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(LARGE MODEL.) Measures wave-lengths direct to an accuracy of within 1 Angstrom unit (one ten-millionth of a metre) from W.L. 3888 to W.L. 7724.

SPECIAL ADVANTAGES. The Collimator and Telescope are rigidly fixed at right angles, thus the instrument will stand in a corner, is always ready for use and in adjustment.

The wave-lengths can be read off by the observer without moving from his place.

The object glasses and prism are large (1}" clear aperture), which enables the. fainiest visible lines to be seen.

The eyepiece has a bright pointer for measuring ihe W.L. of brighi lines on a dark field.

Means are supplied of very simply setting the Zero, although on account of the great rigidity and careful construction throughout it may be used for many

months without any setting being needed. ADAM HILGER, Ltd., 75a Camden Road, London, N.W.






of his researches and of that of his predecessors is the How successful have been the results, both from the record of this branch of the museums, and also of the literary and the artistic point of view, readers of his debt which knowledge owes, and must ever owe, to book will not, we venture to think, be long in dethe influence of one of the most remarkable of the ciding. To whet their appetites, we herewith reproduce pioneer laboratories and great European centres of scientific work.

John BUTLER Burke.



THIS book fulfils the chief conditions we

have previously insisted upon as being essential in all new works relating to the birds of the British Isles, in that it is original, interesting, exquisitely illustrated from living subjects, and not burdened with technical names. Indeed, the latter are conspicuous by their complete absence, thereby, no doubt, rendering the volume much more acceptable to readers of all classes than it would have been had it included the usual superfluous intercalations in bracketed italics. Mr. Boraston, it appears, took to the “nature-study" of birds comparatively late in life, and in his case it may be truly said " better late than never," for had he never done so lovers of nature in general, and of birds in particular, would have been deprived of a very charming volume containing a number of fresh ideas and suggestive

Fig. 2.-Young Ringed Plovers crouching. From “ Birds by Land and Sea.' observations. Having once decided to take up the outdoor study of bird-life, the author entered a couple of the illustrations, all of which, by the way, on his task with characteristic energy, and at once saw are taken from the author's own photographs. how essential it was for him to follow in the steps of The volume opens with the latter of what the author the Messrs. Kearton and to employ the camera to terms the two critical periods of bird-life, namely, perpetuate the scenes that he so much enjoyed if his March and September, when the migratory species

are in the thick of their departure from or arrival at the British Islands. From September until May the seasonal observations of the year forming the subject of the volume relate to the bird-lile of the neighbourhood of the author's home at Stretford, near Manchester, but during June the scene is transferred to the wild coast of Anglesea and Puffin Island, while in July and August we

more return to the home district. Perhaps the Anglesea interlude forms the most interesting part of the volume; but whether on a holiday or whether at home, the author seems to be endowed with a marvellous capacity for work, both in the matter of making and recording observations and in taking photographs.

On the wild cliffs of Anglesea, as we are told on p. 210,“ stalking " birds for the purpose of taking their portraits by a well planned snap-shot demands a considerable amount of coolness and steadiness on the part of the observer, as if he becomes too much absorbed in the object of his pursuit awkward accidents are likely to occur; and even if such undesirable contingencies are successfully avoided, disappointments from unsuspected or unavoidable causes are only

too likely in many instances to annul the FIG.1.-Kittiwakes on an Anglesea Cliff. From "Birds by Land and Sea." re-ults of all the toil and trouble. Who,

for instance, will fail commiserate work was to be one that would appeal successfully to the author on having lost the chance of " snapping the public.

a sitting nightjar (p. 202), from the fact that he

actually did not see the bird for some seconds, and 1 " Birds by Land and Sea : the Record of a Year's Work with Field glass and Camera."

then, when “his ties were opened,” the camera By J. M. Boraston. Pp. xiv +282 ; illustrated. (London: John Lane, 1905.) Price ros. 6d. net.

slipped ?





As an example of the successful accomplishment this spherical globule when solidified forms the ruby. of a difficult task, we reproduce (Fig. 1) the photo | The cooling has to be very gradual, so that the crystalgraph of kittiwake gulls nesting on the precipitous line particles have time to become regularly arranged, face of a cliff, approach to which was effected by climb- or an opaque product is obtained. If the ovoid mass ing down a narrow gulley and then scrambling over is carefully detached when cold, it splits up into two seaweed-clad boulders, to the imminent peril of the nearly equal portions, but not along a cleavage-plane.

