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of the building and fittings is 49,389l. 25. 3d., of which The president of the Board of Education has appointed sum 26,1251. has been furnished by the Sedgwick memorial | the Right Hon. R. B. Haldane, K.C., M.P., to be chairtrustees, besides 1050l. appropriated to the bronze statue man of the departmental committee which is inquiring sculptured by Mr. Onslow Ford.
into the present and future working of the Royal College In connection with the recently established diploma and of Science and Royal School of Mines, South Kensington, final examination for the degree in geography, the Board in succession to Sir Francis Mowatt, G.C.B., who will, of Geographical Studies has issued a list of eight lectures however, remain a member of the committee. It may be which amply cover the syllabus for these examinations. remembered that the terms of reference to the committee Besides the lectures on geography in general by Mr. Yule are as follows :-To inquire into the present working of Oldham, Mr. Hinks is lecturing on geographical survey- the Royal College of Science, including the School of ing, Dr. Marron geomorphology, and Dr. Haddon on Mines; to consider in what manner the staff, together with anthropogeography.
the buildings and appliances now in occupation or in cours The recently established board of anthropology announce of construction, may be utilised to the fullest extent for some thirteen courses of lectures which seem to embrace the promotion of higher scientific studies in connection the world, ancient and modern. Prof. Ridgeway deals with the work of existing or projected institutions for with Greek and Roman numismatics, Mr. Green with instruction of the same character in the metropolis or Egyptology, Mr. Johns with Assyriology and the social elsewhere ; and to report on any changes which may be customs of Babylonia, Mr. Chadwick with those of the desirable in order to carry out such recommendations as Anglo-Saxons, whilst Dr. Haddon lectures on the ethnology they may make. of Southern Asia, Baron von Hügel on the Melanesians and Polynesians, and Mr. Minns on the ancient ethnology
The annual meeting of the Incorporated Association of of eastern Europe. Special courses on the sacred character
Headmasters was held at the Guildhall on January 11
and 12. and magical functions of kings in early society, and on
In his presidential address, the Rev. James Went physical anthropology, are to be delivered by Mr. J. G.
said that, speaking broadly, the difference between the Frazer and Mr. Duckworth.
English and the German educational ideal has been that
the Germans have recognised the paramount importano: LONDON.—The Drapers' Company has voted to Uni
of secondary education and the English have not. It is, versity College the sum of 400l. a year for the next five
however, being recognised gradually that the word years towards assisting further the statistical work and
" secondary connotes, not a social distinction, but one higher teaching of the department of applied mathematics.
of attainment. The recognition of this fact is, Mr. Went The Mercers' Company has voted the sum of 1000l. for
believes, largely due to boys of ability and good character providing for the chair of physiology at the college. Dr. who, under the name of exhibitioners or county council Atkinson has been appointed an honorary demonstrator in scholars, have during the last thirty years been admitted the department of organic chemistry.
freely into grammar schools, and of whom many have EDINBURGH.-The Senate has submited a resolution to afterwards won the highest distinctions at the universithe University Court expressing the view that the time ties. It appears likely that the number of boys of this has come for the recognition of geography as a subject class will be increased as time goes on. The address also for graduation in arts and science, and requesting that dealt with the education of pupil teachers at secondary the court should take steps as soon as possible to obtain schools and with the recent regulations for secondary such alteration of the ordinances as may be necessary to
schools issued by the Board of Education. The following that end. It was agreed that when the framing of a resolution was adopted :-“ That this association regards new and amending ordinance in arts comes before the the new regulations for secondary schools with satisfac. court, the question of giving an adequate position to tion in general, but regrets that the Board of Education geography shall be given due consideration.
does not provide (a) for the calculation of grants upor: Dublin.—The Provost and senior fellows of Trinity
terminal attendance; (b) for the recognition of advanced College have accepted an offer made by Sir John Nutting, | (c) for ensuring comparative freedom of curricula to schools
courses to follow upon the existing four-years' course : of St. Helens, county Dublin, to endow for a period of five years ten annual entrance exhibitions each of the
satisfying certain tests of a higher liberal education ; value of 100l. (50l. per annum for two years). The
(d) for an elastic percentage division of the whole school exhibitions are
time when prescribing for groups of subjects, in place of to be awarded without further examination, and at the discretion of the Board of Trinity College,
the existing rigid minima of hours or periods in each
week. A rider to ten young men or women who have competed with
was adopted also declaring that the success at the senior or middle grade examinations of
financial basis on which grants are calculated is not at the Board of Intermediate Education in Ireland. The
all adequate, and protesting against any application of exhibitions will be confined to pupils of Irish secondary
the new regulations to secondary schools hitherto earn
ing grants from the board, which would result in such schools (Protestant and Roman Catholic) which have no other endowment than the “ results fees" of the Inter
schools receiving grants on a lower basis than in the past mediate Board, any other endowment to act as a dis- At the second day's meeting of the Incorporated Associqualification.
