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A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AGRICULTURAL succession to Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S., now professor SCIENCE.'

of geology at Glasgow University. THE yearly increasing output of scientific workers, like Chairs for research and teaching in protozoology and in

the feas that have “lesser fleas to bite 'em,” has helminthology are about to be established at the London called into being another class of workers who have to School of Tropical Medicine, the funds being provided by abstract the papers into Jahresberichte, Centralblatter,

certain colonial Governments. The importance of these records, and the like, the next step in the ad infinitum branches of research in tropical medicine is unquestionable. process being represented by the indexes which appear every

and it is gratifying to know that this is appreciated by the decade or so to the abstracts themselves. By no other Governments which have thus assisted the study of the means would the investigator be able to read up the subjects. literature" before attacking a new problem, and though DR. JOLY has been appointed ordinary professor of mathethere may be two opinions as to the wisdom of so doing, there can be none as to the desirability of having the power recognised teacher in mathematics, has been appointed

matics at Lausanne ; Dr. Heinrich Liebmann, hitherto if need be. The present volume consists of a subject index to the first twelve volumes of the Experiment Station

assistant professor of philosophy at Leipzig ; Dr. Roland Record, the well known series of abstracts of both American

Scholl, assistant professor of chemistry at the technical

college, Carlsruhe; Dr. Arthur Wehnelt assistant professor and European papers in agricultural science which is issued

of theoretical and applied physics at Erlangen; Dr. Georg monthly by the United States Department of Agriculture, Edler von Georgievics, hitherto professor of chemical and distributed so liberally to all foreign workers. The technology at Bielitz, is to succeed Prof. Karl Zulkowski at Experiment Station Record is, indeed, something more than the German Technical College at Prague. a journal of abstracts; it contains from time to time special articles resuming the current state of knowledge about par

The annual conference of teachers, arranged by the ticular subjects, and written by some acknowledged expert ; London County Council, will be held on January 5-7 next for example, in this index we find mentioned special articles at the Medical Examination Hall, Victoria Embankment. by Kühn, Stohmann, Kellner, Zuntz, and Hagemann on At the first meeting, addresses on the teaching of arithnutrition investigations alone.

metic will be given by Mr. C. T. Millis and Mr. S. 0. The abstracts proper in the Experiment Station Record are Andrew, and the discussion will be opened by Mr. A. W. generally very full ; like all abstracts, they vary much in Siddons. Other subjects to be brought forward at sub value, but generally they fulfil their real purpose of telling sequent meetings are :—the psychology of dictation, the one whether it is worth while to read the original paper or teaching of reading, art teaching in Japan, the influence not. Naturally, with a subject like agriculture, touching

on handicraft of art teaching in elementary and secondary on so many sciences, the abstracts cover a very wide field; schools, the art training of the artisan, and true and false chemistry, botany, zoology, geology, all have their special applications of Froebel's principles. journals which must be looked through lest any article bearing on agriculture escape ; meteorology, bacteriology, versity College of North Wales with new buildings on the

The promoters of the movement for providing the Univeterinary science, horticulture also contribute, in addition to the great volume of journals in every country which

site presented by the Corporation of Bangor have within

the last few days been greatly encouraged in the task by are devoted solely to agricultural topics. The present index an announcement that Mr. Owen Owen will contribute only adds to the debt of gratitude which all British workers 1000l. to the building fund. This donation, taken in conin this field have long owed to the United States Depart. junction with the recent bequest to the college by the late ment of Agriculture; in fact, if one wants to find the Dr. Isaac Roberts of the sum which is expected to reach reference to some English experiment, by far the best if about 15,000l., and by the late Mr. John Hughes, of Livernot the only way of tracing it is to hunt up its abstract pool, and Mr. Richard Hughes, of Llanfwrog, Anglesey, of in the Experiment Station Record. Such a pursuit will 5000l. and 1500l. respectively, for the purpose of establishnow be greatly facilitated by the present general index, ing scholarships, affords a welcome indication of the interest which represents a putting together of the very full indexes which is now being taken in the fortunes of the college by to each of the annual volumes. A further feature of value is

Welshmen having the like means and wish to benefit the a complete list of Bulletins issued by the various divisions of cause of higher education. the U.S. Department of Agriculture, with references to the abstracts in the Record. When we add that the department

At a recent meeting with reference to Swanley Hortihas also published card indexes to the more important cultural College, presided over by Lady Brassey, Mr. J. C. foreign agricultural publications, as, for example, to the

Medd urged the claims of the college to recognition by the well known Landw. Versuchsstationen, we get a further idea Board of Agriculture, and showed how the institution now of the completeness with which the United States Depart. fulfilled the conditions which it ought to do, if it were to ment of Agriculture is pursuing its self-imposed task of expect an annual grant from that Government department. bibliography.