The product so obtained is an individual crystal, and As a specimen of really excellent bird-photography, the direction of its principal optic axis is never very

different from that of the major axis of the ovoid. young ringed plovers (Fig. 2), the

mottled down of The product when cut cannot be distinguished by which harmonises so admirably at a short distance with its chemical, physical, or optical properties from a their surroundings.

stone cut from a natural ruby. The operation may If it be said that this notice is purely commendatory, be considered successful when the clear product weighs and contains nothing in the way of criticism, the reply 12 to 15 carats, and has a real diameter of 5 or 6 is that we have found nothing to criticise or to con- millimetres. It is, however, impossible to obtain demn. It is real nature-study.

R. L.

stones larger than carat free from included bubbles and cracks, and experts can therefore readily dis

tinguish the artificial gems from natural ones. These THE ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTION OF flaws do not in any way detract from the beauty of RUBIES BY FUSION.1

the stones; they are often clearer than many natural T Hof memoir opens with a short historical account

rubies, which are seldom found perfect.

The paper is illustrated by diagrams of the very inrubies by fusion, starting with the researches under- genious apparatus devised by the author. taken by Gaudin with the view of obtaining fused alumina in a transparent state. He obtained by

CALCIUM METAL: fusing potassium or ammonium alum, together with a little chrome alum, small globules

, which became ELE

LECTROMETALLURGY has at last succeeded opaque on solidification, but had the composition of in producing metallic calcium in commercial the ruby. These were shown by Becquerel to have quantities, and at what must be considered a relatively the cleavage of corundum, and contained small cavities

low price. Until within a few weeks ago this metal lined with crystals of ruby. Gaudin concluded that had only been available in very small amounts, and realumina could not exist in the vitreous state, and this

mained a rare laboratory specimen; it is now obtainview was supported by C. Sainte-Claire Deville, on able at a price per kilogram less than that charged account of the uniform density of the oxide before by most chemical dealers for a small one-gram sample. and after fusion. The facts at present known are in Humphry Davy first formed the amalgam by electrosupport of this view, for the transparent alumina lysing lime, mixed with mercuric oxide and slightly obtained by fusion is a completely crystalline mass.

moistened, with a mercury kathode; he isolated the The problem was not further investigated until, in

metal in small quantities by distilling off the mercury: 1886, Charles Friedel described an experiment by which Since then many chemists' have tried in vain to find corundum was obtained by fusion, presenting most of

a method suitable for its preparation on a larger scale, the properties of the ruby, but differing from the

Matthiesen, making use of Bunsen's suggestion of natural product by the presence of certain included applying high current density at the kathode, only bubbles, and by a rather low density.

succeeded in obtaining a few grams at a time by electro*As the production of the so-called “Geneva rubies” lysis of the fused chloride, or of mixtures of calcium remained a trade secret, M. Verneuil started a series of and other chlorides having a lower fusing point. investigations, following up the work of Gaudin. He Henri Moissan, as the result of a critical study of the found that to obtain the fused material in a transparent numerous proposed methods, was able to prepare somestate certain conditions must be rigorously fulfilled. what larger quantities of the metal. His method was He compares the solidification of alumina to that of essentially a modification of that proposed by Lieswater, which forms according to the method of cool- Bodart and Jobin in 1858, which consisted in reducing ing transparent or opaque ice. An important observ- fused calcium iodide with metallic sodium. Moissan ation which appears to have escaped Gaudin is that it found that molten sodium forms an excellent solvent is only the portions of alumina which are fused in the for calcium, and by heating calcium iodide with a cooler parts of the flame which remain transparent large excess of sodium obtained on cooling a cake on solidification. One of the greatest experimental of the sodium-calcium alloy, resting on the sodium difficulties is that, however carefully the cooling is iodide. Small quantities of the alloy were thrown into conducted, the fused mass is excessively brittle. This well cooled absolute alcohol, which reacts with the brittleness is least marked when a very small support sodium leaving the calcium pure, but in the state of ing surface is employed. The apparatus devised by a fine crystalline powder. This powder can be M. Verneuil is very ingenious. The blow-pipe and agglomerated by pressure and fusion, and thus furnace tube must be absolutely vertical. The finely Moissan prepared the fine specimen ingots of this powdered alumina, containing the requisite quantity metal which so greatly interested visitors to the Paris of chromic oxide, and specially purified, is admitted Exhibition of 1900. It is largely to him that we are by means of a fine sieve, which is given a series of indebted for a knowledge of the properties of the pure regular taps, controlled by an electromagnet, so that metal, of which he prepared some 4 kilos. by this the material falls down the tube intermittently in a process. Contrary to the earlier descriptions, calcium series of thin layers. It forms a cone at the bottom, is a white metal, the yellow coloration being due to and as soon as this cone reaches a hot enough part of a film of nitride; its melting point is about 760° C., and the tube the apex fuses, and the fused material then its density 1.85. The definite compounds which it extends gradually upwards in a long filament. This forms directly with hydrogen and nitrogen promise eventually reaches a still hotter part of the furnace, and useful applications in the laboratory in cases where develops a spherical mass instead of growing further; it is necessary to remove these gases. 1 “Memoire sur la Reproduction artificielle du Rubis par Fusion." By

