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physiology; to quote the inscription beneath the bust, commission on nomenclature appointed by the Inter" Qua ratione plantae aluntur, primus conspexit." national Congress of Paris in 1900. These were em

On the evening of June 11, the members met in bodied in the Texte synoptique, a formidable quarto the Hall of the “ Kaufmännscher Verein," when Prof. volume in which the rapporteur général, Dr. Briquet, Julius Wiesner, the well-known head of the Institute had collated the numerous emendations and modificaof Plant Physiology, welcomed the botanists of the tions of the original code of De Candolle, which world to the home of Clusius, Jacquin and Unger; during the last five years have been submitted by and the botanists renewed old friendships or made

a friendships or made various societies, institutions, groups of botanists, and new ones over the Abendskarte and the inevitable individuals. The numerous suggestions had preBier. At the official opening, in the great festal hall viously been voted on seriatim by the members of of the university, on Monday morning, greetings were the commission, and from the results of the voting given by the famous geologist and president of the certain recommendations were drawn up by Dr. Academy of Sciences, Prof. Eduard Suess, Prof. Briquet for the consideration of the members of the Wiesner, and others.

conference, about a hundred and fifty of whom were The general programme included lectures or papers present. The new American school was strongly reby well-known men on topics with which their names presented by Dr. Britton, Mr. Coville, and others, have become associated. Thus Prof. Goebel discussed while Dr. Robinson, of Harvard, represented the the subject of “Regeneration," and Dr. D. H. Scott more moderate school which has worked on lines gave an account of the present state of our know similar to those adopted in England. The Berlin ledge of the Pteridosperms—the fern-like seed-plants school was present in force, and most of the Conof the Carboniferous fora—the illustration of which, | tinental botanical societies and institutions were reby actual specimens, in the form of lantern-slides, was presented. As the president, Prof. Flahault, remarked, especially appreciated.

in answer to Dr. Otto Kuntze's protest against an The development of the European flora since Tertiary “incompetent congress," it would be difficult to bring times formed the subject of a group of papers. Prof. together a body of botanists more competent to discuss Engler, in stating the general problems, referred botanical nomenclature, and, one may add, more seemto the part played by man and his works, especially ingly anxious to arrive at some solution of the various during the last century. He pleaded for the preserva- problems, and some agreement on the points at issue. tion of such plant-formations and plant-societies as From three to seven or eight o'clock each afternoon throw a light on the past history of the European

the members steadily worked through the Texte. flora, citing as an example the National Park in the It was decided at the start to refer the question of United States of North America. In the same con- cellular cryptogams and fossils to separate commisnection Dr. Lauterbonn asked the help of the con sions, which should report to the next congress. The gress towards securing the preservation of part of the

present conference, therefore, dealt only with flowerprimitive forests of Bosnia, which, he stated, were in

ing plants and vascular cryptogams. The results will imminent danger of destruction. An interesting

in due course be arranged and published in English, paper on the history of the development of the flora of the North German “ Tief-land” was read by Prof.

French, and German. Brief reference may be made Weber. Covered by the sea since Oligocene times,

to the more important. The code of laws approved by

the conference is based on that of De Candolle, and will this area became dry land during later Pliocene times, consist of rules and recommendations, the difference and the earliest vegetation of this period is remarkable between the two sets being expressed thus :-“ A name for the occurrence of the vine, which is now generally contrary to a rule cannot be kept up; a name contrary regarded as an introduced plant in Central Europe.

to a recommendation is not a model for imitation The plant-life of this area was, during the diluvial

but cannot be rejected." The most important result period, repeatedly crushed out of existence by land

was the passing by an overwhelming majority ice, the intervening periods of vegetation being re of a list of generic names, which from long markable for the appearance of plants indicating al established usage are to be retained, though on the milder climate than do those composing the existing

principle of priority they should be rejected. There flora. Another subject, taken up by Dr. Molisch and was considerable discussion on the question as to the Prof, Hueppe, of Prague, was the present state of our trivial name to be adopted when a plant is transferred knowledge of C0,-assimilation. Mention should also

from one genus to another, or from subspecific or be made of a very fine series of photographic slides varietal to specific rank. English, and a minority of with which Dr. Hochreutiner, who has just returned American, botanists have followed the so-called “Kew from a prolonged stay in Buitenzorg, illustrated his rule” of adopting the first correct binominal, while account of a botanical institute in the tropics.