He also alluded to the nature-study course for teachers which was held at Swanley during the summer holidays

Sir John Cockburn pointed out that all educational establishUNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

ments that did their duty were in need of funds, and that

Swanley College was no exception. Mr. Buckmaster, chief INTELLIGENCE.

inspector to the Board of Education, spoke of the efficiency At the Darmstadt Technical College Mr. Clarence Feld- of Swanley College at the present time, and thought that mann has been appointed professor of electrotechnics. all energy should be directed towards maintaining and in

Prof. W. Nernst, director of the departments of physical proving the position which Swanley had attained rather chemistry and electrochemistry at Göttingen, has accepted

than to inaugurating similar undertakings. the chair at Berlin previously occupied by Prof. Landolt. ADDRESSING the boys at St. Clement Danes' Holborn

Prof. ARRHENIUS has declined the appointment offered Estate Grammar School on Monday, Lord Alverstone him at Berlin, the Swedish Academy of Sciences having marked that it was the knowledge acquired in youth which founded a Nobel Institute of Physical Chemistry with Prof. lasted longest. The effort to retain impressions in late Arrhenius as director.

life was in marked contrast to that made when the brain DUBLIN University has conferred the degrees of Master

was younger. Modern languages, therefore, should be in Surgery and Doctor in Medicine honoris causa on Sir

earnestly and carefully studied at school. He was glad fra Frederick Treves, C.B., and the degree of Doctor in Science

see a considerable number of pupils had gained honours in honoris causa on Major Ronald Ross, C.B., F.R.S.

English literature. In the hurry and race of modern 1.e

there was a tendency to advocate education which wou'd Dr. E. W. SKEATS, demonstrator in geology at the Royal be of immediate assistance to professional life; but he was College of Science, has been appointed to the chair of strongly of opinion that up to the age of sixteen or severgeology and mineralogy in the University of Melbourne in teen a boy's education should be general, and the tempe

1 "General Index to Experiment Station Record." Vols. i. to xii., 1889- ution to specialise too much should be resisted. AN 1901. Pp. 671. U.S. Department of Agriculture. (Washington, 1903.) would be a better student and would make a better man of the world if up to seventeen he received a liberal educa- silicium under varying experimental conditions, and as a tion rather than one directed to any special object. Most result of the inquiry the lines were divided into four diseducationists would agree with Lord Alverstone in tinctive groups. The genuineness of the lines of group iv., his objection to specialisation at school; but in connec- as silicium lines, has recently been questioned by M. tion with this subject it is pertinent to ask whether the de Gramont, of Paris. He concludes that, as the lines of study of Greek is not specialisation to a boy who is taught group iv. always disappear from his spectra with the air English and Latin properly.

lines, they are really due to oxygen or nitrogen. This is

so much at variance with the Kensington conclusions that At the annual speech day of Scarborough Municipal

it has been considered necessary to give, in the present School on Tuesday, the Right Hon. A. H. Dyke Acland,

paper, the photographic evidence on which those conclusions chairman of the governing body of the school, remarked that

were based. Reproductions of photographs of silicium if he were asked what the secondary schools of the country

spectra under various electrical conditions are given, and needed most he would say more money, fewer examinations,

from the behaviour of the Si iv. lines in the different photoand a more effective instruction in English language and

graphs it is claimed that they cannot be due to anything literature. They wanted the means which would enable

other than silicium. them to try to follow the example of other countries in the

In the vacuum-tube spectrum of SiF, the Si iv. lines are matter of secondary education. The culprit in this case

seen to be stronger than even the strongest of Neovius's was not the Board of Education but the Treasury. If it

air lines, which appear in the same spectrum. had to put down ten millions for elementary education it

In one of the reproductions, the spark spectrum of tried to take it out of secondary education, and at this present moment of our country's ' history there was nothing is compared with the spark spectrum of air, also made in

sodium-silico-fluoride, volatilised between platinum poles, which needed more assistance than secondary education.

candescent between platinum poles. In each spectrum the With regard to examinations, Mr. Acland strongly con

ordinary lines of nitrogen and oxygen are well seen. The tended that the old system of paper examinations was not

silicium lines in question are shown in the former spectrum, a true test of the efficiency of a school, and was often

but have no corresponding lines in the air spectrum. It is altogether deceptive. The true test was when half a dozen

also mentioned that these lines do not occur in the Kensinginspectors spent four days and watched the work of the

ton spark spectrum of any element other than silicium. pupils, as was done at Scarborough. In America there were almost no examinations, and in Germany the ordinary paper

There are, according to Neovius, very weak lines of examination of which we thought so much was unknown.

oxygen or nitrogen near the positions of the silicium lines (4089.1 and 4116.4). These faint air lines are possibly the lines which Gramont gets in his spectra, but from the

evidence adduced in the present paper they are not the lines SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

which appear so strongly in the Kensington silicium spectra.

