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it the liquid form reaches them only by capillary maintained by the south-western quadrant of the floor absorption from the soil.
throughout the lunation. About three days after sunTurning now to our observations, as early as 1837 it rise a dark spot appears on the north-western slopes was pointed out by Mädler that there were two small of the central mountain range. The regions at its spots in the crater Alphonsus which always became immediate base darken at about the same time, and very dark at about the time of full moon, while earlier an irregularly mottled dark sector appears as the result. and later they were much lighter. A similar observ- On the fourth day the centre of the sector lightens, ation had been made by him regarding a region just to leaving two canal-like forms radiating from the central the south of the Mare Crisium. Little else was known peaks. Although in a small telescope these canals regarding the matter until 1892. Since that date appear straight, yet when well seen with a large glass spots presenting these characteristics have been found they are found to present considerable irregularity of all over the moon's surface, except in the vicinity of structure. On the eleventh day the southern one fades the poles. The most northern spot known is in lati- out, and just before sunset the northern one also distude + 55°, the most southern in latitude -60°. It is appears. possible that some of the maria, notably Tranquilli- A faint X-shaped marking distinguishes the northtatis, and part of the borders of Serenitatis and eastern quadrant of the floor at sunrise. The centre Vaporum, are covered with these spots, but in any rapidly darkens as the sun rises upon it, and soon case they do not cover more than 5 per cent of the becomes intensely black. Three branches of the X moon's visible surface, and possibly it is very much successively fade away, leaving only the south-eastern less.
one, which on the seventh day becomes very proIt should be mentioned here that the western spot nounced. A new branch or canal forms by gradual shown by Mädler in Alphonsus is now comparatively darkening on the east, while the canal on the north
inconspicuous, but that north and south of it lie two east, which had disappeared, forms anew by a proothers, which with Mädler's eastern spot form a very gressive growth downwards from the crater rim. striking isosceles triangle at full moon.
This growth progresses for five days at a nearly uniWe will now direct our attention to the crater form rate of 250 feet per hour, or about 4 feet a minute. Eratosthenes, which has been more carefully studied The south-eastern quadrant, while very light at than any other region presenting these phenomena, first, soon surpasses all the others.in darkness. The and which exhibits the changes on a sufficiently large dark area on the outer wall, which in the first figure scale to enable us to make use of photography. The is undoubtedly in part due to shadow, must very soon four photographs here shown were taken in the Island be partly due also to something else, for it still shows of Jamaica in 1901, and are enlargements from some upon the third figure, which was taken but 0.8 day of the negatives used in printing the Harvard “ Atlas before full moon, when shadows are geometrically of the Moon." Beneath each figure is given the date impossible. The last figure was taken o.8 day after on which it was taken, the number of terrestrial days full moon, and the darker portion of the spot is seen that had elapsed since the sun rose upon it, and the to have rapidly increased in size and to have grown colongitude of the sun, taken from Crommelin's downwards with considerable velocity towards the ephemeris. The photographs are all on the same scale central peaks. of 1/2,000,000, or about thirty-two miles to the inch. | Since this dark area cannot be shadow, our only Upon this scale the moon would be 68.5 inches in alternative seems to be that we have here a real change diameter.
in the character and brightness of the lunar surface. When the sun rises upon this formation the whole Since we do not know of any mineral which gradually of the floor is at first of a light grey tint, whatever darkens as the sun shines upon it, and later fades out detail there is being but faintly marked. This tint is again, our only alternative seems to be to call in the
aid of vegetation. At all events nobody has ever cared wrote a paper on the sanitary condition of Newcastle, to propose any other explanation of the facts, so far and more recently he compiled an elaborate account as the writer is aware.
of the iron trade of the United Kingdom, compared As the lunation progresses the western portion of with that of the other chief iron-making countries. this dark area slowly fades out, while the eastern is On the chemistry of iron he was a high authority. absorbed in the gathering shadows of the lunar night. The establishment of a chemical laboratory in connec
In various parts of the crater, but especially in the tion with the Clarence works shows how fully he south-eastern and northern portions, numerous small | realised the importance of the scientific study of incanals and lakes present themselves. These markings dustrial processes, and his own researches on the are practically identical in appearance with those seen chemistry of iron and steel have become classic. Many upon the planet Mars. They are too small to be well of these appeared first in the form of papers read before shown in the photographs, and seem to be of much the Iron and Steel Institute, and a number of them more regular structure than the larger markings, were subsequently collected and published in a volume which are here also called canals. It is possible that entitled “The Chemical Phenomena of Iron Smeltthis difference is due merely to the fact that the larger ing." Sir Lowthian was also the author of a book on markings are better seen. A more detailed account of the “Principles of the Manufacture of Iron and the phenomena here described will be found in the Steel,” as well as of many papers contributed to other Harvard Annals (liji.).