the majority of American and most Continental But for many of the members the most important botanists. in common with zoologists, adopt the work came in the afternoon, a time devoted by the earliest trivial name. On this point a compromise was majority to relaxation, which often took the form of effected as follows :- When a change of systematic excursions to places of botanical interest within easy

interest within easy position without change of rank occurs (such as the reach of the town. Meanwhile the conference on transference of a species from one genus to another), botanical nomenclature sat in the lecture hall of the the earliest epithet is to be used; when the rank Botanic Gardens. At the entrance to the gardens is changes (as in the elevation of a variety to specific the former residence of the director, and we passed the rank), the original epithet is not insisted on. The window of the room in which Kerner wrote most of conference was also strongly opposed to any change the well-known “ Planzenleben." Kerner's successor, in a name once given, though for various reasons it Prof. von Wettstein, is lodged in the new Botanical might be considered inappropriate or even misleading. institute-a large and well-arranged building. The A name is a name, and must stand. arrangement of the gardens is mainly a geographical An account of the congress would be incomplete one-in one bed a collection of Himalayan plants, without some reference to the nightly meetings for in another plants from the Cape, and so on. The social intercourse which were arranged by the organresult, though doubtless helpful to the student, illus- ising committee on typical Continental lines. Members trates the limitations to which such an arrangement will carry away very pleasant memories of the Rathis subject in any one climate. The work of the con- haus-Keller, the Prater, and the Brauerei garden out ference was to discuss the recommendations of the at Hutteldorf. For, after all, the great object of a congress is the meeting together and getting to know

NOTES. one's fellow-workers; and an expression of thanks As important step in the direction of the adoption by is due to the organising committee under the joint

this country of a decimal system of weights and measures presidentship of Profs. Wiesner and von Wettstein,

has been taken by the Board of Trade. In reply to a with Dr. Zahlbruckner as the energetic secretary, tu Prof. Flahault, the firm and genial president of the con

resolution sent to the Board of Trade by the secretary of ference on nomenclature, and finally to Dr. Briquet,

the Association of Chambers of Commerce, in which the whose name must always be associated with the

Board was asked to authorise weights of 20 lb., 10 lb., latest attempt to solve the vexed question of plant

and 5 lb. as aliquot parts of the cental, Lord Salisbury nomenclature.

has written :-“ With reference to your letter of March 14 At the final meeting, in response to an invitation last, in which you suggest that new denominations of from the Belgian Government voiced by Prof. Errera, weights of 20 lb., 10 lb., and 5 lb. should be legalised Brussels was selected as the place of meeting for the

for use in trade, the Board of Trade have given careful third congress, which will be held in 1910.

consideration to the representations which have been A. B. RENDLE.

made, and they are prepared to assent to the application.

Steps will, therefore, be taken for the preparation of ENTRANCE EXAMINATION TO THE INDIAN standards of the same octagonal form as the present 30 lb. FOREST SERVICE.

weight." The chambers consider that this concession will ON May 11 the Secretary of State for India issued save time, labour, and expense, as the 50 lb. weight has

> the regulations for the forthcoming entrance done already, examinations for the Indian Forest Service. Amongst

COMMANDER Peary sailed on Sunday last to make a the features of these regulations two are of considerable importance.

further attempt to reach the North Pole. Before leaving, The age limit is raised to twenty-one years on

he communicated various particulars respecting his exJanuary I preceding the examination, so that the

pedition to Reuter's Agency. His plan is based upon the average B.A. who graduates usually between twenty

Smith Sound, or “ American ” route to the Pole, and his one and twenty-two may compete. The second point object is to force his ship to a base within 500 miles of of interest is the schedule of the subjects in which he the Pole itself, and then to sledge across the Polar pack. is to be examined.