ation of Headmasters the following resolutions were
adopted after discussion :-(1) That in the opinion of this Mr. Stanley H. Turner, assistant in political economy
association it is desirable that the universities should at Glasgow, has been appointed lecturer in political
institute a twofold entrance examination (a) for candidates economy in the University of Aberdeen, and a full qualify- proceeding to degrees in arts, in general as at present, ing course of lectures will in future be given by him.
but with a higher standard in literary subjects ; (b) for
candidates proceeding to degrees in mathematics and Dr. KARL BOEHM, of Heidelberg, and Dr. Hugo Kauf
science, with a modern language, including translation at mann, of Stuttgart Technical College, have been appointed sight, composition, and an oral test, as an alternative extraordinary professors for mathematics and chemistry
for Greek. (2) That the provision for papers in English respectively.
and history, and for the omission of Paley's Evidences Mrs. MacLOGHLIN, of Southport, recently made an offer from the Cambridge previous paper as laid down in the to the Royal College of Surgeons of England to found first report of the Cambridge Studies Syndicate, should scholarships in memory of her husband, the late Mr. be insisted upon in examinations under both (a) and (0) E. Percy P. Macloghlin. Mrs. Macloghlin proposes, in above: (3) That a new degree in mathematics and in five years from the date of her husband's death, to give science should be instituted, differing in title from the to the college a sum of 10,000l. for the purpose of endow- degree in arts, but of precisely the same university standing these scholarships, which are intended to assist young ing. The Rev. R. D. Swallow, in moving the resolustudents in need of financial help to proceed with their tions, said he would not add anything to the arguments professional studies. The council of the college has on either side of the vexed question as to whether the accepted Mrs. Macloghlin's munificent offer, and has agreed study of Greek is to be compulsory for students who to administer the trust.
sought admission to the ancient universities. It is a
question which has often been debated by the association, post-mortem examination of the animal, are given.-and now in later years, as the subject has assumed a Observations on the Borrelly comet (December 28, 1904) mure prominent place in all questions about the curricula made with the large equatorial at the Observatory of of the universities and the secondary schools, the associ- Bordeaux : G. Rayet. Two sets of observations were made ation has gradually focussed its view of it in favour of on December 31, 1904, and one on January 2. On the relasation for candidates for admission at the university latter evening the sky was clear, and the comet appeared who are able to prove themselves worthy of high honours as a nearly round nebulosity of about 1' in diameter, in mathematics or natural science.
possessing a stellar nucleus of the thirteenth magnitude. Sia. ARXOLD-FORSTER, Secretary of State for War,
-On a method of reading large surfaces of mercury : A. attended on Monday the first lecture of a
Berget. A collimator with a well illuminated very narrow military history and strategy at the University of London ;
slit is placed behind the column to be read, and an unand at the conclusion of the lecture spoke on army educa
graduated thermometer tube in front. A luminous line, tion. In the course of his remarks, he said :-If we have
the focal line of a cylindrical mirror, is formed, and ends had one thing more than another to admire in the great
with great sharpness at a fixed point, which can be read military example in the Far East, it is the way in which
off in a cathetometer with an accuracy of 0.01 the officers' corps of a great and friendly nation have
The attraction observed between liquid drops suspended in succeeded in combining the maximum of devotion with
a liquid of the same density: V. Crémieu. Drops of the maximum of intelligence in the effective service of
olive oil, suspended in a mixture of alcohol and water of their country. In our Army we can find officers in every
as nearly as possible the same density as the oil, ascend rank and branch of the service who will challenge com
or descend in a vertical straight line, with extreme slowparison with the officers of any army in the world; but
ness, if precautions against changes of temperature and the diffusion of intelligence and education throughout the
shaking are taken. If two or more drops are present in utficers of the Army is not so great as it ought to be.
