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shall require it, to suppress every `1792, acknowledge that these de. act of insubordination or violence; mands accord with the true inte. to cause the legitimate authority to resis of the republic, and receive be respecied, and the free and im. that declaration with pleasure; they partial administration of justice and consider it as inviolable and sacred, the laws.

and declare, on their part, ibat 2. A full and entire abrogation they will formally adhere to it. of all the sentences pronounced by 5. The assembly decree, that the revolutionary tribunals, and this address shall be printed, made the sincere and loyal abjuration of public, and sent to the syndics and all public and personal vengeance administrative council, desiring, passed against any individual what. that, in their wisilom, they will

Such persons so proscribed, incessantly consider of the means may rest assured of an inviolable adapted to the public interest, and asylum in the bosom of the union of solemnly consecrating the reof all the citizens, for which we ciprocal engagements contained now labour, and of which we shall therein. give an example-This surely (Signed) L. A. CONSTANTINE. shall be pronounced by the nation,

BLANC as the first article of the prelimina- Geneva, 31, August, 1795, ries upon which that union shall

Fourth Year of the Geo he founded.

nevese. Equality. 3. A sincere mutual return, and Extract from the registers of the inviolable attachment of both par- administrative council.-Monties tbus united in the three fun- day, August 31, 1795, fourth damental principles, already con- year of the Genevese equality. secrated by our primitive laws, and the present constitution; namely, Official Note of Count Bernstorff, political equality, removal from Danish Minister of State. public offices, and the separation THE system of his Danish Ma. of powers.

jesty, uninfluenced by passions and 4. The citizens who have bither- prejudices, is merely governed by to expressed a dislike to the revolu- reason and truth,andconstantly such tion of 1792, declare, “ 'That with modifications are adopted as are ren. respect to the new legislation, now dered both just and unavoidable by in a state of formation, they will the obvious change in the posture of confine themselves in demanding public affairs. So long as no other that a more moderate application than a revolutionary government should be made, with respect to existed in France, his majesty could the removal from office, and the not acknowledge the minister of separation of the powers, than that government; but now that that which exists at present ;

the French constitution is comalso the re-establishment of the pletely organized, and a regular forms of our

ancient govern. government established in France, ment, which are not incompatible bis majesty's obligation ceases in with the three fundamental prin- that respect, and M. Grouvelle will ciples announced above. The citi. therefore be acknowledged in the zens attached to the revolution of usual form. For the rest, this step

remains they


remains an isolated measure, beé incident of a phrase, to attach a djing neither more nor less than the plomatic importance to each word, natural consequence of circumstan. to render the slightest discussion ces, and an additional proof of the personal, to season with arrogance complete and truly impartial neu. the ennui of a laborious epistolary trality of the king.

controversy, is a part which we February, 1796.

have lately seen played by certain

agents, who quarrel for want of Citizen Grouvelle, Minister Plenipo. business, who know not how to . tentiary from the French Republic serve their courts, but by insulting

in Denmark, to his Excellency others, and who represent nothing Count de Bernstorff, Minister of more than the vices of their nations; the Council of State to his Danish ridicule and contempt are attached Majesty, and of the Department to them; their example is fit to be for Foreign Affairs.

recollected, only because it is proCopenhagen, 27th Ventose, per to be avoided. As the French

4th Year of the Republic. republic makes it her glory to fol. THE German papers, sir, have low a contrary system to that of inserted the extract of an instruc- the powers who acknowledge such tion, which appears to have been ministers, I honour myself for addressed in a circular manner by being a contrast to them in all my you to the ministers of Denmark, at proceedings. the different courts, and which But, sir, I cannot dispense with concerns the resolutions adopted fixing my attention upon the conby his majesty, to give to the cha. clusion of the extract of your inracter of minister plenipotentiary struction above mentioned, and from the French republic, in which seeing that the result is announced character I have resided for two in terms which by their too general years and a half at this court, acceptation, may lead to abusive à suitable publicity by admitting interpretation, I have thought that me to a private audience. I have it is necessary to have an amicable every reason to consider this ex. understanding with you. tract as authentic, and in this cha- In speaking of my admission, racter I feel myself bound to address and of the public acknowledgment you. Of whatever reflections the of nay character, you say, that this principle and spirit of that extract step is isolated, and means nothing may be susceptible, my design is not but what is in itself. Do you not to comment upon it all. he go. apprehend that the disaffected will vernment, whose representative I see, in this mode of expression, a am, possesses, as well as myself, a sort of restriction, of implicit see scrupulous respect for the indepen- serve ; that they may go so far as dence of governments, and even a to suppose that it alludes to I know regard for their private convenience. not what other declaration or ante. The tyrannical and intriguing rior measure which may have been system of asking on every subject adopted to the same courts to which official explanations, would be as your ministers may have held this contrary to their principles as to official language ? That even attri. my own character. To make an buting the publication to you


