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years 1898–1903, he has constructed approximate isotherms Berget, Turpain, and Perrin have all failed to obtain experibetween 50° and 80° S. latitude, and thus made an important mental proof of their existence. addition to the valuable yearly isothermal charts published

Part x. of the Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society in Dr. Hann's “ Handbook of Meteorology." Lr. Hann's

contains a continuation of the researches of Messrs. W. F. southernmost isobar is 4° C., just below Tierra del Fuego ;

Barrett, W. Brown, and R. A. Hadfield on the physical Mr. Krebs continues the isotherms for each 4° C. as far as

properties of a series of alloys of iron. It is shown that . - 16°, which runs near the 70th parallel between longitude remarkable similarity exists between the diminution of the 60° E. and 60° w. He also draws portions of the isotherm electrical conductivity and the change in the thermal conof – 20° C., reaching nearly to the Both parallel.

ductivity of iron, which are caused by the addition of other The Times of November 29 contains an interesting article

elements. Not only is the general order of the electrical

and thermal conductivities the same for all the alloys, but on London fogs; although it deals principally with the most

equal increments of any given element appear to produce elementary physics of the atmosphere, and with the part

a corresponding diminution of conductivity for both heat played by aqueous vapour, the subject is very ably handled

and electricity. It is remarkable that the effect of allorand is made both attractive and instructive. The author

ing iron with another element, even a better conductor, is points out the well known facts that the amount of invisible

always to reduce both the thermal and the electrical convapour in the air varies directly with the temperature;

ductivities. The ratio of the two conductivities is, howby whatever process the cooling of the air takes place, the

ever, not exactly the same for all alloys; on plotting the capacity of the vapour to remain invisible diminishes until

electrical against the thermal conductivity, a fairly smooth the “ dew point” or “ saturation point " is reached ; any

parabolic curve is obtained showing that the ratio increases further cooling produces cloud or fog. He states that it is

in magnitude as the conductivity of the alloys increases. more than twenty years since it was shown that the vapour molecules cannot of themselves combine to form cloud or THE October part of the Physical Review contains an fog particles, but that solid nuclei of dust, or other impuri- account by Messrs. C. W. Waidner and G. K. Burgess of ties, are necessary, on which the vapour molecules can a number of measurements which they have made by photo condense. Taking this for granted, it is seen at once why

metric methods of the temperature of the electric arr. fogs in London (or other large towns) are so much denser

Wien's law of the distribution of energy in the spectrum than in the open country. For instance, at an elevation was assumed as a basis of calculation, and three distinct of 6000 feet, say on the Alps, the number of dust types of photometers, namely, those of Holborn and Kurlparticles per cubic centimetre may amount to less than baum, of Wanner, and of Le Chatelier, were employed. 200, while in towns the number may reach 100,000 or

The values obtained for the “black body " temperature of 200,000. The vapour in the country, condensed on a few an arc of pure graphite by the three methods agreed within particles of dust, will result in a coarse grained form of 30° C., the average being about 3700° abs. The true condensation, whereas in town the same quantity of vapour

temperature of the arc must be higher than this by an being distributed over a very large number of dust particles, amount depending on the departure of the radiation from there results a fine grained fog. The author points "black body " radiation, and may possibly be between out that it is not the large-sized visible dust that does 3900° and 4000° absolute.

Contrary

the usually the damage, but the infi tely small, ultra-microscopic accepted view, the temperature of the arc does not appear particles produced by combustion of fuel and light; to be independent of the current, and it is undoubtedly that, in fact, experiments have shown that it is possible influenced by the degree of purity of the carbons forming for cloudy condensation to take place in the absence

the arc. With impure carbons, the temperature is lower of dust. In 1897 (Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxix.) | by 40° C. than in an arc of highly purified graphite. Such Mr. Aitken stated that dust particles are not absolutely

variations would appear to preclude the suggested use of essential for the production of fog, but that, as the air is the brightest part of the positive carbon of the electric arc full of dust and condensation takes place on these by pre- as a standard source of light. ference, therefore practically all our cloud particles have

The second number of the Extensionist, which is a record dust nuclei. The author concludes, justly, we are afraid, of the University Extension Guild, has reached us. that London will always be liable to fogs, owing to its

addition to numerous descriptive notes on the work of the situation and meteorological conditions; all that can be

guild, this issue contains addresses by Sir Arthur Rücker, hoped for is a reduction in the more disagreeable con

F.R.S., Mr. Hilaire Belloc, and Mr. Banister Fletcher. stituent elements; there seems to be, so far, no way of appreciably reducing their frequency or their bad effects.

THE Infants' Health Society has published a pamphlet We hope that the experiments begun by Sir Oliver Lodge,

entitled “ The Present Conditions of Infant Life, and their with a view to their possible ultimate dissipation by elec

Effect on the Nation," which directs attention to the almost tricity, will be energetically continued.

complete failure of our present method of rearing the infants

of the working class. In the poorer parts of the larger The Revue Scientifique (Nos. 20 and 21), in continuing towns and cities it is not uncommon for nearly half the its inquiries as to the existence of the n-rays, publishes a children born to die in infancy. The dominating cause of letter from M. Blondlot stating that the photographic ex- this appalling mortality is the improper feeding of the posures, the results of which he considers prove the reality infant. of these radiations, were made by a laboratory assistant who

Messrs. A. AND C. BLACK have published the 1905 issues was ignorant of the effects he ought to obtain, and was

of three useful annuals~" Who's Who," “ Who's Who therefore not unconsciously biassed. The obvious rejoinder Yearbook," and the “English woman's Yearbook." is made that the results obtained in this way are less to be

“ Who's Who " has been enlarged again this year, nearly trusted than if they were due to M. Blondlot himself. M.

a hundred pages having been added, bringing the total up Lambert claims that his experiments showing that the n-rays

to 1796. Due prominence is given to men of science and exist were made in a manner excluding subjective pheno

their work, not only of those in this country, but in other mena. On the other hand, MM. Cailletet, Lippmann,

parts of the world. There is a want of uniformity in the

true

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