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JOURNAL OF ANATOMY AND
PHYSIOLOGY, NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL, HUMAN AND COMPARATIVE.
A. MACALISTER, and J. G. M'KENDRICK.
With Plates and Figures in Text.
CONTENTS OF Part II.- JANUARY, 1905. J. T. Wilson, M.B. Fourth Molar Teeth in an Australian Aboriginal and
2 New Caledonian. (Plates XXIX., XXX.) John Cameron, M.D. The Development of the Retina in Amphibia.
(Plates XXXI , XXXII.)
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hopes that before long not only every medical officer We regret to see the announcement of the death of Mr. of health and every school teacher, but every man and G. W. Hemming, K.C., in his eighty-fourth year. In woman who knows what is needed, will join its ranks. addition to contributions extending over many years to Thus will be formed that body of enlightened public various magazines and periodicals, he was the author of a opinion which is the moving power in every reform “ Differential and Integral Calculus,” which appeared in worked, in every advance made by nation, district, or
1848, and also of a work entitled “ Billiards Mathematically parish, and thus the gospel of physical culture and
Treated healthy environment may win its way to every British
(1893), of which a second edition was recently home. No more patriotic work can be imagined, even
published. though the foes be they of our own household.”
The death is announced of Mr. Robert Harris Valpy at the advanced age of eighty-five. Although a keen geologist,
he published very little, but he made a very fine collecNOTES.
tion of fossils from the Devonian rocks of North Devon,
and his assistance was acknowledged in the late Mr. The council of the Geological Society of London has decided to award the medals and funds this year as follows :
Etheridge's work on the “ Physical Structure of West Wollaston medal to Dr. J. J. Harris Teall, F.R.S.;
Somerset and North Devon " (1867). Mr. Valpy was the
author of “ Notes on the Geology of Ilfracombe and the Murchison medal to Mr. Edward John Dunn, of Melbourne ; Lyell medal to Dr. Hans Reusch, director of the Geological
Neighbourhood, published anonymously by Twiss and Survey of Norway; Bigsby medal to Prof. J. W. Gregory,
Sons, of Ilfracombe. F.R.S.; Wollaston fund to Mr. H. H. Arnold-Bemrose ; The first award of the Henry Saxon Snell prize will be Murchison fund to Mr. H. L. Bowman; and Lyell fund to made this year by the Royal Sanitary Institute. The prize Mr. E. A. Newell-Arber and Mr. Walcot Gibson.
was founded to encourage improvements in the construction ST. MARGARET's Bay, Dover, where great falls of cliff
or adaptation of sanitary appliances, and is to be awarded
by the council of the institute at intervals of three years. frequently occur, was the scene of another landslip on
The first prize, which will consist of 5ol. and a medal of Tuesday, January 10, when an enormous slice of the cliff,
the institute, is offered in the year 1905 for an essay on estimated by the coastguard at about a quarter of a million
"domestic sanitary appliances, with suggestions for their tons, fell into the sea. The fall occurred a little to the
improvement.” Essays must be delivered on or before eastward of the bay, where the cliff is about 250 feet high.
March 30, addressed to the secretary of the Royal Sanitary When the fall took place, about 9.30 a.m., it is said that
Institute, 72 Margaret Street, W. a very sharp earth tremor was felt throughout the village, and was at first believed to be an earthquake. A further
The Association for Maintaining the American Women's fall occurred at noon. As the result of these landslips a
Table at the Zoological Station at Naples and for Promoting gap about 200 feet wide and 50 feet deep appears in the cliff.
Scientific Research by Women announces the offer of a The debris at the foot of the cliff covers a large area with
third prize of 2001. for the best thesis written by a woman, some very large fragments of rock. The mass is 20 feet a scientific subject, embodying new observations and or 30 feet high, and extends seawards about a quarter of a
new conclusions based on an independent laboratory remile.
