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R. H. HOUSMAN, B.Sc., M.I.E.E. Frontispiece.

B.Sc., M.I.E.E.
THE ELECTRO-MAGNETIC THEORY, Explained without the use

of the Higher Mathematics. Part IV. By Edwin Edser, A.R.C.S THE ELEMENTS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING. Part Il. By





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conducted chiefly from the geological standpoint 7-metre beach, described at other parts of the with the view of determining the age of the deposits, Mediterranean littoral by MM. Depéret and Caizot, and of throwing light upon the much debated question and regarded by them as of late Quaternary date, really of the oscillations of sea-level in recent times on the belongs to a much more distant period, for it is Mediterranean seaboard.

anterior to the subaërial deposits containing fossils Prof. Boule's attention was directed in the first belonging to the older period of the Quaternary. If instance to the Grotte du Prince, which was almost this conclusion be correct, it affords a means of fixing intact when excavation was commenced. Here the the age of the last oscillation of sea-level in this region. deposits attain a thickness of more than 20 metres, It should, however, be noted that in the discussion and consist of basal beds of marine origin upon which which followed the reading of the paper M. Depéret strata of continental origin are superimposed. The protested against the proposed homologising of the low latter can be subdivided into a number of layers, both raised beach (height 5-7 metres) studied by him on by their physical characters and by their fossil con- the French coast of the Mediterranean (e.g. in the Bay tents, but the point of importance is that the upper of Pierre-Formique) with the Strombus beach in the and middle beds contain remains of reindeer (never Mentone caves. The former type of beach contains a previously recorded in this region), ibex, marmot, and fauna very different from that of the Strombus layers, woolly rhinoceros, that is, the fauna of the cold period Strombus being absent, and all the fossils belonging of the Quaternary, while the lower beds contain quite to living species. a different fauna-Elephas antiquus, Rhinoceros At the conclusion of his paper Prof. Boule referred mercki, and hippopotamus, that is, species belonging to the three new human skeletons which have been to the lower Quaternary fauna. The last named de- recently discovered in the Grotte des Enfants. The posits lie upon an old raised beach which is also dis- first of these has been studied by MM. Gaudry and cernible outside the cavern, along the shore rocks, at Verneau, and proves to be markedly Australoid in type. a mean altitude of 7 metres. Almost all the contained It was obtained in a bed containing Ursus spelaeus, fossils belong to the existing Mediterranean fauna, Hyaena spelaea, Felis spelaea, &c., and rested upon but Prof. Boule has found some beautiful examples of a bed containing molars of Rhinoceros mercki. It

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Strombus mediterraneus, which has been regarded as I must therefore belong to the earlier part of the characteristic of the raised beaches of the Quaternary Quaternary period. The second skeleton was found period in the Mediterranean area. But the Prince's about 0.60 metre above the first, and was accompanied cave contains other traces of marine action of a much by remains of the same species of mammals. The earlier date. In its upper part, at a height of 28 third skeleton, on the other hand, found metres above metres, there is a calcareous encrustation due to the the first, seems to belong to the period of the reindeer, action of the waves, below which the wall of the cavern that is, to the end of the Quaternary epoch. is perforated by boring molluscs. The sequence of events is therefore explained by Prof. Boule follows:The sea formerly stood at the 28-metre level, and


TANGANYIKA. then gradually retired until it stood at a height of 7-8 metres. At this level the shell deposit was laid T!

HE committee for the scientific exploration of down on the floor of the cavern. Subsequently the Lake Tanganyika (consisting of Sir John Kirk, imovement of elevation was continued. Its extent is Dr. Sclater, Sir W. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lankester, difficult to determine, but the oceanographical re- Dr. Boulenger, and Mr. J. E. S. Moore) has lately searches of the Prince of Monaco have shown that received news of the progress of its envoy, Mr. there extends along the rochers rouges at a slight W. A. Cunnington, who left England in March, 1904, depth an extensive submarine platform.

under directions to continue the researches carried out gests that the movement-whether of the land or of by Mr. J. E. S. Moore during his two expeditions to the sea-continued until there was laid bare between Lake Tanganyika. Proceeding by the Zambesi and the sea and the present irregular shore line a plain Shiré route, Mr. Cunnington was most kindly resufficiently extensive to become the home of such large ceived at Zomba by Sir Alfred Sharpe, who granted animals as elephants, hippopotami, and rhinoceroses, him the assistance of two native collectors. Mr. for which the present topography allows no space. It Cunnington had instructions to devote his special is at least certain, according to Prof. Boule, that the attention to the lacustrine flora and fauna of Lake