scientific societies. WILLIAM H. PICKERING. He was one of the original founders, in 1869, of the
Iron and Steel Institute, and filled the office of president
from 1873 to 1875, and in 1874 became the first recipient SIR LOWTHIAN BELL, BART., F.R.S. of the gold medal instituted by Sir Henry Bessemer the IR Lowthian Bell, whose death at the age of
year before. He was a member of the Institution of SIR eighty-eight has already been announced, studied
Civil Engineers and of the Chemical Society, and a
past president of the Institution physical science at the University of Edinburgh and
of Mechanical the Sorbonne at Paris, and at the age of twenty-four Roval Society. In recognition of his services as juror
Engineers. In 1874 he was elected a fellow of the entered the Walker ironworks, near Newcastle. There, we learn from the obituary notice in the Times,
of the international exhibitions at Philadelphia in 1876, he remained until 1850, when he became connected
and at Paris in 1878, he was elected an honorary with the chemical works at Washington, in North
member of the American Philosophical Institution, and Durham. He greatly enlarged the works and laid
an Officer of the Legion of Honour. He was elected down extensive plant for the manufacture of an oxy 1895 was awarded the Albert medal of the society
on the council of the Society of Arts in 1876, and in chloride of lead introduced as a substitute for white lead by his father-in-law, Mr. H. L. Pattinson, F.R.S., manufactures, and commerce by his metallurgical re
“ in recognition of the services he has rendered to arts, with whom he was associated in the business at Washington. There, too, was introduced in 1860 searches, and the resulting development of the iron and almost the first plant in England for the manufacture
steel industries.” The honour of a baronetcy was conof aluminium by the Deville sodium process.
ferred on him in 1885, and in 1893 he received the Soon after the discovery of the main bed of Cleveland degree of LL.D. from Edinburgh University. ironstone near Middlesbrough, Sir Lowthian Bell, in conjunction with his brothers, Thomas and John, started ironworks in 1852 at Port Clarence, on the north
NOTES. bank of the Tees. The Clarence works was one of the earliest and is now one of the largest iron-smelting
A SELECTION from the specimens recently presented to the works on the Tees. About half a century ago the Tees
British (Natural History) Museum by His Majesty the King then flooded ground where iron furnaces now stand.
of Portugal has recently been placed on public exhibition Sir Lowthian Bell and his brothers acquired their own
in the north hall. ironstone mines, collieries, and limestone quarries, while they were always prompt to adopt any improve
The annual meetings of the American Association for ment in process or apparatus that seemed likely to be
the Advancement of Science and of the American Physical advantageous.
Society were held in Philadelphia, Pa., in “ Convocation In the development of the Cleveland iron industry Week,” from December 26, 1904, to January 2. the Bell firm played a very important part, and what has been the extent of that development may be judged
THE International Botanical Congress will meet from the fact that whereas the district in 1830 produced Vienna in June next, when a discussion will take place on less than 25,000 tons of pig iron, at the present time the important question of uniformity of nomenclature, reMiddlesbrough produces about one-quarter of the total garded both from a scientific point of view and in connection output of this country. The firm was active in pro- with international reports. secuting those technical studies by which processes have been devised enabling Cleveland ores to compete
Under the title “ Lichtenstein Prize," the Montpellier as raw material for the production of iron and steel Academy of Sciences offers a prize for the best essay dealing with others possessing greater natural advantages with any question of zoology not referring to man. The In regard to steel, the great trouble with those ores is last day is November 1, 1905. Printed memoirs more than the high percentage of phosphorus (1.8 to 2.0 per cent.) | three years old, or papers which have gained previous prizes, contained in the cast iron which they yield; yet Middles
are excluded. brough, largely as a result of experiments carried on under Sir Lowthian Bell's direction, at a cost, it is said, of between 40,000l. and 50,000l., produces steel
The third International Congress of Philosophy will be rails in which this percentage is reduced to 0.07 or
held at Heidelberg in 1908. Among the English speaking less.
members of the organising commission the name has been When the British Association met at Newcastle in added of Prof. Strong, of Columbia University. A detailed 1863, Sir Lowthian Bell contributed a paper on the account of the congress held this year at Geneva is given manufacture iron in connection with the in a special number of the Revue de Métaphysique et de Northumberland and Durham coalfields. In 1870 he Morale for November, 1904.
The Postmaster-General has made provisional arrange- Writing on the subject of “Greek at Oxford,” a correments with the Marconi International Marine Communica- spondent of the Times again expressed the common belief tion Company for the acceptance and prepayment at tele- that “ Darwin regretted not having learnt Greek." A graph offices in the United Kingdoni of telegrams for trans- letter from Mr. Francis Darwin in the Times of December mission from wireless stations on the coast to ships at sea. 29, 1904, shows that the statement is altogether opposed The arrangement came into operation on January 1.
to Darwin's views. Darwin says of his education at Pror, R. S. WOODWARD, dean of the faculty of pure
Shrewsbury School :-“Nothing could have been worse for science, Columbia University, has been elected president
the development of my mind than Dr. Butler's school, as of the Carnegie Institution. Prof. C. A. Young, who has
it was strictly classical, nothing else being taught, except held the chair of astronomy at Princeton University since
little ancient geography and history (“Life and
pre1877, will retire at the close of the present academic year.