the dilute alcohol at the same time, there is an attraction This is not peculiar to the Army; it is characteristic of
between the two drops which is manifested by their followHvery profession in the country; and what this country
ing curved paths instead of vertically straight ones.-On is now feeling acutely is that we have so long subsisted
the photogenic radio-active properties of calcined coral on an educational basis inadequate to the needs of modern placed in a radiant vacuum and submitted to the influence life. The time has come for the public schools to render
of the kathode rays: Gaston Séguy. Amongst various to the Army greater service than they do now. Numbers
substances examined calcined coral (carbonate of lime and of young men come up for the Army from the public magnesia) gave the most intense phosphorescence as schools with totally inadequate knowledge of the
measured by the action on a photographic plate. Phosinguage of every country but their own, and with an
phorescent coral excites the fluorescence of barium platinoinadequate knowledge of the history and literature of their
cyanide screens, and is very rich in ultra-violet rays.en country, as well as of the history and literature of Concerning the action of very low temperatures on the every other country. That must all be changed. Young phosphorescence of certain sulphides : F. P. Le Roux. men ought to come up from the public schools instructed in
The maximum potential light energy which can be inthe great science of geography. Now they are practically duced in a given phosphorescent body by a given light is without any knowledge whatever of one of the sciences independent of the temperature. Variations of temperature which, more than any other, is the reasonable foundation
can only have an influence on the velocity of transformfor the studies of an officer in the Army. There is an
ation of the potential into the actual light energy.-On extraordinary lack in this country-which of all others
a supposed demonstration of the existence of the n-rays by ought to be well posted in this branch of science of a
photographic methods : M. Chanoz and M. Perrigot. pruper knowledge of geography. We might be compelled
The authors have repeated an experiment of M. Bordier's 10 establish in this country for the Army schools like
on the photographic detection of the n-rays emitted by inose which have been already established for the Navy, tempered steel, with contrary results. They find that two vp like the college at West Point in the United States. equal masses of lead and tempered steel, placed identically The time has almost come when it would be wise to
on screens comparable as to thickness and insolation, never establish a great college like West Point, where the equip- give different halos, whatever may be the duration of ment, staff, and method should be as complete as possible,
the exposure.-The special sensibility of the physiological and where candidates should be taken not only for the
ear for certain vowels : M. Marage.-On the fluorides Army, but for all the great departments of the State, and
of indium and rubidium : C. Chabrié and A. Bouchonnet. where even those who have no intention of entering the
The fuoride of indium was prepared by dissolving the service of the State may be allowed to receive instruction.
hydroxide of the metal in hydrofluoric acid, and was found on analysis to possess the composition In, F.18H,O.
It emits acid vapours, and is completely decomposed on SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
ignition to redness. On treating rubidium carbonate with
hydrofluoric acid and evaporating to dryness the acid Paris.
fluoride RbF.HF is obtained.-The limit of the reaction Academy of Sciences, January 9.-M. Troost in the between diazobenzene and aniline : Léo Vignon. Aminochair.-The external or superficial conductivity represent- azobenzene does not react with diazobenzene either in ing for a given body the cooling power of a fluid current : aqueous or alcoholic solution. Aniline reacts with diazoJ. Boussinesq.—The micrographical study of the meteorite aminoazobenzene chloride in presence of potassium carbonate of the Diablo Canyon: H. Moissan and F. Osmond. giving diazoamine.-Camphene, camphenylone, isoThe micrographical study of this meteorite has shown that borneol, and camphor : L. Bouveault and G. Blanc. the metallic parts, apparently homogeneous, frequently The tertiary alcohol, methylcamphenylol, was prepared contain irregular microscopic nuclei formed of superposed from camphenylone by Grignard's reaction. The reaction layers oi phosphide and carbide of iron. A detailed ex- of this alcohol with pyruvic acid at 140°-150° C. has been amination of nodules which have not been submitted to studied.—On the diastatic coagulation of starch : J. Wolff (Eternal oxidation made it clear that they are formed and A. Fernbach.-The estimation of carbon monoxide of sulphide of iron surrounded by successive layers of iron in confined atmospheres : Albert Lévy and A. Pécoul. phasphide and carbide. In certain cases the laminated The authors utilise the reaction first indicated by M. structure of the nodules showed that they had been sub- Gautier between carbon monoxide and iodic anhydride at mitted to very considerable pressures.-Trypanosomiasis 80° C., modifying the method by receiving the vapours of and the tsetse-ily in French Guinea : A. Laveran. Speci- iodine in a small quantity of pure chlorofori. The amount mens of Glossina, or the tsetse-fly, have been found in of iodine set free is ascertained calorimetrically by comall parts of French Guinea, and in places where the parison with a set of sealed tubes containing known quantiesistence of diseases due to trypanosomes has been already ties of iodine. It is possible in this way to measure in four demonstrated. These trypanosomes attack horses as well litres of air only down to 1/200,000 of carbon monoxide as human beings, and a detailed account of the course by volume. A test analysis with an artificially prepared of the disease in a horse, together with the results of a atmosphere is given to show the accuracy of the method.