This sug




As re

Tanganyika, and, as he passed up Lake Nyassa, Committee Rooms, Seething Lane, Wednesday, began his investigations in that lake, in order to be January 25, by Mr. W. G. Freeman, superintendent ol able to compare its products with those of Tanga- | the colonial economic collections at the Imperial Institute, nyika. On Lake Nyassa Mr. Cunnington was able The West Indian Fruit Industry." to get a good number of tow-nettings from different parts of the lake's surface, and obtained, on the The next competition for the Howard medal of the whole, a large quantity of its characteristic phyto- Royal Statistical Society will take place in the ensuing plankton, besides considerable amount of 200- session. The essays must be sent in on or before June jo. plankton, consisting mostly of Copepoda, Cladocera, In addition to the medal, a grant of 20l. will be awarded and insect-larvæ. The temperature of the water of to the successful competitor. The subject is :-** A Critical Lake Nyassa was observed to fall seldom below 70°, Inquiry into the Comparative Prevalence of Lunacy and while the temperature at 76 fathoms below the surface

other Mental Defects in the United Kingdom during the was ascertained to be about three degrees higher.

Last Fifty Years." Mr. Cunnington arrived at Karonga, at the head of Lake Nyassa, at the end of June, 1904, and The death is announced of Mr. T. W. Shore, author travelled on to Tanganyika by the ordinary route of of a number of papers on geological and archæological the Stevenson road. His last letters from Tanga subjects. Mr. Shore was for a long time resident at nyika are dated at Vua, on October 29, 1904. He had obtained a dhow from Ujiji, which enabled him Southampton, where he acted as curator of the Hartie to make his stay at different places on the lake

Institution and secretary of the Hampshire Field Club. longer or shorter according as he found much or

At the Southampton meeting of the British Association in little to collect. A good series of fishes had been

1882 he was one of the secretaries of the section of preserved, and many freshwater crustaceans.

geology. On removing to London, he founded the Balham gards the vegetable life, Mr. Cunnington had been Antiquarian Society, and became its secretary; he was much struck by the near resemblance of all the forms also secretary of the London and Middlesex Archæological obtained in Tanganyika to those which he had Society. collected in Nyassa, though he could not, of course, say that they were specifically identical. From Vua,

We have received a letter from Mr. C. E. Stromeyer, of Mr. Cunnington had arranged to cross to the east

Manchester, in which he suggests that irregularities of coast of the lake, and to go some distance further the earth's surface might be detected by special observ. north before returning to the western shore. Mr. ations for determining the position of the northern and Cunnington may be expected to return to England southern limits of totality during the coming total solar before the end of the year.

eclipse of August next. Unfortunately there are many practical difficulties in the way which the author has not

discussed, but he makes one suggestion which might be NOTES.

carried out. He proposes to place soldiers at short dis. Sir James Dewar has presented the proceeds of the

tances along the northern and southern borders of the Gunning prize, amounting to one hundred guineas, recently

shadow's path, who, by marking the positions where awarded to him by the Royal Society of Edinburgh, as

the eclipse was total, might determine with greater a contribution to the fund for the encouragement of re

accuracy than is known the breadth of the moon's shadow, search, now being founded in the University of Edinburgh A CORRESPONDENT writes :- The death of Dr. Thomas in memory of the late Prof. Tait.

Woods occurred on January 5 in Birr (or Parsonstown). We regret to learn from the London branch of the Dr. Woods was born in February, 1815, and graduated as Zeiss optical firm that Prof. Abbe, of Jena, died a few doctor of medicine in Glasgow in 1838. He spent all days ago. We also announce with regret the death of his long life as a medical practitioner and as medical M. Paul Henry, astronomer at the Paris Observatory. officer of the union and dispensary in Birr. So it is, His brother, M. Prosper Henry, with whom he perhaps, not to be wondered at that his scientific work associated for many years in celestial photography, died belonged largely to a former generation.