The Arctic ship Roosevelt, which has been specially built According to the regulations given in the East for this expedition, has been constructed so as to withIndia (Forest Service) Blue-book, Cd, 2523, the sub

stand the heavy ice pressure, and is so shaped that the jects in which the candidates are to be tested are four-chemistry, physics, botany, and zoology-and

pressure of the ice pack will have the effect of raising the

vessel out of the water. The ship will carry a wireless the schedules imply that the knowledge which the candidate is expected to exhibit is of a very limited

telegraphic outfit, which, with one or two relay stations description. Speaking roughly, the examination will

in Greenland, will keep her in communication with the be harder than the preliminary scientific examination permanent telegraph station at Chateau Bay, Labrador, which every candidate for a medical degree is obliged and thence by existing lines with New York. By the same to take, but not much harder. Medical students means communication with the expedition will be possible, generally pass their preliminary scientific examination at least for a portion of the distance, when in February during their first year, though there are cases in next the sledge party leaves the Roosevelt for the northern which they pass it while still at school. The Indian dash. The ship will carry two years' supplies. With forestry students may pass their entrance examination

regard to the route to be followed, it is intended to establish in their third or fourth year. The Blue-book stated

a permanent sub-base at Cape Sabine, on the west coast of that each candidate must qualify in all four subjects, but for some reason or another--and probably because

Smith's Sound, and, after securing the services of the the entry under the new regulations is small—the

necessary Eskimos, to force the vessel through Kane Basin Secretary of State for India has now still further

and Kennedy and Robeson Channels to the northern coast lightened a very elementary examination, and is now

of Grant Land or of Greenland, if the conditions should advertising in our columns that zoology is optional. compel it, and there winter within 500 miles of the Pole. Thus men, who may be graduates, will be admitted From these winter quarters a start north over the Polar into a great public service on an examination which pack will be made in February. The explorers will have comprises but three out of the ordinary four subjects available a probable period of five months in which to which candidates for medical degrees normally pass traverse the distance between their vessel and the Pole. in their first year, and judging by the schedules the amount in each subject to be “ got up” is little more

In the event of the failure of the Roosevelt to force

| Kennedy and Robeson Channels during the first summer than in the preliminary examination for an M.B. degree.

the dash for the Pole will have to be postponed until When we remember that in the Indian Civil February, 1907. Service examination the standard of the subjects is The seventy-third annual meeting of the British Medical that of an honours examination, and that a candidate Association will take place at Leicester from July 24 to 28. takes not three subjects, but eight, nine, ten, or more,

Addresses in medicine and surgery will be delivered reit is obvious that the Secretary of State is trying to

spectively by Dr. H. Maudsley and Mr. C. J. Bond, and. recruit the forest officers from men of a markedly inferior intellectual range, and the strictures which

following the precedent of last year, a popular lecture will were passed by Sir George King on the Indian

be given (on July 28) by Prof. Wm. Stirling, who will foresters at the Dover meeting of the British take as his subject the phenomena of fatigue and repose. Association will probably need repeating a few years The Geologists' Association announces an excursion to hence.

Central Wales extending from July 24 to 29. The head. The schedules are well adapted for an elementary

quarters are to be at Llandrindod Wells. pass or plough examination, but are ill adapted for a competitive examination. It will be very difficult, if

The first International Congress of Physiotherapy will not impossible, to select the best candidates competing be held at Liége from August 12 to 15 next. The quesin an examination carried on on these lines.

| tions proposed for discussion are, says the British Medical


Journal :-(1) the specific indications of the several physio The death occurred on July 10 of Sir Peter Nicol Russell, therapeutic agents; (2) description of the apparatus and who, by his gift of 100,000l., founded the school of technique required in each case ; (3) (a) how university | engineering of Sydney University. He was eighty-nine teaching on physiotherapy is given at the present time in

en at the present time in years of age. the various countries where instruction is given on the

The death is announced of Mr. Charles Moore, director subject; (b) how such instruction should be given in

of the Sydney Botanic Gardens and of the Government medical faculties; (4) the indication of suitable means for

| Domain and Plantations. He had attained the age of the vigorous repression of quackery and the abuses caused by “healers " who pretend to treat by physiotherapeutic

eighty-six years. procedures. Papers should be sent to Dr. Gunzburg,

A MEETING of the central committee for physical educaRue des Escrimeurs, Antwerp.

tion in Italy took place recently in Rome under the presi

dency of Mr. L. Lucchini. Among those present were the The full programme of the International Congress on Italian Under-Secretary of State for Instruction, and Tuberculosis (meeting in Paris from October 2 to 7 next) delegates of the Ministries of Instruction, War and has now been issued, and is summarised in the British