The search in biological, chemical, or physical science.
theses offered in competition are to be presented to the We learn from the Times that an International Archæo- executive committee of the association, and must be in the logical Congress will be opened at Athens by the Crown hands of the chairman of the committee on the prize, Mrs. Prince of Greece on April 7. The opening meeting will be Ellen H. Richards, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, held in the Parthenon, and M. Carapanos, the Minister of Boston, Mass., before December 31, 1906. The prize will Public Instruction, will address the members of the be awarded at the annual meeting in April, 1907. congress. The director of Greek antiquities and the
The death is announced of Mr. Beauchamp Tower, who directors of the foreign schools will give an account of the was associated for some years with Mr. W. Froude, F.R.S., progress of archæological research in Greece. The congress in the experiments made for the Admiralty on the models of will be divided into seven sections :-(1) classical archæ- ships and on full-sized vessels and engines of the Navy, from ology; (2) prehistoric and oriental archæology; (3) excava- which experiments much of the present knowledge of the tions, museums, and preservation of monuments ; (4) epi
scientific design of ships has been derived. While working graphy and numismatics; (5) Byzantine archæology ; as a consulting engineer, says the Times, Mr. Tower de(6) instruction in archæology; (7) geography and topo- veloped several ingenious inventions, notably a machine to graphy.
carry out Mr. Spencer Deverell's idea of obtaining work A SLIGHT earthquake shock which lasted a few seconds
from wave motion, the well known" spherical ” steamwas felt at Gibraltar on January 7, at 5 a.m. No damage
engine, largely employed for some years where high rotary was done. The disturbance was also felt in the Spanish
speeds were needed, a centrifugal pump revolution indicator towns of Algeciras, Campamento, and San Roque. At La
for ships, and a gyroscopic steady platform for guns at sea, Linea there were two severe shocks, each lasting about five
all of which afford good examples of originality and scientific
He also undertook for the Institution of seconds, the first occurring at 4.40 a.m., and the second at
Mechanical Engineers, and carried to a successful issue, an 4.52 a.m.
extremely complete series of experiments on friction, by Os Tuesday next, January 17, Prof. L. C. Miall will
which much new knowledge on the subject was gained. begin a course of six lectures at the Royal Institution on Londoners probably began to realise that the electrifithe "Structure and Life of Animals." The discourse on cation of the “ underground railways was nearing comFriday, January 20, will be delivered by Sir James Dewar pletion when, last week, a partial electrical service was on “New Low Temperature Phenomena," and on started on the section of the lines running from Baker January 27 by Dr. E. A. Wilson on “ The Life of the Street to Harrow and Uxbridge. This marks the first step Emperor Penguin."
in the change which will be carried out by degrees
over the whole system, the electrical trains being at first within a few miles of Ottawa there is 200,000 h.p. of water run in place of some only of the regular trains, their power, and within a radius of forty-five miles nearly a numbers being increased until eventually, the complete million horse-power, At Niagara on the Canadian side service is electrical. When this has been effected, and the three new undertakings are being rapidly advanced, steam trains entirely displaced, the cleaning of the stations together giving more than 400,000 h.p., while a fourth and tunnels will be taken in hand; it is not until this is will yield. 40,000 h.p. When these are completed the grand complete that the public will derive the full benefit of the total of power derived from Niagara on both sides of the alteration, so it is to be hoped that no difficulties will be river will be about 700,000 h.p. These particulars were experienced to cause delay. It has been no small under- followed in the address by an account of the Intertaking to prepare everything for the conversion of these national Engineering Congress at St. Louis organised lines, and the actual change itself must necessarily be by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Concluding carried out with care, especially as it has to be effected Sir William remarked that there can be no doubt but this without interruption of the traffic.
visit enabled American and Canadian engineers to give M. H. Bourget, of the University of Toulouse, writes to
practical proof of their fellowship with British engineers.