He was a about eighteen months ago.

chemist, and as such took part in the early development

of photography, originating in the 'forties a new wet The Paris Société d'Encouragement pour l'Industrie

plate process, the “catalysotype," a detailed description nationale has awarded the grand prize of the Marquis

of which may be found in Hunt's “ History of Photod'Argenteuil to MM. Auguste and Louis Lumière for their

graphy." In 1852 and 1853 he published in the Philophotographic discoveries. M. Héroult has been awarded

sophical Magazine some original observations on the heat a grand gold medal for his works on electro-metallurgy.

developed by chemical combination, and defended with The two Antarctic ships Terra Nova and Morning were considerable success his claim of priority against Andrews sold at Portsmouth on January 11. Messrs. W. Ziegler and Joule. He was man of remarkable ability and and Co., New York, bought the Terra Nova for 960ol., astoundingly general scientific interest, and it is much and she will probably be used for North Polar exploration. to be regretted that circumstances kept him in a small The Morning was sold for 1600l. The Discovery has been country town, and that his professional duties prevented sold privately to he Hudson's Bay Company for 10,000l. him from adding further to scientific knowledge. He M. L. BONNAMÈRE has been elected president for 1905

continued mentally and bodily fresh to the very end, ever of the Prehistoric Society of France.

eager to hear of the latest scientific discoveries, and Birr

feels distinctly the poorer for his loss. The death is announced of Dr. Anton Müttrich, professor of physics and mathematics in the Academy of

A REUTER message from Christiania states that af Forestry at Eberswald.

Nesdal, north of Bergen, on Sunday, a mass of rock

slipped into the Loenvand Lake. A wave of water twenty Sir William THISELTON-Dyer, K.C.M.G., will take the feet high, which resulted from the fall, swept the neighchair at a lecture to be delivered at the West India bourhood, carrying away houses, people, and cattle.


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As supplementary to the paragraph on the recent fall ology of plague by Mr. Hankin, a leprosy-like disease in of cliff at St. Margaret's Bay, near Dover (NATURE, the rat by Mr. Dean, &c. An introductory memoir, with January 12), it may be mentioned that the cliffs at St. a portrait, gives an account of the work of the late Sir Margaret's Bay, which rise from 150 to 300 feet, are John Simon. formed of the Upper Chalk, comprising soft chalk and

MM. SALOMONSEN AND DREYER have conducted some exharder nodular bands, with scattered Aints and occasional continuous seams of flint. These beds are surmounted by

periments on the effect of the radium emanations on certain

Protozoa and on the blood. The material consisted of chalk, with many layers of Aint nodules and some continuous bands of fint; and this portion of the chalk forms

fifty milligrams of pure radium bromide covered with

a sheet of mica. On Nassula the radium had little effect, the mass of the cliffs at St. Margaret's Bay, the lower beds appearing at beach level and rising southwards.

even with an exposure of six days. Some amabæ were

killed in less than twelve hours, but others survived four Thr general dip of the chalk is to the north-east, corre

days. Trypanosoma Brucei was killed in from two to sponding to some extent with the trend of the coast from

three hours. Fast Wear Bay to Dover and St. Margaret's. Numerous

On blood corpuscles the radium exerted a falls of cliff have taken place along this coast for many

hæmolytic power. cnturies, the greatest losses having occurred above East H.R.H. PRINCESS CHRISTIAN and Mr. Chamberlain were Wear Bay in the great landslip of the Warren, where present on Friday last at St. George's Hall, Liverpool, notable founders occurred in 1716 and again in 1886. the occasion of a meeting in connection with the Such slips along the sea-front may serve for a time to Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, at which a lecture protect the cliffs from further waste, until the débris is was delivered by Major Ronald Ross, F.R.S., on removed by the breakers. Copious springs issue along the Progress of Tropical Medicine." Major Ross, in the foot of the cliffs here and there, and a powerful spring course of his address, alluded to the discoveries which had issues at St. Margaret's Bay. These probably had no proved that yellow fever is conveyed solely by mosquitoes, direct influence on the recent falls of cliff, but rather to the work of Sir William MacGregor in the suppression would the slips be due to the local feeders of the springs, of malaria in Lagos, and to the anti-malarial measures to their erosive action along joints in the chalk, and to the of the Suez Canal Company, which had resulted in a reeffects of frost. It is quite possible, as has been suggested, duction of the annual rate of malarial fevers at Ismailia that blasting operations at the Admiralty Harbour at from two thousand to two hundred. He also alluded to Dover may have accelerated the falls of cliffs at points the fact that the Liverpool School had sent out no less where they were weakened by natural agencies.

than fourteen expeditions to investigate tropical diseases The l'ictorian Naturalist brings us news of the death,

in various parts of the world. on November 18, 1904. of Mr. J. G. Luehmann, Govern