The next advance was made almost simultaneously A. Verneuil. (Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 8e série, t. ii., September.) | by Borchers and Stockem at Aix-la-Chapelle, and

of te


at Berlin. The method employed by It is announced by the Athenaeum that the Circolo Matethes

was in principle that of Matthiesen, but matico di Palermo intends to offer an international prize by

nstruction of apparatus and regulation for geometry at the fourth International Mathematical much better yields were obtained, and

Congress, which will meet at Rome in 1908. The prize the thus prepared in larger quantities.

will consist of a small gold medal, to be called the Guiccia Bone

Stockem electrolysed molten calcium chlo

medal, after its founder, and of 3000 francs, and will be was maintained at a temperature below the Int of calcium; they ascribe the low yields given by preference, though not necessarily, to an essay peratures to the reaction of fused calcium

which advances the knowledge of the theory of algebraical chloride to form a subchloride. Using curves of space. The treatises may be written in Italian, an in s kathode, they obtained a metal sponge French, German, or English, and must be sent to the presiwhich w pressed with tongs before removing from

dent of the Circolo Matematico before July 1, 1907. the elec: Olyte. The raw material prepared in this way con ined some 10 per cent. of calcium chloride,

We learn from the Times that on Friday last President which could, however, be almost entirely removed by Loubet received Dr. Otto Nordenskjöld, who was presented subsequent fusion of the metal.

by the Minister for Sweden and Norway in Paris. On the The final step in the evolution of the commercial evening of the same day Dr. Nordenskjöld delivered a lecture process was taken by Suter and Redlich, of the Elektro- on his Antarctic explorations before the French Geographical chemische-Werke, Bitterfeld. By the ingenious em- Society. Prince Gustav Adolph and Prince William of ployment of a kathode which only just touches the

Sweden were present, and several Ministers were represented. surface of the fused calcium chloride, they obtain a

Dr. Nordenskjöld was the guest on Saturday afternoon of small layer of fused calcium under the kathode; before the calcium has collected in sufficient amount to flow

the Paris Municipal Council at the Hôtel de Ville. He was away the electrode is very slightly raised; the metal

welcomed by the president of the council, who presented thus comes into a cooler zone and solidifies. By con

him with a silver medal commemorating his visit to the tinuing the process a rather irregular rod of calcium city. On Saturday evening Dr. Nordenskjöld delivered a is built up, which itself forms the kathode. The metal lecture before a large and distinguished audience at the is supplied in these rough rods, which in outward Sorbonne. appearance strongly resemble cabbage stalks, but show a white metallic surface when cut through.

The death is announced of Mr. C. G. Barrett, one of the The present price quoted in Germany is about 20s. editors of the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, at the age a kilogram retail, or 125. a kilo. in 100 kilogram lots, of sixty-eight years. which quotation alone proves the feasibility of the

It is stated that at a meeting of the French Surgical process. The technical product is said to contain about 97:"1 per cent pure calcium, 1.64 per cent. calcium Society held on December 14 a report of the committee chloride, and 0.4 per cent. sodium. If one may judge appointed to investigate Dr. Doyen's researches on cancer by the case of metallic sodium, there will doubtless be

and its microbe was read, and that some of the conclusions difficulties in finding any large demand for the metal, support Dr. Doyen's claims. No authentic details have, but it will obviously be much appreciated for experi- however, as yet been published. mental purposes in many chemical and physical laboratories.