The visit must tend to strengthen the friendly feeling already ask what is the form of the surface of a fowl's egg, and
existing between the United States and the British Empire. if precise measures have been made of eggs in order to
It must result also in a better understanding between the determine whether the shape is constant and approaches
mother-country and Canada. that of any known geometrical figure. In reply to this inquiry, Prof. G. H. Bryan, to whom the matter was re
A VALUABLE report by Dr. Musgrave and Mr. Clegg on ferred, remarks :-"I believe it is generally recognised pathogenic amebæ, the cultivation of amæbæ, and that the shape of the meridian section of an egg is most
amabic dysentery, has been issued by the Bureau of approximately a Cartesian oval, that is, a curve given by
Government Laboratories, Manila (No. 18. 1904). It is the equation ar,+br,=c, where r, and r, are distances from
considered that all amoebæ are, or may become, pathogenic. two fixed points. For a=b this becomes an ellipse, but
Pure cultures of amæbæ were obtained by a modified plate with a and b unequal we get a figure with one end more
culture method, but it was not found possible to cultivate rounded and one more pointed, very like an egg. But
the organisms unless bacteria were present in the cultiva. anyone who tried to find mathematical equations for the
tions, and the amæbæ were often found to exhibit a curves occurring in the forms of organic life would have preference for certain species of bacteria. a difficult task, especially if he were to tackle the
The United States Department of Agriculture has added Diatomaceæ. It should also be remembered that the number
to its valuable memoirs on food and diet a report by Messrs. of curves which have an equation is infinitely small com- Woods and Mansfield on the food of the Maine lumbermen pared with the number of curves that cannot be so
(Bulletin No. 149, 1904). These men perform hard manual presented.”
labour, and are much exposed to cold, wet, and hardship, The annual report of the Russian Geographical Society
and the staple daily fare consists of pork or beef, sour for 1903 has only just reached us. Among the scientific
dough biscuits made of dough which undergoes fermentexplorations accomplished during the year we notice the
ation with a “wild ” yeast, tea and molasses, and beans explorations of Lake Balkhash by M. L. S. Berg, of Lake
which are first parboiled in the forenoon, and are then Kosogol by M. V. S. Elpatievsky, of Lake Ladoga by
packed with alternate layers of salt pork in a pot which
is covered with hot ashes and earth, and allowed.to cook M. J. M. Shokalsky, and of various lakes in European Russia, as also of Lake Gokcha, by several students under
over night. It is considered that the dietary, as regards Prof. D. N. Anuchin. M. V. I. Lipskiy has continued to
protein and energy, is the highest yet recorded for any study the flora of Central Asia, in connection with his
American labouring men, is well digested, and costs about forthcoming work on this subject, and has made for this
23.5 cents per person per diem. purpose interesting journeys in the Tian-Shan, while the We have received a copy of the third and final part of a range of Peter I, has been further explored by M. V. Th. “ Catalogue of Canadian Birds," by Mr. J. Macoun, issued Novitzkiy. The botanist, M. J. N. Voronoff, explored by the Geological Society of Canada, which deals with north-western Mongolia, M. N. B. Grinevetskiy the flora such families of the Passeres as were not included in the of Transcaucasia, V. A. Faussek the Transcaspian fauna, preceding part. Owing to the fuller knowledge of the and V. E. Petersen the Lepidoptera of the Urals. A habits of most of the birds recorded in this part, 3s comjourney in the Pechora region, by P. P. Mataftin, is also pared with those in its predecessors, a larger amount of worthy of notice. Several expeditions--Dr. Zarudnyi in space is devoted to the majority of the species, thereby Persia, Syeroshevskiy, explorer of the Ainos, in Yezo, enhancing the value of the work. Otherwise the method Karskiy in White Russia-were at work during the same of treatment is the same as that adopted in parts i. and ii., year, as also the committee for the scientific collection of which have been previously noticed in our columns. folk-songs, with their music.
In the eighteenth annual report of the Liverpool Marine At the meeting of the Institution of Civil Engineers held Biology Committee, dealing with the new biological station on January 1o Sir William White, K.C.B., delivered an at Port Erin, Isle of Man, the director deplores that while address on the recent visit of the institution to the United there have been more students than in any previous year States and Canada. He described the visits made to the (who have worked harder than their predecessors) and more principal engineering works in New York City and district, investigators engaged on original work, to say nothing to those in Canada, and to similar enterprises in Chicago. of the success of the public meetings and the excellent result In Canada 'many opportunities were afforded
of the fish-hatching, yet the number of subscribers does not examples of the utilisation of water power, and no one increase ; and, in truth, the list of subscriptions to such an could fail to realise the enormous possibilities of develop- admirable institution is but a pitiful one-a total of ment in the pulp and paper industry, with cheap power and 891. 35. hd, The marvel, indeed, is how so much good a good supply of labour. The visitors were informed that work is accomplished and the establishment kept in going