Naturen for December, 1904, contains some realistic, and ment botanist and curator of the National Herbarium at

perhaps rather ghastly, photographs of a python and its Melbourne, at the age of sixty-one. Mr. Luehmann went

prey, taken from menagerie specimens. In the first of to Victoria in 1862, and in 1867, on the resignation of the series we have an unfortunate rabbit “ fascinated” Mr. E. B. Heyne, secretary to the late Baron von Mueller,

and about to be seized by a python, in the second the Mr. Luehmann was offered the position, which he accepted, rodent in the coils of the serpent, and in the third the and he remained connected with the botanical department python commencing to devour the crushed carcase. until shortly before his death. For many years he made the preliminary identifications of specimens for Baron von

The most important, or at all events the longest and Mueller, becoming an authority on the eucalypts and

most fully illustrated, paper in the second part of vol. ii. acacias. His great assistance was acknowledged by Baron

of the quarterly issue of Smithsonian Miscellaneous Convon Mueller in the preface to the " Key to the System of

tributions is one by Mr. C. Schuchert on Silurian and Victorian Plants." In the early days of the Field

Devonian cystoid echinoderms and the genus CamaraNaturalists' Club of Victoria, before the institution of the

crinus, in the course of which many new forms are deVictorian Naturalist, he contributed papers on the euca

scribed, and some valuable contributions made to the lypts and acacias. In 1896, on the death of Baron von

morphology of the group. Among the other contents of Mueller, he was appointed curator of the National Her- this issue, reference may be made to a list of west Indian barium, and afterwards became Government botanist.

birds by Mr. J. H. Riley. During late years he contributed several descriptions of

The issue of Biologisches Centralblatt for January 1 plants to the club's proceedings, in addition to an interest

contains an article by Dr. E. Rádl on the hearing of ing paper-observations on pre-Linnean botanists—in which

insects, at the conclusion of which it is pointed out that he directed attention to the many valuable botanical works

this sense is much less developed in that group than in in the herbarium library. He was one of the earliest

the higher vertebrates. The hearing of insects seems, in Victorian fellows of the Linnean Society of London.

fact, to be a muscular rather than a nervous sense. The 1x a paper in the Lancet (January 7) Mr. G. C. other articles include one by Mr. H. S. Skorikow on the Chatterjee, working under the direction of Captain L. plankton of the Neva, in the course of which several new Rogers, I.M.S., announces that he has succeeded in culti- forms are described, and one by Dr. O. Zacharias on vating trypanosomes from the Leishman-Donovan body the light-organs of Ceratium tripos. or parasite, thus confirming Captain Rogers's previous

ICHTHYOSAURS, or the extinct marine fish-lizards of work in this direction.

the Mesozoic epoch, form the subject of an article by We have received the first number of the new voiume Prof. H. F. Osborn in the January number of the Century of the Journal of Hygiene (vol. v., No. 1), which con- víagazine. After tracing the ichthyosaurian paddle into a tinues to maintain its previous high standard. It contains limb of the type of that of the existing terrestrial tuatera papers on piroplasmosis by Mr. Bowhill and by Mr. Ross, lizard (Sphenodon) of New Zealand, which is regarded as cultivation of trypanosomata by Mr. Smedley, epidemi- | nearly related to the ancestral stock of the group, the




the paper.


author proceeds to point out how much we know with more than ever fully established by the results obtained, regard to the nature of the soft-parts and the life-history some of the kites reaching altitudes varying from zero of the fish-lizards. We are aware, for instance, that they to 5900 metres. The difficulty of reaching such heights is had a dorsal and a caudal fin, a naked scaleless skin, and well known to persons who have undertaken similar a spiral valve to the intestine, similar to that of sharks; experiments. while, from the inclusion of skeletons of fætuses within the

PROF. DR. C. Uhlig contributes some notes of a journey ribs of full-grown individuals, we also know that they

from Kilimandjaro to Mweru to Nos. 9 and 10 of the produced living young. This viviparous condition is, of

Zeitschrift of the Berlin Gesellschaft für Erdkunde. The course, an adaptive modification, similar to that which

paper is illustrated by a number of excellent photographs. occurs in the sea-snakes of to-day, rendered necessary by the pelagic habits of these reptiles. The similarity in The last issue of the Mitteilungen aus den deutschen bodily form existing between sharks, dolphins, and fish- Schutzgebieten is entirely devoted to the region of the lizards is referred to as another instance of such Pacific. Dr. Born records some observations on the ethnoadaptive modification. Excellent illustrations-one show-graphy of the Oleai Islands, Herr Senfft describes a visit ing a female ichthyosaur and her progeny--accompany some of the West Caroline Islands, and there are

Apparently the author is unaware that the abstracts of meteorological observations for 1903, and maps name Shastasaurus, proposed for a Triassic American based on recent surveys. ichthyosaur, has been changed, on account of pre-occupation, to Merriamia.