they may give a sort of credit to reflection on their conduct. The the inductions ? Undoubtedly you abuse that might be made of your will see with pain that the public notc, gave them much concern, receives them ; for however forced and it was with extreme satisfaction they may be, they injure the idea that they received a testimony of which the court of Denmark the rectitude of your intentions. wishes always to give of the frank- A loyal government stoops not to a ness of its proceedings. That after disavowal, because it asserts nothing having so long delayed a measure, but the truth. A wise government become necessary to her own con- ought to contemn false reports, sideration, as well as to the dig.

but a benevolent government, or nily of the republic, she might be only an impartial one, will not re

. again suspected of wishing to de- ject overtures to an explanation, stroy the good effect secretiy and especially if it is demanded with

, to weaken whatever advantage the amicable views, measure might produce to France. It is with this view, sir, that I Would not this be a real inconve- now discharge this important duty, nience? I only wish to point out a duty whick, though painful, is what in this concerns your own still necessary to prevent an interreputation.

ruption of the existing harmony On the other hand, sir, the between our respective states, which French government,

esta- ought to be united more closely blished on a new constitution, re

than ever.

If personal considera. sumes its rank among the other tion were of any weight, I should European powers. It will of course give my opinion that this is not an be extremely cautious not to incur unimportant object, and perhaps the charge of inconsistency, nor to the occurrences, which preceded suffer any

stain to attaeh on its dig. my admission, were not of the most nity, nor in any respect to sanction conciliatory nature, and may prohy injustice the detraction of its duce some einbarrassments in the calumniators. 'The government event, at least with respect to this well know the influence of public court. The first observation I opinion, and will not fail so set submit to your wisdom, and the themselves right in the estimation latter remark to your delicacy. of the world, when their adversa- (Signed)

GROUVELLE. ries are busily employed in corrupting it.

Answer of Count Bernstorff. Although they feel themselves

Sir, far superior to flattery and ostenta- I AM very sensible and grateful tion, and direct all their operations for the sentiments expressed in the with that confidence which arises letter which I have had the honour from the wisdom of their councils, to receive from you. They increase and the energy of their measures ; my esteem, and though I cannot yet the value they set upon their add any thing to that which I have connection with Denmark, renders verbally pronounced to you, I enter it impossible for them to behold, with pleasure into your wishes;

of indifference, a and I do not hesitate to give you circumstance which conveys a harsh friendly explanations, even on the Vol. XXXVIII.



with an eye

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objects which do not admit of mi. establishment of a free port; and nisterial discussions. The instruc. well aware, that the port of Lisbon, tions which I gave to some of the from.i's situation, security, and king's ministers at different foreign facility of navigation with the courts are of this kind : it is be- ocean, is preferable to those of come public without our know- other nations which have adopted ledge ; it is nothing like a decla similar establishments ; conformig ration to these courts. We have myself to the opinion of my royal made no declaration ; it is a simple board of commerce, agriculture, official instruction, only designed manufactures, and navigation, of for the information of those to those kingdoms and their domiwhom it is addressed, and which nions, and of others of my council, relates to the anterior correspon- very learned and zealous for the dence and which breathing only good of my royal service, and of the justice rendered to the present the public utility - It is my will, French constitution, could not and I am pleased to create and surely involve us in a dispute with establi-li, at Junquiera, joining to her, but rather with those who do the city of Lisbon, a free port, to not love that constitution. This is take entire and due effect from the so clearly evident, that I should first day of January, in the year only weaken it by further explana- next ensuing of 1797, having des. Lion.