In another reproduction the Sif, spectrum is given alongLONDON.

side that of e Orionis, and the identity of position of the Royal Society, October 27.—“Some Physical Characters of

Si iv. lines and strong lines in the stellar spectrum is shown. the Sodium Borates, with a New and Rapid Method for the Linnean Society, December 1.-Prof. W. A. Ilerdman, Determination of Melting Points." By C. H. Burgess F.R.S., president, in the chair.–Proteid digestion in animals and A. Holt, jun.

and plants : Prof. S. H. Vines, F.R.S. In this discourse The glasses obtained by fusing sodium carbonate with Prof. Vines first remarked that the foundation of our knowboric anhydride can be transformed either wholly or in part ledge of gastric digestion in animals was laid by van Helon prolonged heating into stable, crystalline varieties, mont so long ago as early in the seventeenth century which invariably melt at higher temperatures than the (“Ortus Medicinæ," 1648), who held that it was effected glasses from which they were derived.

by an “ acid ferment." But in spite of continued research A study of the melting points of the crystalline and by Réaumur, Stevens, Spallanzani and others, it was not vitreous forms of mixtures of different compositions leads until two hundred years later that the ferment was actually to the conclusion that only two sodium borates can be

detected. This important discovery was made in 1836 by obtained by fusion-Na, 0.43,0, and Na,O.B,0,.

the celebrated Schwann, who gave to the ferment the name The addition of Na, o to boric anhydride produces in the “ pepsin." In the course of subsequent investigation, it first place a solution of the borate Na,0.43,0, in boric came to be recognised that the digestion of the food is not anhydride. This then becomes supersaturated, and the

by any means completed in the stomach, but that the greater borate in excess separates on heating for some time. The

part of the digestive process is carried on in the small amount which separates continues to increase until the

intestine (duodenum) by the pancreatic secretion. Claude mixture has the composition of nearly pure Na,0.4B,.,, Bernard ascertained in 1856 that the pancreatic juice conwhen complete crystallisation occurs. Between this point tains a ferment that digests proteids; to this ferment the and the compound Na, O.B,0,, the crystalline forms appear

trypsin ” was given by Kühne in 1876. These two to be solid solutions of the two above mentioned borates,

were the only proteases known until quite recently (1901) a anhydrous borax itself being almost the eutectic point.

new protease, termed " erepsin" by Cohnheim, its disIn mixtures containing more sodium than Na, O.B,0g, the

coverer, was added to the list. Like trypsin, this protease crystals seem to be solid solutions of this compound with

peptolyses peptones, and is active in alkaline liquids; but sodium carbonate. The glasses appear to be the superfused

its peptonising power is much less marked, as it is without and metastable forms of the crystals.

action on albumin and fibrin, though it can peptonise casein. Analyses of glasses and crystals of various composition

The discovery of erepsin suggested the possibility that confirm the observations derived from the melting points. trypsin might be, not a single enzyme, as had hitherto been The melting point method employed consisted essentially thought, but a mixture of enzymes, possibly of peptonising of a platinum wire which was heated electrically, to which

with peptolysing enzymes. Research in this direction has, . small bead of the substance under investigation wa

in the hands of Dr. Vernon, already (1903) shown that hung. A light weight was attached to the bead. When

what is generally known as trypsin is a mixture of erepsin the wire was heated to the melting point of the substance

(pancreato-erepsin) with what may be termed trypsin the bead and weight fell off. The resistance of the wire

proper. It is not inconceivable that analysis may be carried was determined at this moment, and thence the temperature.

still further, and that trypsin proper may itself be found The method proved good for substances like glass, which

to be a mixture of a peptonising with a peptolysing enzyme. have hitherto not been supposed to melt at any definite

Prof. Vines next turned to proteid-digestion in plants. His temperature.

own contribution, made within the last three years, consists November 17.-" On the Group IV. Lines of Silicium." of a number of observations on many different plants or By Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., LL.D., Sc.D., F.R.S., parts of plants, showing that a protease of some kind is and F. E. Baxandall, A.R.C.Sc.

probably to be found in all parts of all plants at one stage In previous communications to the Royal Society an or other of their development. It appears that whilst all arcount has been given of the behaviour of the lines of plants that have been investigated can effect peptolysis,


are zero.