The following recent deaths are announced in the Bulletin of the French Physical Society and the Popular Science

Monthly :-M. Jeunet, late professor of physics; Prof. NOTES.

Lespiault, of the University of Bordeaux; Prof. Joseph We regret to announce that Sir Lowthian Bell, Bart.,

Thimont, of the École Ste-Geneviève and other institutions ; F.R.S., died on Tuesday, at eighty-eight years of age.

Prof. Clemens A. Winckler, professor of chemistry at

Dresden ; Prof. Max Berbels, of Berlin, noted for his publiThe death of Mr. Norman Maccoll, late editor of the

cations on ethnology ; Major Henry F. Alvord, chief of the Athenaeum, at sixty-one years of age, will be deeply re

dairy division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. gretted by many men of science. Mr. Maccoll did much to further the interests of science, and to cultivate sympathy

In the Bulletin of the French Physical Society, No. 219, with the pursuit of natural knowledge among readers not the death is announced of Prof. Macé de Lépinay, of actively engaged in scientific work.

Marseilles, a former member of the council of the society. Ox Saturday last, direct telegraphic communication was

Prof. Macé de Lépinay's researches were mostly connected pestablished between Liverpool and Teheran, in Persia, a

with optics, and had special reference to the determination distance of four thousand miles. The line belongs to the

of wave-lengths by means of interference phenomena, on Indo-European Telegraph Company.

the lines first laid down by Fizeau. The methods used were

interference due to double refraction, interference of a direct Ox Tuesday next, December 27, Mr. Henry Cunynghame will deliver at the Royal Institution the first of a Christmas

ray with one passing through a lamina of the crystal, and course of six lectures adapted to a juvenile auditory on

interference of two rays, one passing once and the other ancient and modern methods of measuring time, experi

twice through the lamina. A further series of researches mentally illustrated.

dealt with the inverse problem of determining the specific

mass of water. Most of the experiments were performed At the December meeting of the Astronomical Society of

with sodium light. Prof. Macé de Lépinay's latest reFrance an address was given by Mr. de Watteville on the

searches were conducted conjointly with M. Buisson, who temperatures of stars. The lecturer described a series of experiments made by him in the Count de Labaume Pluvinel

proposes to complete them. laboratory, and exhibited a series of photographs of spectra

GLASS hives for the observation of bees at work have obtained by him, reproducing the principal types described

been in use for many years, and latterly ants' nests have by Sir Norman Lockyer. The president congratulated the been on view at the Crystal Palace; but it may be new to speaker on having obtained such brilliant results, on the many of our readers to learn that Messrs. A. W. Gamage, subject of which he has already delivered a thesis at the Ltd., of Holborn, have actually put on sale a contrivance Sorbonne.

called “ The Lubbock Formicarium,” which is really a portable ants' nest, which can be moved anywhere without of Mülhausen. The book is issued in two forms, one more trouble or inconvenience, and which, it is claimed, will last expensive than the other. In the cheaper issue (of which for upwards of six years with ordinary care. The species the price is 3s. 6d.) there are only five coloured plates, selected is the small yellow ant, Formica flava, and the nest whereas in the more expensive one (price 45, 6d.) the number is enclosed in a frame 10 inches square, resembling a picture of illustrations of this description is twenty-nine. Some frame, except that it must, of course, be laid fat, and the difference in the arrangement and number of the cuts discover must be kept over it except when the ants are under tinguishes the 'two issues. Considering the price of the observation. The nest contains ants in their various stages, volume, the coloured illustrations are all that could be and some of the other insects which are associated with

desired. The fact of the work reaching its twenty-sixth them; and it is supplied with or without a queen,

edition is a sufficient guarantee of its fitness for its special and accompanied by full directions as to management. This purpose. novelty has attracted considerable attention already, and the visitors, many of whom are children, show much interest in

We have received a copy of a new monthly publication, this novel exhibition.

