showed both human and bovine bacilli.

J. J. Thomson, electrical properties of radio-active sub

stances; and Lord Rayleigh, some controverted questions A MOVEMENT has been initiated in Denmark for the of optics. The Friday evening meetings will begin on erection of a monument to the late Prof. Finsen, the in- January 20, when a discourse will be delivered by Sir James ventor of the light cure for lupus. It has been thought that Dewar on new low temperature phenomena ; succeeding many outside Denmark would desire to join in doing honour discourses will probably be given by Dr. E. A. Wilson, Mr. to one who did so much for his fellow-men, and a British Cecil Smith, Mr. J. W. Gordon, Prof. H. Marshall Ward, committee has been formed for the furtherance of the Chevalier G. Marconi, Prof. J. J. Thomson, Prof. G. H. scheme. The Hon. Sydney Holland, Sir Francis Laking, Bryan, Prof. J. Wright, Prof. T. Clifford Allbutt, Lord Sir Frederick Treves, and Mr. Malcolm Morris, members Rayleigh, and other gentlemen. of this committee, announce that subscriptions may be paid to the Finsen Memorial Fund at the National Provincial

The new board of anthropological studies in Cambridge Bank, 112 Bishopsgate Street, E.C.

is now organised, and commenced work last October with

nine courses of lectures. Sir Richard Temple, Bart., C.I.E., The Bradshaw lecture was delivered at the Royal College delivered an inaugural address at Cambridge in the museum of Surgeons on December 1 by Mr. Mayo Robson, who of archæology and ethnology on “ The Practical Value of took for his subject the treatment of cancer. He pointed Anthropology.” In the course of his most interesting and out that in many instances, perhaps in all if we only knew suggestive address he said :—" Now, when we are started it, there was a pre-cancerous stage in which operation ought on a new line of research, when we add a new course of to be performed, and would be the means of saving many studies to a university curriculum, there is a question that

to

to

we cannot help facing-a question, in fact, that ought to by Dr. S. Gross, on the perineal sac and its glands of the arise_What is the good of it all?" From his long ex- guinea-pig. perience as an administrator in the East, Sir Richard

In the Zoologist for November Mr. O. V. Aplin announces. Temple drew, from facts that had come under his own observation, examples of the desirability, one would like

that the black-necked grebe (Padicipes nigricollis) should to add the necessity, of a knowledge of ethnology for those

be added to the list of birds nesting in the British Islands. who are brought into contact with alien peoples, and he

It appears that during the past summer several pairs of

these grebes successfully reared their young within our dealt severally with merchants and planters, administrators

islands, but for obvious reasons neither the locality where and magistrates, and missionaries. He also pointed out

this interesting event took place nor the name the observer that stay-at-home critics require training and information, as by their ignorant criticism they are liable to do a great

by whom it was recorded are revealed to the public. deal of actual harm. “But mischievous as uninformed

Pennant, it seems, stated that the black-necked grebe nested

in the Lincolnshire fens near Stamford in his time, and the criticism is, there is nothing of greater value and assistance

late Mr. E T. Booth had a pair of nestlings brought to than the criticism of the well informed.” He alluded to

him by a marshman; but the observations of this year form the value of anthropological study to history, and after

the first definite record of the nest having been actually seen. dealing with the value of an early anthropological train

A second article in the same journal is devoted to notes on ing to a man in his work, he pointed out the value it is

natural history made during the cruise round the world of in his private life, even if it is pursued merely as a hobby.