100 ICO

only a limited number have been found capable of digesting other applications, harmonic analysis is simplified by the fibrin. Prof. Vines has ascertained that in certain cases consideration that all the even terms in the Fourier es(yeast, mushroom) the tissues contain a mixture of erepsin pansion are absent. In this case the second half-period is with a fibrin-digesting enzyme, a result which finds its similar to the first half-period, but with the ordinates of analogue in Vernon's researches on pancreatic trypsin. the corresponding angles reversed in sign. Given a comEntomological Society, December 7.-Frof. E. B.

plicated harmonic curve containing constituents of the odd Poulton, F.R.S., president, in the chair.-Mr. H. St. J.

orders only, the zero-line can always be drawn so that the

constant term vanishes from the Fourier series, the mean Donisthorpe exhibited Quedius nigrocoeruleus, taken by Mr. H. C. Dollman in a rabbit-hole at Ditchling, Sussex,

ordinate being zero; and it is then always possible to choose this being the fourth recorded British specimen.-Prof.

as origin a point for which the ordinates at oo and 180° T. Hudson Beare exhibited a specimen of the rare Longi

The paper gives a résumé of the various methods corn Tetropium castaneum, taken about two years ago in

which have been employed for harmonic analysis by ra the vicinity of the quays at Hartlepool, and probably intro

duction from simultaneous equations, graphical means, ang duced from abroad.—Mr. G. J. Arrow exhibited a series by harmonic analysers. The method adopted by the author of the Lamellicorn beetles from the Burchell collection, and

is a simplification of a general method of analysis published remarked that Burchell had at the time of their capture,

by Prof. Runge.--A high frequency alternator: W some seventy years ago, already noted their powers of pro: high-frequency alternator which he had constructed in 1900

Duddell. The author described and showed in action d ducing musical sound.--Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse exhibited drawings illustrating the development of the front wing in

for some experiments on the resistance of the electric arc the pupa of the Tusser silk moth, showing the relation of

and with which frequencies up to 120,000 ~

per second had

been obtained. An illustration will perhaps convey some the tracheæ to the veins, prepared for exhibition in the Natural History Museum. He also exhibited some coffee

idea of how high a frequency of 120,000 ~ per second really berries from Uganda injured by a small beetle belonging

is. In plotting curves for ordinary frequencies of 50 to to the Scolytidiæ, and two coleopterous larvæ from the

per second, a scale often adopted is 10 inches for

If it Burchell collection from Brazil, submitted to him for deter

were attempted to plota curve up to mination by Prof. Poulton. One was a heteromerous larva

120,000 ~ per second to this scale, the curve paper would two inches long, much resembling the larva of Helops. The

require to be 12,000 inches, or nearly one-fifth of a mile more interesting one was noted by Burchell to be luminous,

long.–Exhibition of experiments to show the retardation and appeared to be the larva of an Elaterid.-Mr. J. J.

of the signalling current on 3500 miles of the Pacific cable Walker exhibited the type-specimen of Haplothorax

between Vancouver and Fanning Island : Prof. W. E. burchelli, G. R. Waterhouse, from the Hope collection, a

Ayrton. The experiments were performed upon a cable remarkable Carabid discovered by Burchell in St. Helena.

electrically equivalent to the portion of the Pacific cable It is now exceedingly rare, if not entirely extinct, in its sole

between Vancouver and Fanning Island, the product of the locality, the late Mr. Wollaston, during his visit to the

capacity (in mfds.) and the resistance (in ohms) being nine island in 1875-6, having entirely failed to find the beetle

millions. Three dead-beat galvanometers were employed to alive, though its dead and mutilated remains were often

indicate the current at the beginning, in the middle, and met with. --The President exhibited cases showing the

at the end of the cable. It was shown that upon applying results of breeding experiments upon Papilio cenea con

an E.M.F. at one end of the cable the current at that end ducted by Mr. G. F. Leigh, who had for the first time bred

was enormously greater than its steady value, and that the trophonius form from trophonius itself. He also ex

one-fifth of a second elapsed before any indications of current hibited a photograph, taken by Mr. Alfred Robinson, of

were shown at the far end of the cable. By that time the the Oxford University Museum, showing the Xylocopid

current at the sending end was 3.7 times its steady value model and its Asilid mimic, exhibited by Mr. E. E. Green

and after two-fifths of a second it had fallen to 2-3 times at a recent meeting. The example was particularly interest