-On the rational estimation of gluten in wheaten flour :
WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 25. E. Fleurent. It is shown that by taking certain pre- SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 8.- London Electric Railways : Hon. Robert P.
Porter. cautions as to the temperature and lime contents of the
THURSDAY, JANUARY 26. wash water, and fixing the time of washing, it is possible to obtain results by the mechanical method which agree
ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4:30 --Probable Papers : On the Boring of the
Simplon Tunnel, and the Distribution of Temperature that was En well with the chemical method.-Physicochemical
countered : Francis Fox.-On the Comparison of the Platinum Scale of searches on hæmolysis : Victor Henri.—The comet e 1904, Temperature with the Normal Scale at Temperatures between 444' and discovered December 28, 1904, at the Observatory of
- 190 C., with Notes on Constant Temperatures below the Melung
Point of Ice : Prof. M. W. Travers, F.R.S., and A. S. C. Gwyer.-On Marseilles : M. Borrelly.—The provisional elements of the the Modulus of Torsional Rigidity of Quartz Fibres, and its Tempera new Borrelly comet (1904 December 28): G. Fayet and ture Coefficient : Dr. F. Horion.-On a Method of Finding the ConE. Maubant.-On the isochronism of the pendulum in
ductivity for Heat: Prof. C. Niven, F.R.S.-Exterior Ballistics." Error
of the Day" and other Corrections to Naval Range-Tables: Prof. the astronomical clock : Ch. Féry. For an amplitude
G. Forbes, F.R.S.-The Theory of Symmetrical Optical Objectives between 2° 13' and 2° 29', that is, for a variation of Part ii. : S. D. Chalmers.--On the Drift produced in Ions by Electron amplitude of about 9 mm., the variation of the rate was magnetic Disturbances, and a Theory of Radio-activity : G. W. Walker.
-Coloration of Glass by Natural Solar and other Radiations : Sir nil, or there was a minimum for the time of oscillation.
William Crookes, F.R.S.--On the “Blaze-Currents " of the Gall Bladder This result is probably due to a want of isochronism of of the Frog : Mrs. Waller. the escapement.-On the value of the magnetic elements INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Fuel Economy in Steam on January 1: Th. Moureaux.-Osmotic communication
Power Plants: W. H. Booth and J. B. C. Kershaw. (Conclusion of
discussion.) in fishes between the internal and external media : Jean
FRIDAY, JANUARY 27. Gautrelet. Referring to a recent paper by M. Quinton, ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.–The Life-History of the Emperor Penguin: the author directs attention to a paper of his bearing on Dr. Edward A. Wilson. the same subject published in 1902.-On the infection of PHYSICAL SOCIETY, at 5.-Action of a Magnetic Field on the Discharge
through a Gas : Dr. Ř. S. Willows.-Action of Radium on the Electric Padda oryzivora by Trypanosoma paddae and by Halteri
Spark : Dr. R. S. Willows and J. Peck. - The Slow Stretch in India: dium Danilewskyi : M. Thiroux.
rubber, Glass, and Metal Wires when subjected to a Constant Pull:
P. Phillips. - Determination of Young's Modulus for Glass : C. A. Bell INDIA.
--Some Methods for Studying the Viscosity of Solids; Dr. Boris
Weinberg Asiatic Society of Bengal, December 7, 1904. –The INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Concrete-Making on the lizards of the Andamans, with the description of a new Admiralty Harbour Works, Dover : T. L. Matthews. gecko and a note on the reproduced tail in Ptychocoon homocephalum : N. Annandale. Out of the nine geckos recorded from the Andamans, five or possibly six would
PAGE seem to have been carried thither by man. The remaining three are indigenous. One of the three is very nearly
Zoological Books from Germany. By J. A. T.
An American Text.Book of Geology. By A. H. related to forms on the nearest mainland, the second has
268 Malabar affinities, and the third Madagascan. The author
The Topography of British India
Physical and Physiological Aspects of Light. By describes Gonatodes Andersonii-a new species. The scales
Dr. Reginald Morton .