tined for its exercise and the Yon know, besides, that your deposit, the houses and warehouses admission has been without the of Fort St. John, with the ground smallest reserve, absolutely in the adjoming. whereon to build the usual and most solemn forms that further

necessary accommodations, we know. We never do things by there to receive and deposit all hali, and as you are witness of our goods and merchandize, of what. conduct and proceedings, I should cver quality or kind they may be, love to chuse you yourseli as judge, as well for foreign countries, (ca. and I depend upon your imparti- cept for the present sugar and to. ality. In the same manner 1 en- baccu) as from national ports situate treat you to believe in the high con- beyond the Cape of Good Hope, sideration with which I am, &c. for the purpose, at the option of

Bunnstorff. the proprietors of the said goods, of Copenhagen, March 19, 1796. disposing of them for the internal

comsumption of the kingdom, proProclamation of the Queen of Por- vided they are entitled to lawful tugal for making Lisbon a free Port. entry, and on paying the customary Donna Maria, by the Grace of duties, at the respective custom

God, Queen of Portugal and houses ; or to be exported to fo. the Algarves, &c. &c.

reign ports, or uational ones beBE it known to all to whom this yond the said Cape of Good Hope, law shall come, that taking into my on paying only towards the benefit Toyal consideration the many and of my royal revenue, for protection very important advantages which and deposit, the duty of 1 per would necessarily result to the com- cent, on the amount of their value, merce of the subjects of these king. calculated on the invoice to be doms and their dominions, by the produced by the captains of the


vessels, or their consignees, by cessary officers under him that I them signed and certified on oath; may be pleased to appoint ; and the liberty of franquin still, how. it is my will to order, that he shall ever, to remain as heretofore, for be independent of all and every all vessels that shall require it, jurisdiction, and only subordinate according to the rules as established to the tribunal of the royal board of by the custom house of this city; commerce, through which will suppressing all other duties, and be forwarded the necessary orders revoking all and whatever dispo. to meet occurring circumstances, sitions that may oppose or infringe and bring up to my royal presence on the liberty and freedom, which all representations tending to main. are to constitute the advantages of tain, and preserve inviolate, the the establishment.

good faith of this establishment, in Further to animate and promote due conformity to the particular in this capital, a concurrence and regulations which I have ordered abundance of articles of the first to be formed for the government of necessity, I am pleased to declare the aforesaid administration, and that all qualities of grain, meat, oflicers employed io conducting it ; and food, which are free from and also to serve as a guidance to paying duties inward, shall not all captains of ships and their con. only enjoy the free liberty of ex- signees, for their conduct on the portation, but shall be also free entry and shipping of all goods from payment of the aforesaid con- claiming the benefit of this institribution imposed on other goods, tution. and continue to be received and Dated at the palace of Queliez, dispatched through the same de- May 13, 1796. partments as heretofore.

In case it should happen that the Manifesto, or Declaration of the crown of Portugal should enter into Queen of Portugal, ugainst the war (which God forbid) with any Republic of the United States of power whose subjects might be the Netherlands. interested in goods in the free WHEREAS the Portuguese enport, in which condition it is to voy extraordinary with the repub. be understood the aforesaid grain, lic of the United States of the Nemeat and food, are included, no therlands, has, in his report of the arrest, embargo, sequestration, or 15th of June, transmitted to her reprisal, shall on that account be majesty the copy of a letter which made thereon ; but on the contrary, he received from the committee for they shall remain in the utmost foreign affairs of the republic, in freedom and security, as if each which has been notified to him the individual had them placed in his fixed resolution of abstaining from own house, to dispose of them as all political communication with he may judge most suited to his him, as representative of her ma. interest.

jesty, the queen of Portugal, till The administration of the afore the conclusion of a peace with the said free port shall be constituted French republic. under the superintendance of a Besides which, the said envoy general comptroller, with the ne- ultimately signifies, in his letter,



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