its steady value. In about five seconds the current becams ing, inasmuch as Mr. Green's record of the mimic circling

steady. round its model tended to support the view that the bee Royal Astronomical Society, December 9.-Prof. H. H. is the prey of the fly.--Erebia palarica, n.sp., and Erebia Turner in the chair.—On a very sensitive method of deterstygne, chiefly in regard to its association with E. evias, in mining the irregularities of a pivot, and on the influence Spain : Dr. T. A. Chapman. The author described of the pivot errors of the Radcliffe transit circle upon the Erebia palarica, a new species from the Cantabrian range; right ascensions of the Radcliffe catalogue : Dr. Rambaut. he said it was phylogenetically a recent offshoot of E. stygne, The method is a modification of that of M. Hamy, a small and the largest and most brilliant in colouring of all the steel pin being inserted in each pivot ; by means of a lever known members of the family.--Entomological experiences arrangement horizontal as well as vertical displacements, during a tour through India and Ceylon, October 10, 1903, due to pivot irregularities, can be observed. The apparatus, to March 26, 1904 : Dr. G. B. Longstaft.

which had been found entirely satisfactory, was fully de

scribed and illustrated.-On the validity of meteor radiants Geological Society, December 7.—Dr. J. E. Marr,

as determined from three observed tracks : Mr. Chapman. F.R.S., president, in the chair.-The chemical and mineral

---A note accompanying a photograph of the detached nebula ogical evidence as to the origin of the dolomites of in Cygnus : W. Ś. Franks. The nebula was the one southern Tyrol : Prof. E. W. Skeats. Recent work on recently photographed by Dr. Max Wolf; the present plate, modern coral-reefs has shown that these limestones contain

taken with the late Dr. Isaac Roberts's 20-inch reflector. very little, if any, insoluble residue. The study of the re

showed the details of the nebula on a larger scale. . lative proportions of the organisms composing these reefs,

second note by Mr. Franks upon dark nebulosities was also and the alterations that they undergo, has further shown read; it was illustrated by four photographs of long lentithat corals play a subordinate part in them, and that cal

cular nebulæ, each of which was sharply divided longcareous algæ, foraminifera, and other organisms form thetudinally throughout its entire length by a dark line. The bulk of the rocks of the reefs. The author has applied this

author suggested that these nebulæ, probably spirals seen information in the examination of collections from the much

edgeways, were cooler at their extreme edges, and that this debated area of the dolomites of southern Tyrol. The

band of cooler matter absorbed their light and caused the chemical examination of numerous specimens from the Schlern dolomites of the Schlern, the Langkof, the Marmo

appearance of the dark bands seen in the photographs

Two papers on the lunar theory, one being a note on the lata, the Sella, the St. Cassian district, the Richthofen Reef,

com tion of the solution of the main problem : Prof and numerous other localities is described, so far as relates

Ernest W. Brown.-- An analysis of 145 terms in the moon to the proportions of lime and magnesia and of insoluble

longitude : P. H. Cowell. On the decline in the magnitude residue. These results are compared with similar analyses

of the variable 159. 1904 Pegasi : Mr. Wickham. of limestones from lower and higher horizons.

Zoological Society, December 13. -- Mr. Herbert Druce Physical Society, December 8. - Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, I vice-president, in the chair.—Some specimens of a gazell F.R.S., president, in the chair. - On a rapid method of from Palestine: a new species: Oldfield Thomas, F.RS approximate harmonic analysis : Prof. S. P. Thompson. I --The anthropoid apes, illustrated by a large collection -For the study of alternating electric currents and for several mounted skins, skeletons, and skuils : the Hon. Walter



Rothschild. The gorilla from South Cameroon and the reaction. The determination of the difference in longitude white-faced chimpanzee of the Gaboon were characterised between Greenwich and Paris made in 1902 : M. Loewy. as new.-The cranial osteology of the clupeoid fishes : Dr. A detailed account is given of the precautions necessary for W. G. Ridewood.-Characters and synonymy of the British the accurate determination of this constant. Particular care species of sponges of the genus Leucosolenia : Prof. E. A. was given to the study of the personal equation of each Minchin.--Descriptions of eighteen species of land-shells observer, and to reduce still further the errors due to this belonging to the genus Macrochlamys and its allies : Dr. source, the English and French observers changed stations. W. T. Blantord, F.R.S.-Descriptions of a new genus and The mean result obtained by the latter for the difference of thirty-two new species phytophagous Coleoptera of the longitude between Paris and Greenwich was gm. 20.9745. family Halticidæ from South and Central America : M. -On the element Zo: Lecoq de Boisbaudran. In disJacoby.

