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OIL FUEL: Its Supply, Composition, and Application. By SYDNEY H. NORTH,
Late Editor of the "Petroleum Review.' "Everyone interested in this important question will welcome Mr. North's important Text Book "-Nature.
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Their Nature, Manufacture and Uses, with some Observations upon
By GILBERT R. REDGRAVE, Assoc.I.C.E., and
"One of the standard works on the subject."-Surveyor.
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An Account by several Authors of the Nature, Significance, and Practical Methods of Measurement of the Impurities met with in the Air of Collieries and Metalliferous Mines
Edited by Sir C. LE NEVE FOSTER, D.Sc., F.R.S., and
The WILSON' SELF-RECORDING ELECTRICAL RAIN GAUGE. Records automatically on a
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HIS treatise, which was presented in the first instance to the Academy of Sciences of Paris in 1903, is divided into two parts, the first theoretical and the second practical, to which a paper has been appended, mainly of a practical nature, on the curves of the discharge of springs and the abatement of river floods. The book is addressed to mathematicians, physicists, geologists, geographers, meteorologists, engineers, and all who are interested in the motion and the distribution of rainfall, both on the surface of the land and underground; and its object is to investigate theoretically and practically the variations in the discharge of springs, and the low-water flow of rivers, in order to be able to foretell the amount of this minimum flow, precisely as the height of the floods of rivers is predicted, as already effected in certain cases by French hydraulicians, such as Dupuit, Belgrand, Lemoine, de Preaudeau and others, and also recently by the author with respect to two of the sources of the River Vanne.
M. Maillet believes that he is the first to have indicated a method by which exact quantitative discharges can be systematically predicted, such as a graphic curve, based upon Dausse's law concerning the permeable strata of the Seine basin, enabled him to determine the yearly minima discharges of two sources of the Vanne several months beforehand. Later on, by means of the hypothesis of a particular form of the free water-surface, he succeeded in obtaining a law which proved to be in accordance with experience, as indicated in the first half of the theoretical portion of the book. In the second half of this portion, the stability, or the nature of the motion of underground waters, under different conditions, is investigated, allowing for the increase in volume produced by rain; and assuming a simple form for the impermeable bed over which the water flows, it is shown that where the line of the bed is convex upwards the maximum height of the flood will be rapidly attained, and where concave, the flood will rise slowly, and that the influence of a part of the stream on the maximum will be greater in proportion to the fall of the bed.
The connection, also, between the low-water levels, or mirima discharges, at any point of a watercurse or spring and the rainfall, is considered in as | general a form as possible; and it is proved that, in practice, the lowest discharge may often be regarded as a function of the combined rainfall of the preceding hot and cold seasons, and experiences very light variations from year to year, especially in large river besins, unless the warm season is very rainy and impermeable strata intervene.
The results of the theoretical investigations comprived in the first six chapters are summed up in the
three following laws :-(1) A certain number of hydrological facts, corresponding to the low stages, or minima discharges, of springs or watercourses, in many cases depend almost exclusively on the total rainfall of several preceding warm and cold seasons. It is only in the case of restricted watersheds that the rainfall of the last one or two cold seasons exercises a predominating influence, the number of preceding years on which the results depend increasing in proportion to the size of the basin. The preceding warm seasons have less influence than the following cold seasons; and they both have less influence in proportion as they date further back, though this loss of influence varies inversely with the size of the basin. The immediately preceding spring and summer rainfalls may introduce an element of disturbance if they are heavy and widespread, supposing that the permeable strata predominate in the basin; but where the basin is almost wholly permeable, the rainfall of the preceding warm seasons may often be neglected. (2) The lowest level at a given point of a watercourse in any year is approximately a function of the minimum level of the preceding year, and of the amount of rain during the preceding cold season, and some preceding months of the warm season if very wet or very dry, provided the proportion of impermeable strata in the basin is small. In the case of many watercourses, the minimum yearly level varies little from year to year; and a succession of several years, or several cold seasons, more rainy or more dry than the average, is needed to produce modifications, which, moreover, are slow and progressive with the lapse of time. (3) In the Seine basin, the low-water levels at given points of many of the watercourses draining almost wholly permeable strata, differ little from their mean secular height. These variations cannot be abrupt, except under the immediate influence of rainy summers on the impermeable strata of the basin; and in any case they would be progressive, as a result of a gradual increase in the mean rainfall for a certain number of years. Subject to these reservations, an appreciable variation in the low-water level must be due to other than meteorological causes,
The second, practical, part of the book occupies little more than a third of the space devoted to theoretical considerations, though divided into ten chapters, which are, consequently, very short for the most part. It contains some practical applications of the views and theories developed in the first part, to the prediction of various hydrological phenomena, and also some experimental verifications; and the works of Belgrand, and the observations and publications of the hydrometric service of the Seine basin, form the basis of this inquiry. After a very brief introduction, the chapters deal successively with proportion of rainfall which feeds underground waters, prediction of the drying up of the sources of the Somme from the rainfall, prediction of the discharges of Cérilly spring, a source of the Vanne, prediction of the minima discharges of the sources of the Vanne, application to the sources of the Dhuis, prediction of the low-water levels of the Marne at La Chaussée, drying up of the Laignes, remarks on springs supplying Havre, and
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ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. The ANNIVERSARY MEETING of the Society for the ELECTION of PRESIDENT and COUNCIL, &c., will be held in the THEATRE, BURLINGTON GARDENS, on Monday, May 22, at 3 p.m., the PRESIDENT in the Chair.