Lord Crawford's yacht Valhalla in 1902–3 by Mr. M. J. ** Not only will it enable the student to do the work of the

Nicoll. Among new forms obtained during the voyage, the world and to deal with his neighbours and those with whom

author refers to Pyroderees crawfordi, belonging to the be comes in contact, throughout all his active life, better than can be otherwise possible, but it will serve to throw

Microlepidoptera, and the fish Corvina crawfordi. He also

records his own observations on the flight of flying fish, a light upon what goes on around him, and to give an

and is one of those who believe that they move their insight into human affairs, past and present, that cannot

wings.” but be of benefit to him, and it will provide him with intellectual occupation, interest and pleasure, as long as eye The Danish Commission for the Study of the Sea, which can see, or the ear can hear, or the brain can think.” The

is charged with carrying out the Danish portion of the address is printed in full in the Cambridge Reporter (vol. cooperative international investigations, has issued the first xxvi., No. 643).

memoirs of its report, which is published under the title

“ Meddelelser fra Kommissionen for Havundersøgelser." ACCORDING "Notes for Visitors the Gezira Aquarium," issued by the Public Works Department of

The report, which is to be written in English or German,

and is issued in quarto form, uniform with the Bulletin of Cairo in November, the tanks at that establishment con

the Central Bureau of the International Council, is divided tained specimens of no less than twenty-nine species of

into three series, dealing respectively with fisheries, with native fishes, including the Nile perch, the electrical catfish, and the elephant-fish (Mormyrus).

hydrography, and with plankton. Of the fisheries series

one memoir is now published, viz. C. G. Joh. Petersen, on We have received from the author, Dr. W. G. Ridewood, the larval and post-larval stages of the long rough dab two papers on the osteology of the skull in some of the more and the genus Pleuronectes (with two plates); of the hydrogeneralised families of bony fishes, the one published in graphic series three memoirs, Martin Knudsen, on the the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, and the other organisation of the Danish hydrographic researches, H. J. in the Journal of the Linnean Society. Some remarks on Hansen, experimental determination of the relation between the general morphology of the skull are appended to the the freezing point of sea-water and its specific gravity at former paper.

0° C., Niels Bjerrum, on the determination of chlorine in

sea-water and examination of the accuracy with which The Emu for October contains reproductions of two very Knudsen's pipette measures a volume of sea-water; and interesting photographs, the first showing the "run" or of the plankton series two memoirs, Ove Paulsen, plankton ** play-house" of the great bower-bird (Chlamydera investigations in the waters round Iceland, C. H. Ostenmuchalis), and the second a flight of bare-eyed cockatoos feld, on two new marine species of Heliozoa occurring in (Cacatua gymnopis), estimated at between sixty and seventy the plankton of the North Sea and the Skager Rak. The thousand in number. Considerable interest attaches to a memoirs are of interest as being amongst the first fruits note on bird-sanctuaries in New Zealand, where, it appears, of the international scheme of cooperative research. They all the surviving flightless species are now protected by are, however, all short memoirs, dealing with what may Government. The want of such sanctuaries, both for birds be considered as side issues of the main investigations, the and mammals, in Australia forms the subject of comment reports upon which must be looked for at a later date. in another paragraph.

The Danish Commission, which is appointed by the Danish

Board of Agriculture, consists of Prof. C. G. Joh. Petersen To vol. lxxviii., part ii., of the Zeitschrift für wissen

(chairman), C. F. Drechsel, C. H. Ostenfeld, and Martin schaftliche Zoologie, Mr. A. Voss, of Dusseldorf, contributes

Knudsen (secretary). the first instalment of an essay on the comparative anatomy and mechanics of insect structure, especially in relation to The important preliminary results of the National fight, commencing with the thorax of the house-cricket Antarctic Expedition have already been utilised by Mr. W. in relation to the attachment of the wings and their move- Krebs in the communication of a useful paper to Das Weltall Dents. The other articles include one by Dr. P. Dugener (vol. iv., Heft 24). By comparison of the yearly temperature on the scent-organ of the butterfly Phassus schamyl and at the English, German, and Swedish stations during the the function of the same; a second, by Dr. H. Jordan, on year 1902-3, he finds that the average decrease of temperathe digestive organs of the sea-mouse (Aphrodite aculeata); ture amounted to 0°.5 C. for each degree of latitude ; and a third, by Mr. L. von Graff, on the marine turbellarian by applying this value to the results obtained by the five worms of Orotava and the coast of Europe ; and a fourth, stations established round the Antarctic Pole during the

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