cussing the presence of a band 1 = 488, M. Urbain regards CAMBRIDGE

the existence of a new element corresponding to this band

as hypothetical. The author gives reasons for his statePhilosophical Society, November 28.- Prof. Marshall ment that this band is really due to a new element, and Ward, president, in the chair.-Remarks on Piroplasmosis maintains the accuracy of his work published in 1895.with exhibition of specimens : G. H. F. Nuttall.-Note on Observations of the sun made at the Observatory of Lyons some peculiar features seedlings of Peperomia : A. W. with the 16 cm. Brunner equatorial during the third quarter Hill. The seedlings of Peperomia umbilicata were found in of 1904 : L. Guillaume. The results are summarised in the Andes of Bolivia at about 13,500 feet above sea-level. three tables giving the numbers of spots, their distribution The species is a geophilous one with small bulbs and peltate in latitude, and the distribution of the faculæ in latitude.leaves. The peculiarity of the seedlings lies in the fact that, On the approximation of incommensurables and of trigonothough they are dicotyledonous in structure, only one of metric series : M. Fatou.-On continuous space groups, the two cotyledons leaves the seed to function as an assimil- finite and infinite : M. Le Vavasseur.-Remarks on ating organ; the other remains permanently in the seed as method for the study of the convergence of certain conan absorbent organ. The other bulbous species from the tinuous fractions : H. Padé.--The detonation of explosive Andes apparently show the same features of germination, substances under water : M. Jacob.—An electrically driven and several other species from Central America, preserved nickel-steel pendulum : Jean Mascart. A preliminary in the herbaria of Kew and South Kensington, whilst differ- account of the results obtained with a pendulum of invar, ing in their vegetative habits, show a similar type of germin- driven by the electrical arrangement devised by M. Lippation.-Exhibition of new and rare Arachnids taken near

Its rate was about two seconds per day. The Cambridge: C. Warburton and N. D. F. Pearce.—The author regards it as preferable to use several pendulums of inheritance of tortoiseshell and related colours in cats : L. this kind, which can be set up with ease, to attempt an Doncaster Tortoiseshell cats are heterozygotes, contain- absolute compensation.-On the registration of the n-rays ing the two colours black and orange. They can be pro- by photography : G. Weiss and L. Bull. A description of duced by mating orange with black, but a tortoiseshell the arrangement adopted is given in detail, the object being paired with either orange or black may throw all three to produce three squares in contact with each other, the colours. Male tortoiseshells are exceedingly rare, and the centre one corresponding to the effect produced by the normal colour of the black-orange heterozygote in the male phosphorescent surface when not exposed to the rays. The is orange, the black in this case being completely recessive. two outer squares should have been darker if an increase When a male tortoiseshell is paired with a female, all three of the light intensity had been produced under the action colours may be produced in the kittens. Cream and blue

of the rays. The experiment was repeated a great number are dilute forms of orange and black, and behave similarly of times, varying the nature of the plates, the time of exwhen crossed, the females being “ blue tortoiseshells," the posure, and the intensity of lighting. The shortest exmales creams. Creams may be obtained by pairing blue

posure was twenty seconds, and the longest five minutes. with orange, the dilution being transferred from one colour In no case was a positive result obtained, there being no to the other. Blue is recessive to black, and so probably difference between the intensity of the squares correspondis cream to orange; it appears also that blue may be com- ing to the time of action of the rays.-On some new deripietely recessive to orange in the female, although black vatives of tetrahydrobenzene : Léon Brunel. By the simulby orange in the female gives tortoiseshell.

taneous action of iodine (in the presence of mercury oxide)

and acetic anhydride upon tetrahydrobenzene an iodoacetate MANCHESTER.

is formed, CH.CO,.CH,,1.—The synthesis and study of

cyclic substituted thio-hydantoins : Emm. Pozzi-Escot. Literary and Philosophical Society, November 29.-. The method of preparation adopted consisted in acting upon Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., president, in the chair. the a-b-disubstituted thio-ureas with a monoalkyl fatty acid. -Determination of wave-lengths in the extreme ultra-violet -On the possibility of producing a non-brittle steel, part of the spectrum : H. Morris-Airey. After a brief tempered blue : Ch. Frémont. It is generally supposed historical sketch of the work of earlier investigators, the that all irons and steels, whatever their quality, become rlassical experiments of Schumann were described. Schu