Marine; there were also representatives of the municipality Medical Journal. In the section of medical pathology, of Rome. the gymnastic association, and the Alpine and presided over by Prof. Bouchard, the following subjects touring clubs of the city. The main object of the comare proposed for discussion :-(1) treatment of lupus by

mittee is to stimulate interest in the physical education of the new methods; (2) early diagnosis of tuberculosis by

the Italian people, which, it is contended, has hitherto the new methods. In the section of surgical pathology, | been much neglected. presided over by Prof. Lannelongue, the following questions

A REUTER telegram from Penang states that the Chinese will be considered :--1) comparative study of different

Consul of that place has offered to build and equip a forms of tuberculosis; (2) ileo-cæcal tuberculosis ;

Pasteur institute for the Straits Settlements and the neigh(3) surgical interventions in tuberculosis of the meninges

bouring regions. The action has been prompted by the and encephalon ; (4) tuberculosis and traumatism. In the section of protection and assistance of childhood, presided

recent outbreak of rabies in Penang, resulting up to the over by Prof. Grancher, the questions to be discussed

present in four deaths. are :-(1) family protection ; (2) protection in the school ;

Both Messrs. Siemens and Halske, of Berlin, and the (3) seaside sanatoriums; (4) school mutual aid societies and Marconi Company are in communication with the Althing, the part played by them in the prevention of tuberculosis.

the proposal being to establish communication by wireless In the section of protection and assistance of adults, and

telegraphy between Iceland and the Continent and social hygiene, attention will be directed to :-(1) etiological

internally in the island. According to a Reuter telegram, factors of tuberculosis, economic conditions in the social

the Berlin firm offers to provide the installation for about etiology of tuberculosis ; (2) assurance and friendly societies 36,6661., and to guarantee the efficient working of the in the prevention of tuberculosis; (3) the part of dis system. pensaries and sanatoriums in the struggle against In connection with an exhibition to be held next year tuberculosis ; (4) sanitation and healthiness of the dwell

at Milan, there is to be a competition of appliances deing : (5) hygiene of tuberculous persons in factories, work

signed to safeguard against accidents, and the following shops, places of business, army and navy; (6) disinfection

prizes will be offered :-a gold medal and 3201. for a new of the dwelling of the subject of tuberculosis (adminis

device which will suppress the danger to life coming from trative regulations and practical measures). In connection

a contact formed between the primary and secondary with the congress there will be an exposition arranged in

circuits of an electric transformer ; a gold medal and 401. the four following departments :-(1) scientific : a museum

for a crane or hoist provided with a simple and practical of microbiology, experimental, medical, surgical, and

device preventing the rotation of the cranks on the descent veterinary tuberculosis; (2) social : ravages caused by

of the load; a gold medal and pol. for a simple, strong tuberculosis, prevention, assistance; (3) historical : tubercu

and effective apparatus for automatically stopping cars losis in various ages, in art and in history; (4) industrial :

which are moving upon an inclined plane in case the prevention, alimentation, private dwellings, public dwell

traction cable should break; a gold medal for a practical ings (schools, barracks, &c.); travel (railway carriages,

device for exhausting and collecting the dust formed during ships, hotels); assistance (hospitals, dispensaries, sana

the sorting and cutting of rags by hand; a gold medal toriums).

for an apparatus for localised exhaust and successive THE Museums Association held its annual meeting last elimination of dust produced during the cardage of flax, week at Worcester; the proceedings opened on Tuesday, tow, hemp, jute, &c.; and a gold medal for an effective and on Thursday the president (Lord Windsor) delivered device to prevent the diffusion of dust in places where the his address.

preparation of lime and cement is carried on. The comA TABLET to the memory of Sir Humphry Davy was

petition is to be under the auspices of the Association of unveiled by Mr. Marconi at Clifton, Bristol, on Friday

Italian Industries, and names of competitors must be sent last. The tablet is to be placed on 3 Rodney Place, Clifton,

to the secretary at Foro Bonaparte 61, Milan, before the in which house Sir Humphry Davy lived for a time.

end of the present month. Prof. GUIDO CORA has been elected a member of the

A NUMBER of prizes ranging in value from 10,000 marks Pontificia Accademia Romana dei Nuovi Lincei of Rome.