The last number of the Deutsche geographische Blatter contains reports


lectures delivered to the A PAPER upon Mendel's discoveries in heredity, read by Vereinigung für staatswissenschaftliche Fortbildung at its Mr. C. C. Hurst before the Leicester Literary and Philo

meeting at Bremen in November last. Dr. Tetens dissophical Society, gives a succinct account of Mendel's ex

cussed the importance of Bremen as a centre of trade, and periments, and the rules which he evolved therefrom ; also

gave an exhaustive statistical account of its development it contains a list of the chief experiments with different

and a comparison with other seaports; his paper is illusplants and animals which have been carried out subse

trated by nineteen sheets of diagrams, and should be of quently. The paper is published in the Transactions of

great value to students and teachers of commercial geothe society, vol. viii. (June, 1904), and in the same part

graphy. Dr. W. Hochstetter lectured on the history of will be found a useful summary prepared by Mr. H. St. J.

the North German Lloyd. Donisthorpe of additions to British Coleoptera during the last ten years.

The Royal Geogʻraphical Society has issued, as an extra

publication, a paper on recent contributions to our knowIn the Comptes rendus, vol. xxxv., No. 6, of the

ledge of the floor of the North Atlantic Ocean, by Sir Imperial Society of Naturalists of St. Petersburg, lists of

John Murray and Mr. R. E. Peake. The new material new plants for the Crimea are given by Mr. K. Golde

dealt with consists chiefly of soundings from the telegraph and Mr. A. Younghé. Two of the most striking mentioned

ships Minia and Faraday, but the chart accompanying the by Mr. Younghé are Crambe juncea, a Persian plant,

paper has been fully brought up to date, and new measure which grows to the height of a man, and Lythrum nanum,

ments of areas at different depths have been made. An a dwarf Siberian plant. Both botanists make a special interesting correspondence with the United States Hydroreference to the freshwater plants, which include species graphic Office about the origin of the term " telegraphic so familiar to us as Zannichellia pedicellata, Enanthe

plateau " appears in the introduction. Phellandrium, and species of Potamogeton.

The first place in the January number of the GeoThe first appendix to the Kew Bulletin for 1905,

graphical Journal is given to a striking address delivered enumerating the hardy shrubs, trees, and herbaceous

to the International Congress of Arts and Sciences at St. plants of which seed is available, has been received.

Louis in September last by Dr. H. R. Mill. Dr. Mill's In our issue of January 12 (p. 255) we referred to the

address is entitled " The Present Problems of Geography," prominent part taken by M. Leon Teisserenc de Bort

by which the author means not the whole penumbra of the establishment of a Scandinavian station for the explor

our ignorance, but those problems the solution of which ation of the upper air by means of kites and unmanned

at the present time is most urgent and appears most balloons. The first results of this important enterprise

promising.” Many of his conclusions concerning the have been published in a work entitled “Travaux de la

scope and methods of geography are of profound signifiStation Franco-Scandinave de Sondages aériens à Hald,

It seems specially appropriate that the address 1902-1903,” a large quarto volume of 160 pages. The

should immediately precede a paper on geography and station is situated on an extensive open domain belonging education in the same number, in which the recent articles to M. Krabbe, near Viborg, in Jutland, and is due to the

and correspondence in the newspapers are summarised and exertions of MM. Hildebrandsson, Paulsen, and Mascart, the

discussed. Dr. Mill puts his finger on many points which official meteorological representatives of Sweden (Upsala),

have formed real obstacles to the development of gecDenmark, and France. The necessary subscriptions for graphical teaching in schools and elsewhere. carrying out the experiments have been chiefly contributed by private persons-in Sweden, by an anonymous donor,

A CORRESPONDENT of the Physikalische Zeitschrift in28,000 francs; in Denmark, 245,000 francs (including a

quires whether any experimental or other information

exists regarding the heeling over of a ship on one side grant of 10,000 francs by the Danish Government); in

caused by the turning moment on the screw shaft. France, 66,100 francs (of which M. Teisserenc de Bort contributed 50,000 francs, and a further loan of material PROF. R. W. Wood describes in the Physikalische Zeitfrom Trappes valued at about 12,000 francs). The Danish scrift a simple experiment for showing the pressure due Government also lent two gunboats for kite experiments;

to sound waves. The waves are made to converge to a the value of kite ascents from steamers at sea has been focus by reflection, and close to this point is placed a


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