brittle under shock at temperatures between 200° C. and mann was not able to measure the wave-lengths of the new 450° C. An example is given showing that this is not lines beyond 18548, which he photographed, on account of necessarily the case. On a method of decomposition of our defective knowledge of the dispersion of the material complex statistical curves into irreducible curves : Charles of which his prism was constructed. The author attempted Henry. On the accessory glands of the larvæ of the Lepito do this by producing the spectra by means of a concave doptera : L. Bordas.—The development of the tentacles of grating in vacuo, but without success. However, using a the Campanulariida and the Plumulariidæ : Armand plane transmission grating ruled on a plate of white fluor- Billard. The resistance to desiccation of some fungi : spar, to resolve the light from a powerful induction coil Mme. 2. Gatin-Gruzewska. It has been found that discharge between aluminium electrodes four new standard certain fungi, including three species of Polyporus, are not wase-lengths were measured extending to the wave-length killed by a prolonged drying at 37° C., as the dried fungi, 109. The experiments were carried out, after Schumann, when moistened, possess the same respiratory coefficient as in vacuo, and the spectra recorded on photographic plates the undried plant. The amount of carbon dioxide given off specially designed for the work.

per hour is, however, less in the former case than in the

latter.-On the constitution of arable earth : A. Delage Paris.

and H. Lagatu. By the application of the methods of Academy of Sciences, December 12.-M. Mascart in the

petrography to the smallest particles of arable earth, the

authors come to the conclusion that instead of the earth chair.-Remarks on some thermochemical rules relating to being, as is usually represented in classical works on the the possibility and the prediction of chemical reactions : M. subject, the result of a disaggregation followed by a deBerthelot. The author discusses the statement that a

composition of the mineral constituents of rocks, it simply hernical praction must always be accompanied with an consists of the various minerals of the rocks from which volution of hear, and refers to his earlier works to show

it is derived in a very fine state of division. The mica, the fullt meaning to be attributed to the words chemical

quartz, felspar, calcite, tourmaline, apatite, &c., are per

. 173

fectly normal, and show no signs of decomposition or of

INDIA. localised corrosion. The advantages of this method of ex- Asiatic Society of Bengal, November 2.--Some archæoamining arable earths, when used to supplement the results logical remains in Bishnath : W. N. Edwards. The old of a chemical examination, are pointed out.-On a new earthworks round Bishnath and Pertabghur are described, potato suitable for cultivation in damp soils : M. as well as the Buroi Fortification.—Noviciæ Indicæ, xxiii., Labergerie. Solanum Commersoni, which up to the pre- four orchids new to the Indian flora : D. Prain. Descripsent has been regarded as only good for forage, has been tions of two new species, Microstylis Cardoni from Chota found to give an excellent edible tuber, and it possesses the Nagpur, and Eulophia Campbellii from Manbhum and great advantage of preferring a damp soil for its growth. Singbhum; and also of Lecanorchis japonica, Bl., and

-On the gasification of vegetable combustibles and the L. malaccensis, Ridl., orchids now first added to the Indian generation of an economical motive power in agriculture : fora.-Noviciæ Indicæ, xxiv., some new Indian plants L. Bordenave. An account of the production of gaseous D. Prain. Some notes on species of the orders Anonacez. fuel from agricultural refuse, used in conjunction with a Sterculiaceæ, Celastraceæ, Leguminosæ, Rosaceæ, Comgas engine designed for gas of low calorific value.-The bretaceæ, Orobanchaceæ, Labiatæ, and Monotropeæ. Coal-measures in French Lorraine : Francis Laur.


together with descriptions of new species.-A language map views of the author regarding the prolongation of the of west Tibet with notes : A. H. Francke. The distribuSaarbruck basin into France, following an axial line tion is given of the Rong, Leth, Sham, Purig, and Balti Neukirchen-Pont-à-Mousson, have been confirmed by two dialects in the Indus and Shayog valleys, and in Zangskhar borings 700 metres deep. Further borings are in progress and Rubshu.—Additions to the collection of oriental snakes for the thorough exploration of the coal field. The coal

in the Indian Museum, Calcutta : Nelson Annandale. A contains 2 per cent. of moisture, 36 per cent. of volatile

paper adding to our knowledge of the distribution of matter, 49 per cent. of coke, and 13 per cent. of ash.-, Typhlopidæ, Uropeltidæ, Colubridæ, and Viperidæ in India. Glacial growth at the end of the nineteenth century, and -On Dioscorea deltoidea, Wall., D. quinqueloba, Thunb., the different factors which have determined the anomalies and their allies : D. Prain and I. H. Burkill. of this growth in the massif of Pelvoux : Ch. Jacob and G. Flusin. The observations put forward furnish an explanation of the anomalies of glacier growth in this region


PAGE indicated in 1900 by Kilian.-On subterranean corrosion at Wells (England), and the chronometry of subterranean

A Zoological Tribute. By J. A. T.