to 750 marks are offered by the Internationales Arbeitsamt,

Basel, Switzerland, for essays on means of combating lead WE regret to see the announcement of the death, on poisoning. The essays must contain proposals for the June 29, at Washington, of Mr. George H. Eldridge, one elimination of the danger to which no objection can be of the geologists on the staff of the United States Geo made on technical, hygienic, or economic grounds. In logical Survey. He contributed many valuable papers to proposing new apparatus or alterations in process, pargeological science, dealing with coal, petroleum, asphalt, | ticulars must be given as to the cost and saving involved and bituminous rock deposits.

Tin such proposals. It is desired that proposals should be


made for the improvement of existing laws upon the ing which forcibly recalls the well-known saying with subject in all countries, and attention directed to the regard to the play of Hamlet. This is, indeed, in our alterations which would be necessary for putting the opinion, one of those cases in which, whatever may be suggestions into effect. The papers, which may be in original rights in the matter, everything is to be gained English, French, or German, must reach the Inter by adhering to established practice. In the text the authors nationales Arbeitsamt by the end of the present year. define the different genera they include in the Gymnotidæ, We learn from La Nature that the annual prize of the

describing some of these for the first time. French Society of Civil Engineers has been awarded for

In another issue of the serial last quoted (Proc. Wash1905 to two men of science—to M. Alphonse Tellier for

ington Acad., vol. vii., pp. 27-157) Mr. W. F. Allen records his researches on motor navigation, and more particularly

observations on the blood-vascular system in the fishes for his memoir on “ Les canots automobiles à grand

of the group Loricati, that is to say, those constituting the vitesse,” and to M. J. Rey for his memoir on “ Les

families Scorpænidæ, Anoplopomatidae, Hexagrammidæ, turbines à vapeur en général, et plus particulièrement sur

and Cottidæ. In view of the circumstance that it is at les turbines du système Rateau et leurs applications."

present impossible to determine whether certain features The Alphonse Couvreux prize has been awarded to M. F.

in the circulatory system of these fishes are primary or Arnodin for his work on trans-shipping bridges. The 1905

secondary, no inductions are drawn from the observations Giffard prize will be postponed until 1908.

with regard to the classification of the group. Neverthe

less, it is suggested that the blood-vascular system may At the annual distribution of prizes at Guy's Hospital eventually prove to have a value in the classification of Medical School last week the new Gordon Museum of families and genera, although it would be useless in the Anatomy and Pathology was open to inspection. The case of species. museum is, it will be remembered, the gift of Mr. Robert We have received a copy of a circular issued by the Gordon, who at the distribution of prizes was presented Concilium Bibliographicum of Zürich in regard to a by the governors and medical staff with a replica in silver proposed physiological bibliography. A card catalogue of of the statue of Thomas Guy in the hospital square, literature of this description was commenced on July 1, together with a bound memorial volume signed by the in cooperation with the Zentralblatt für Physiologie, and Prince of Wales and all the members of the governing the support of all interested in the matter is requested. body. The specimens in the museum now number upwards To aid the scheme a committee was appointed at the of 12,000, and their re-arrangement and classification will, sixth International Physiological Congress held at it is hoped, be completed within the next few months.

Brussels, the names of the members of which are given PROF. A. PENCK contributes an account of the progress in the circular. made in the organisation and execution of the map of the The annual report of the Selborne Society, published in world on a scale of 1 : 1,000,000 to the Zeitschrift of the the July number of Nature Notes, points to a flourishing Berlin Gesellschaft für Erdkunde. It appears that up to condition of that body, although more members are reMarch of this year the four chief organisations-French, quired if its work is to be sti

quired if its work is to be still further developed. Mr. German, British, and Indian-had completed 69 sheets out | W. M. Webb has accepted the office of hon. treasurer, vice of 437 planned. A sketch map shows the sheets completed | Mr. R. M. Wattson, retired. Special attention is directed and in preparation.

in the report to the preservation and protection of places The Canadian Department of Marine and Fisheries has

of antiquarian interest or natural beauty in the neighbourrecently published a valuable paper by Dr. W. Bell Dawson

hood of London. Among these, the proceedings of the

London County Council in on the currents at the entrance of the Bay of Fundy and

attempting to “beautify"

Golder's Hill are criticised. “What is required is to on the steamship routes in its approaches off southern Nova Scotia.

leave the place niore alone, and so to give nature a chance The results are based on observations made by the tidal and current survey in 1904, and show that the

in it. Efforts to make things appear rustic almost inmovements of water are chiefly tidal in character, there

variably end by making them look artificial, and this is being no marked general movement in any one direction.

especially the case at Golder's Hill."