In place of the Annual Dinner of the Society a BANQUET in honour of the retiring President, Sir Clements R. Markham, K.C. B., will be held on the Evening of the Anniversary Meeting, May 22, at the Hotel Metropole, Whitehall Rooms, Whitehall Place, at 7.0 p.m. for 7.30. Dinner charge. Friends of Fellows are admissible to the dinner as far as space will LI IS. permit. Applications for tickets should be made to the Chief Clerk, 1 Savile Row, Burlington Gardens, W.
THE AGENT-GENERAL for the CAPE OF GOOD HOPE has been instructed to receive applications for the vacant post of PROFESSOR OF ZOOLOGY to the SOUTH AFRICAN COLLEGE, CAPE TOWN, up to June 1 next. Candidates must be under 35 years of age, and their applications should be supported by copies of testimonials and a medical certificate. The salary offered is £500 per annum on appointment, £600 per annum after three years' service, £700 per annum after ten years' service, together with a merit grant of £75 per annum after five years, increasing to 100 after ten years.
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Manresa Road, Chelsea, S. W., Day College Courses of thirty hours per week are conducted in preparation for the London University Degrees of B.Sc. in Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, in Chemistry, Physics and the Natural Sciences. The composition fee for the Session of three terms, 1904-1905. is £15. These Courses are recog nised for "Internal Students of the University, and consist of lecture and laboratory instruction. The Courses are conducted by:MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, W. W. F. Pullen, A. Macklow Smith; ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, A J. Makower; CHEMISTRY, J. B. Coleman, J. C. Crocker, and F. H. Lowe; MATHEMATICS and PHYSICS, S. Skinner, W. H. Eccles, J. Lister and L. Lownds; BOTANY, H. B. Lacey and T. G. Hill; GEOLOGY, A. J. Maslen. In the evenings similar Courses will be conducted, but at £2 per Session. Also TECHNICAL DAY COURSES of three years' duration are arranged as a preparation for the Engineering, Electrical and Chemical and Metallurgical professions. The Laboratories and Workshop are open for RESEARCH under the direction of The Principal and the Heads of Departments. Further particulars may be obtained on application to The SECRETARY, who will send either the Day College Prospectus and Calendar or the Evening Class Prospectus for 3d. The Prospectuses may be had at the Office for id. each.
FOR SCIENCE AND OTHER STUDENTS.
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Principal-SIDNEY H. WELLS, Wh.Sc., A.M.I.C.E., A.M.I.M.E. A special SUMMER COURSE of Eight Lectures, followed by Laboratory Work in GAS ANALYSIS, will be held by Mr. J. WILSON, M.Sc. (Head of Chemical Department), on Wednesday Evenings, commencing May 17. Lecture, 7.15 to 8.15. Lab., 8.15 to 9.45. Fee, 58.
For other special courses for Int. and Final B.Sc., see prospectus.
The "N" Fellowship, tenable at Cambridge
and open to former science students of Newnham and Girton Colleges, will be vacant in the autumn. The holder is required to conduct original research in science during her tenure of the fellowship, with preference to the chemical physiology of animals and plants. Appli cations must be sent in by June 8 to the PRINCIPAL OF NEW SHAM COLLEGE, from whom further particulars may be obtained.
For other Scholastic Advertisements, see page xvi.
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Apparatus for estimation of sulphur in set oxide
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