169 erosion : E. A. Martel.

Synthesis of Vital Products, ..

170 Ionisation and Absorption. By Dr. O. W. Richardson 172 New South Wales.

Laboratory Exercises in Brewing.

Our Book Shelf :Linnean Society, October 26.-Dr. T. Storie Dixson, president, in the chair.--Notes on Australian Lycænidæ,

Gurwitsch : “Morphologie und Biologie der Zelle."part iv. : G. A. Waterhouse and R. E. Turner.-Re- J. B. F..

174 visional notes on Australian Carabidæ, part i., tribes Barnard and Child : "A New Geometry for Senior Carabini, Pamborini, Pseudozænini, Clivinini, and the genus


174 Nebriosoma : T. G. Sloane.-Notes on the native flora of New South Wales, part ii. : R. H. Cambage. The route

Strauss: “Studien über die Albuminoide mit besonderer traversed-Boggabri to Tingha, via Narrabri, Moree, Berücksichtigung des Spongin und der Keratine."Warialda, and Inverell-offers sufficient variations in alti- W. D. H. ....

174 tude and geological formation (including portion of the Somers : "Pages from a Country Diary”

175 black soil plains) to provide interesting examples of the

Weston : "A Scheme for the Detection of the more results traceable to these factors in the distribution of species under Australian conditions. Thus the effect of climatic

common Classes of Carbon Compounds".

175 influence is exhibited by such species as Eucalyptus “Photograms of the Year 1904”.

175 sideroxylon (ironbark or mugga), E. conica (a box-tree), and Letters to the Editor :E. melanophloia (silver-leaved ironbark), which in the south Heterogenetic Fungus-germs. - George Massee 175 grow at lower elevations than is the case towards the north,

Note on Radio-activity.-W. Ternent Cooke where they are able to ascend the mountains owing to the

176 warmth of northern latitudes being tempered by the in

Blue Flints at Bournemouth.-J. W. Sharpe

176 creased elevation. The same influence also allows certain Intelligence of Animals.--Rev. Joseph Meehan

176 eastern and western species to mingle on the northern high- Some Scientific Centres. VI.-The Physical lands, while in the south the Great Dividing Range serves Laboratory at the Museum d'Histoire naturelle. as a cold barrier to keep them apart. As an instance of

177 the influence of geological formation, the case of a sand

(Illustrated.) By John Butler Burke .. stone area between Boggabri and Narrabri was mentioned ;

The “ Nature-Study" of Birds. (Illustrated.) By here Angophora lanceolata is a conspicuous feature of the

R. L...

179 flora.-Notes from the Botanic Gardens, Sydney, No. 10: The Artificial Production of Rubies by Fusion 180 J. H. Maiden and E. Betche.--Miscellaneous notes Calcium Metal. By R. S. Hutton. (chiefly taxonomic) on Eucalyptus, part i. : J. H. Maiden.

Notes. (Illustrated.).

181 The author deals with some plants formerly included under E. amygdalina, Labill. The confusion which has gathered Our Astronomical Column :around E. radiata, Hook. f. (non Sieb.), is finally cleared

Discovery of a New Comet (1904 d)

185 up. That " white gum” included under radiata by Ben- Tempel's Comet (1904 c)....

183 tham and others is described as a new variety or species Encke's Comet (1904 b)

183 under the name E. numerosa, from the number of fruits in an umbel.

Observations of Occultations by Planets

185 GÖTTINGEN. Relative Drist of the Ilyades Stars

185 Royal Society of Sciences. The Nachrichten (physico

Designations of the Variable Stars discovered during mathematical section), part v. for 1904, contains the follow


185 ing memoirs communicated to the society :

The “Companion to the Observatory"

186 July 23.-A. Sommerfeld : Contributions to the theory Glaciation in North America. (Illustrated.)

By of electrons ; (2) bases of a general dynamic of the electron. G. A. J. C. ....

186 G. v. d. Borne: Seismic records in Göttingen, July- The People of the NorthEast of Scotland December, 1903. W. Voigt: The action of electric vibra- Hydrology in the United States . . tions upon optically active bodies. M. Laue : On the pro- A Bibliography of Agricultural Science

183 pagation of radiation in dispersive and absorptive media. September 10.-J. Thomae : On a Gaussian series in University and Educational Intelligence

188 various parts of its region of convergence.

Societies and Academies


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