In our notice of Sir C. Elliot's description of the nudi. The report on the census of the Philippine Islands, taken branchs of the Scottish Antarctic Expedition the number in March and April; 1902, has recently been issued. It of species should have been given as six in place of two. consists of four volumes, comprising three thousand pages, | Four of these species are new, two, as stated in the and is freely illustrated with statistical maps and diagrams. original notice, forming the types of as many new genera. An excellent summary of this report, which includes papers

IN a brief note published in the Atti dei Lincei for on the climate and resources of the islands besides other statistical information, appears in the Bulletin of the

June 3 Prof. Cuboni notifies the appearance in the island

of Sardinia, in the district of Sassari, of a peculiar and American Geographical Society for May, from the pen of

little known disease of the olive. This disease, which is Mr. Henry Gannett,

known in Italian as “ Brusca," entirely despoils the plant Almost from time immemorial, in a zoological sense, the of its leaves and fruit, and is associated with the fungus South American electric eel has been regarded as the type Stictis Panizzei. This fungus has an altogether remark. (and sole representative) of the genus Gymnotus, as G. able history. It was first observed and studied by De electricus, and it is thus named in the" Cambridge Natural | Notaris near San Remo in 1842, and twenty years later it History." In a paper on the Gymnotidæ published in the was found at Spezia. Between the years 1863 and 1899 Proceedings of the Washington Academy (vol. vii., p. 159), no mention is to be found of its occurrence, but it suddenly Messrs. Eigenmann and Ward revive, however, an old reappeared in 1899 in the neighbourhood of Lecce, causing proposal that the Gymnotus cara pus of Linnæus should | great damage to the olives of the district. The study of a be taken as the type form, and the electric eel referred fungus for which apparently very special conditions of to a genus apart. They even go so far as to exclude the growth are necessary seems likely to give results of par. latter species from the Gymnotidæ altogether-a proceed- ticular interest in vegetable pathology.

In the Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts velocity of the change 2HCl + H,0+Cl, is greatly and Sciences (vol. xl., No. 23) Mr. Gilbert N. Lewis makes a study of the auto-catalytic decomposition of silver

| influenced by the presence of the copper salt. The catalyst oxide under the influence of heat. It is shown that the is supposed to help the action by its tendency to combine velocity of decomposition of the oxide at a constant

with the water produced in the change. temperature increases as the action proceeds, and, after An interesting article by M. Albert de Romeu on the passing through a maximum, falls gradually to zero. The industry of the abrasive materials such as corundum, phenomenon is due to the catalytic action of the metallic emery, and carborundum appears in the Revue générale silver produced, the action proceeding very regularly accord des Sciences for June 15. ing to an equation representing the simplest case of autocatalysis. During the decomposition, definite temperatures

No. 6 of vol. ii. of Le Radium contains a useful article between 327° C. and 353° C. were maintained by means

by M. G. H. Niewenglowski on the development of photoof a thermostat containing a fused mixture of sodium and

| graphic plates which have been subjected to the action of potassium nitrates. The purity and method of preparation

| radio-active substances. of the silver oxide have a very great influence on the Under the title “ From the Borderland between velocity of decomposition. The theory is advanced that Crystallography and Chemistry," an address delivered the influence of the silver is directed in modifying the before the Science Club of the University of Wisconsin velocity of the reversible change 0,– 20.

by Prof. Victor Goldschmidt, of Heidelberg, is printed in We have received from the Medical Supply Association

the Bulletin of the university (No. 108). Attention is a pamphlet dealing with the Gaiffe auto-motor mercury-jet

directed to the interesting results that have been obtained interrupter and its application in producing high-frequency

by studying the etch-figures and dissolution bodies of

crystals and their significance in forming a mechanical currents. The interrupter is a simplified form of the mercury-jet turbine type, and is so arranged that the

theory of dissolution. interrupter cuts off the current for both the motor and The sugar and cacao industries in the West Indies coil. The interrupter thus works automatically, and the formed the principal subjects of discussion at the agriuse of an independent motor is dispensed with. The cultural conference held in Trinidad in January ; the proarrangement is simple, portable, and less expensive than ceedings in connection with these matters are reported in any other form of turbine interrupter.

the first number of vol. vi. of the West Indian Bulletin.