Letters,” i., 31). He was, in fact, a victim of that
mature specialisation " which is generally referred to in a CAPTAIN R. F. Scott, leader of the National Antarctic somewhat one-sided spirit, and from which the public schoolExpedition, has been awarded a gold medal by the Royal boy is not yet freed. Mr. Darwin adds :-“ If the name of Danish Geographical Society.
Charles Darwin is to be brought into this controversy it We learn through Science that Mr. Andrew Carnegie has
must not be used for compulsory Greek, but against it. given 108,000l. for the establishment in Boston of an insti
In 1867 he wrote to Farrar, “I am one of the root and tute similar to Cooper Institute, which is to be added to a
branch men, and would leave classics to be learnt by those fund of 34,000l., which has grown from 1000l. left one
alone who have sufficient zeal and the high taste requisite hundred years ago by Benjamin Franklin.
for their appreciation' (* More Letters of Charles Darwin,'
ii., 441)." The twenty-second annual dinner of the old students of the Royal School of Mines will be held on Thursday, THE Aëro Club of Paris has asked permission from the February 9. The chair will be taken by Mr. T. A. Rickard.
municipal authorities to make experiments in aviation in Applications for tickets should be made to Mr. D. A. Louis,
the Galerie des Machines next February. Under the head ū Shirland Gardens, London, W.
of aviation, among other experiments will be some in A CORRESPONDENT of the Times states that Frédéric mechanical aërial direction. The building is so large that Mistral, the Provençal poet recently awarded 2000l. as half
the results will be almost the same as would be obtained in share of the Nobel prize for literature, intends to devote the open air, with the difference that the disturbing effect this sum to the development and adequate installation of
of wind need not be feared. the ethnographical museum-Le Musée Arletan-founded by
St. Catherine's Lighthouse, situated on the south coast him some years ago at Arles. For this purpose
of the Isle of Wight, has just been provided with a new municipal authorities agree to make over an old palace, light of 15,000,000 candle-power, as against 3,000,000 now used as a college, the restoration and adaptation of
obtained with the old apparatus. Seen from the land there which will cost 10,000l. An American resident at Avignon,
are three distinct beams of light revolving in view, one Mr. Edward Leon, has offered 2000l. as a subscription, and
just on the point of disappearing behind the “blank " or will arrange for five lectures in the United States to help on
shield, while the others pass rapidly over the waters of the the fund thus inaugurated.
English Channel. The new lens is by Messrs. Chance The prizes for the year 1904 have been awarded, we Brothers, Birmingham ; and the whole of the revolving part learn from La Nature, by the Paris Society for the floats in a trough of mercury, instead of being on rollers, Encouragement of National Industry. The grand prix of which has hitherto been usual, about 816 lb. of mercury the Marquis d'Argenteuil has been awarded to MM. Auguste being required to float it. Hitherto chain has been used and Louis Lumière for their discoveries in photography. in lighthouses for suspending the weights, but in this case The “chemical arts” gold medal has been awarded to a fine steel cable, about 1 inch in diameter, has been adopted. M. Héroult for his works on electrometallurgy, and the ** constructions and fine arts" medal to M. Arnodin. Gold The annual report of the Russian Geographical Society medals have also been awarded to M. Boulanger for his gives the full list of medals awarded by the society at its ricrographic work, to M. Grey for a rolling-mill, to
annual sitting. The following medals were awarded :M. Guillet for his work in metallurgy, and to M. Schwærer
the Constantine medal to the veteran geologist Friedrich fur his system of superheated steam.
Schmidt, the Count Lüthe medal to Sir John Murray, and
the Semenoff gold medal to Prof. N. I. Kuznetsoff. Five As optical convention will be held, under the presidency
small silver medals were awarded, to V. A. Vlasoff, Th. N. of Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S., at a date toward the
Panaeff, and W. M. Nedzwiedski for meteorological work, end of May next, at the Northampton Institute, Clerken
to M. M. Siazoff for the part he took in the expedition of well, London, E.C. The object of the convention is to
Grum-Grzimailo, and to E. L. Byakoff for the support he bring into cooperation men interested in optical matters.
gave to the same expedition. A subcommittee has been appointed to consider the subjects of papers on optical questions which should be brought According to information communicated by the Meteortriore the convention, and suggestions as to subjects for ological Observatory of Irkutsk, the earthquake which took discussion will be welcomed. It has been decided to place in Transbaikalia on September 28 last covered an area organise an exhibition, of a scientific character, of instru- of about 4500 square miles, representing an imperfect oval ments manufactured in this country, with a view to show elongated from N.W. to S.E., its furthest points being the progress recently made and to stimulate further efforts. Troitzkosavsk in the south-east and Balagansk in the northIn order that interest in the convention may be not con
The centre of this earthquake, which was fined to London workers in optics, a subcommittee is being doubtedly of tectonic origin, was located in the neighbourfirmed to secure the assistance of local representatives. hood of the station Pereyemnaya, on the south-east shore The honorary secretary of the convention is Mr. F. J. Selby, of Lake Baikal. No less than three earthquakes have had Elm Lodge, Teddington.
their origin at this centre during the past three years.