Indian Public Health (No. 4. vol. i.), which is to be devoted

to the discussion of public health questions in our Indian DR. CHARLES WALDSTEIN gave a lecture on “ Herculaneum Empire. We cannot help expressing the opinion that it is and the Proposed International Excavation” at the Royal undesirable to multiply small journals, of which there are Academy on December 14. He remarked that from already too many. It would be better to enlarge the scope Herculaneum many beautiful works might be expected. of the existing journals. The city and district of Herculaneum were overwhelmed with volcanic material, but this is not the impenetrably In the Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club (ix, hard lava commonly supposed. Geologists have shown that, No. 55) Mr. T. B. Rosseter gives a good description of the apart from actual contact with air, the material is perfectly anatomy of Taenia sinuosa, a tapeworm of geese, and proves friable and manageable for the excavator. The beautiful by feeding experiments that the cysticercoids inhabit certain works from the city which are to be seen at Naples show copepods and ostracods; and Mr. Wesché investigates some that the disaster was not destructive of the beauty of the new sense-organs of Diptera, concluding that where the works of art at Herculaneum. Manuscripts which can be antennæ are not particularly sensitive, the palpi have strucunrolled and read, as well as glass and marble, with no tures to compensate, and may bear organs of touch, taste, trace of fire on them, give good hope of what may be ex- and smell, but not more than two of these at the same time. pected from thorough excavation. The catastrophe was a He also describes certain organs, probably of sense, on marvellous preservation of a provincial city's life at the the legs of many species, the function of which is doubtful. moment of arrest. The King has expressed approval of the proposed international excavation, and the King of Italy, as We have received “Researches in Helminthology and well as his Prime Minister, promise support. The Presi- Parasitology," by Prof. Joseph Leidy, edited by his son, Dr. dent of the United States, the German Emperor, the Presi- Joseph Leidy (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, part dent and Government of the French Republic, the Emperor of vol. xlvi.). It gives a summary of Prof. Leidy's conof Austria, and the King of Sweden encourage the under- | tributions to science, with bibliography, and should prove taking There is already a committee in Vienna, and it is

of considerable value to those engaged in these branches hoped to secure the cooperation of many other national of research. Commencing in 1849, Prof. Leidy's contribucommittees. Mr. Neville Rolfe, our Consul at Naples, has tions were continued without intermission down to 1889, and told Dr. Waldstein that there is ample work for many

are no less than 578 in number, many being of considerable years without infringement of private rights.

importance, and embracing parasites of all kinds, as well

as some papers on comparative anatomy. Our Norwegian namesake-Naturen—for November contains an illustrated account of the mammoth discovered in In the report for the year 1903-4 on the administration the Kolyma district in 1901, and now mounted in the St. of the Government Museum and Connemara Public Library, Petersburg Museum. The monster has been set up in the Madras, amongst other interesting matter the following position in which it was found, namely, endeavouring to paragraph appears :-“ A prolonged tour was made in the struggle out of a quicksand or crevasse.

Mysore province in connection with the ethnographic In the issue of the Sitzungsberichte of the Vienna Academy

survey, with the primary object of continuing my researches

into the character of the Canarese cranium (vide Museum for November 10 Dr. F. Werner gives an account of the

Bulletin, iv., 2, 1901). The work was carried out under zoological results of his recent expedition to Egypt and

conditions of considerable difficulty, caused by the terror Nubia. The most important part of the collection appears to consist of orthopterous insects--a group hitherto very im

of the natives, who mistook me for a recruiting sergeant perfectly known from the countries in question, and of

bent on seizing them for employment in South Africa or which a large series of specimens was obtained. Very note

for the Somali war, and fled before my approach from

town to town. worthy is the discovery of certain Central Asian species of

The little spot, which I am in the habit of the group in the heart of this part of Africa. A fish and a' making with Aspinall's paint to indicate the position of fresh-water mussel previously supposed to be confined to

the fronto-nasal suture when measuring the nose, was supthe Upper Nile are recorded from the delta, and some

posed to possess blistering properties, and to turn into a interesting observations with regard to certain reptiles have

number on the forehead, which would serve as a means of also been made.

identification. The untimely death of a Korava outside

a town where I was halting was attributed to my evil eye. We are indebted to the publisher-G. Freytag, of Leipzig Villages were denuded of all save senile men, women and --for copies of the two issues of the new (twenty-sixth) children. The vendors of food-stuffs in one bazaar finding edition of Pokorny's “ Naturgeschichte des Tierreiches,” business slack owing to the flight of their customers, raised a well known zoological text-book for schools. The present their prices, and a missionary complained that the price enlarged edition has been supervised by Mr. M. Fischer, of butter had gone up. My arrival at one important town

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