The condition of the sugar industry in Trinidad evoked SOME singular results obtained during the investigation

considerable discussion, the subject at issue being the of the activity of radiotellurium (polonium) are recorded

small amount of cane produced by the farmers per acre. by Prof. B. Walter in a paper in the Annalen der Physik

Dr. F. Watts gave some account of the establishment of (vol. xvii. p. 367). It would appear that the a rays of

a well equipped central sugar factory in Antigua. The radiotellurium are capable of producing a species of

question of shade trees for cacao was debated, but evidence fluorescence in the air through which they pass in such

was not forthcoming to show why the shade that is cona manner that a radiation is set up having a pronounced

sidered necessary in Trinidad proves to be injurious in photochemical action and similar properties to the ultra

Grenada. Mr. L. Lewton-Brain and Mr. H. A. Ballou violet portion of the spectrum lying between 1 350 and

presented papers on the fungoid diseases and insect pests A 290. The radiation is completely absorbed by aluminium

of sugar canes and cacao trees. foil 0.0091 mm. in thickness, but readily passes through a glass plate 0.15 mm. thick. In passing through a vacuum,

THE route followed by Mr. B. Fedtschenko on his however, the a rays of radiotellurium do not give rise to

botanical journey through the Pamirs, as described in the a radiation, whilst in gases other than air or nitrogen the

Bulletin du Jardin impérial botanique de St. Petersbourg, effect is only very slight. The new radiation seems,

vol. v., lay along the river Pianj where it runs parallel indeed, to be produced only by nitrogen, the effect with

and a little to the north of the boundaries of Kashmir this gas being thirty to fifty times as great as with and Chitral ; thence proceeding north the explorer returned hydrogen or oxygen. This fact is of unusual significance

to Osch, in Turkestan. Anaphalis seravschanica and as tending to throw light on some of the peculiar properties

Ferula gigantea were the most remarkable plants obtained of the nitrogen atom.

on these stages of the journey. A malformation of the

flowers of Tragopogon pratensii showing pedicelled florets The part played by the copper salt in Deacon's process and phyllody of the calyx is described by Mr. Dmitriew. of preparing chlorine from hydrogen chloride is still un- |

MR. P. H. Rolfs presented the first results of his incertain, although many hypotheses have been put forward to explain it. That which has been most generally adopted

vestigations into the diseases of citrous plants and fruits assumes that cupric chloride is decomposed into cuprous

caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in chloride and chlorine, and that the cuprous chloride then

Bulletin No. 52 of the Bureau of Plant Industry, U.S.A. undergoes re-conversion into the cupric salt under the in

It is there shown that wither-tip, leaf-spot, anthracnose, fluence of oxygen and hydrogen chloride, copper

and fruit canker are all due to the same fungus. Witheroxychloride being formed as an intermediate product. In

tip and leaf-spot can be controlled by pruning. followed an experimental investigation of the process published by

by spraying with Bordeaux mixture, while spraying with M. G. Levi and V. Bettoni in the Gaccetta (vol. xxxv.

ammoniacal solution of copper carbonate is efficacious p. 320) it is shown, however, that neither cuprous chloride

against disease of the fruit. A later article in the Florida nor the oxychloride can be used with a successful result in

Agriculturist (March) deals with the appearance of these Deacon's process, and that the oxychloride is not con

diseases on grape fruit. vertible by hydrogen chloride into cupric chloride under | Tue Jamaica Bulletin of Agriculture (May) contains an the conditions in which chlorine is ordinarily formed. The article by Mr. Fawcett on Raiffeisen agricultural banks, hypothesis of an intermediate product is rejected and a prompted by conditions which suggest that such a system purely catalytic action assumed, according to which the could be advantageously introduced into the island. The

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