269 of the reproduced part of the tail, dorsal and ventral sur
A Book on lok. By C. Simmonds .
209 faces, of Ptychosoon homoce phalum are slightly smaller
Our Book Shelf :than those of the uninjured part, and the dorsal tubercles are absent ; also the loose membrane is narrower, asym
Driesch : "Naturbegriffe und Naturerteile"
Stewart : metric, and not lobed. This last point is important, as
"Higher Text-book of Magnetism and Electricity"
270 Müller had thought the lobes of specific importance.—The
Hibbert : “ Life and Energy-Four Addresses 271 Occurrence of aquatic glow-worm in India : N.
Knox : “ Glossary of Geographical and Topographical Annandale. A glow-worm larva of aquatic habit has
271 been found in a tank in the neighbourhood of Calcutta. The only other aquatic glow-worm recorded was found in
“ Blackie's Handy Book of Logarithms"; "Vier- und
271 Lower Siam.
Theobald : “Second Report on Economic Zoology:
The Heterogenetic Origin of Fungus-germs.-Dr. H.
272 ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4:30.- The Dual Force of the Dividing Cell. Part i. : The Achromatic Spindle Figure illustrated by Magnetic Chains of
Compulsory Greek at Cambridge.--John C. Willis. – 273 Force : Prof. M. Hartog.--Note on the Effects produced on Rats by the Polyhedral Soap-films.-W. F. Warth
273 Trypanosomata of Gambia Fever and Sleeping Sickness : H. G. Plim. Reversal of Charge from Electrical Induction mer.-Further Histological Studies on the Localisation of Cerebral Function. The Brains of Felis, Canis, and Sus, compared with that of
Machines. – V. Schaffers
274 Homo: Dr. A. W. Campbell.-Experiments on the Nature of the
The Construction of Simple Electroscopes for ExOpsonic Action of the Blood Serum : Dr. W. Bulloch and E. E. Atkin. periments on Radio-activity. (Ilustraled.) By LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-— Botanical Collecting : Dr. A. Henry-On the Dr. O. W. Richardson .
274 Cranial Osteology of the Families Osteoglossidæ, Pantodontidæ, and Phractolæmidæ : Dr. W. G. Ridewood,
Geological Survey of Canada
276 SOCIETY OF Arts, at 4.30.-The Gates of Tibet : Douglas W. Freshfield. Recent Exploration in the Meatone Caves. (IllusFRIDAY, JANUARY 20.
trated.) Royal INSTITUTION, at 9.-New Low Temperature Phenomena : Sir The Scientific Exploration of Lake Tanganyika J. Dewar, F.R.S.
Notes EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.
278 INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERs, at 8.-Some Impressions of
Our Astronomical Column:American Workshops : A. J. Gimson.-Waterworks Pumping Engines in
Observations of Comets 1904 d and 1904 e
231 the United States and Canada : J. Barr.--Some Features in the Design Ephemeris for Comet Tempel, 1904 € and Construction of American Planing Machines: A. Kenrick, Jun. : Engines at the Power Stations, and at the St. Louis Exhibition :
Seasonal Development of Martian Canals A. Saxon.
Variable Stars and Nebulous Areas in Scorpio
282 MONDAY, JANUARY 23. Report of the Natal Observatory
282 SOCIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-Civics : as Applied Sociology, Part ii :
282 Prof. Patrick Geddes.
The Jesuit Observatory at Belen, Havana ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL Society, at 8.30.-- The Great Zimbabwe and
The Discovery of Jupiter's Sixth Satellite. other Ancient Ruins in Rhodesia : R. N. Hall.
W. E. R. .
282 SOCIETY OF Arts, at 8.--- Reservoir, Stylographic and Fountain Pens: Atmospheric and Oceanic Carbon Dioxide. By Dr. J. P. Magianis. TUESDAY, JANUARY 24. A. Harden
283 ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.---The Structure and Life of Animals: Prof.
Conference of Public School Science Masters. By L. C. Miall, F.R.S.
Wilfred Mark Webb
284 INSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS, at 8.-Notes on the Working of the Prize Awards of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 285 Shone System of Sewerage at Karachi: J. F. Brunton - The Sewerage of University and Educational Intelligence Douglas, Isle of Man: E. H. Stevenson and E. K. Burral.
285 ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, at 8.30. -- Annual General Meeting.
Societies and Academies
287 President's Address, &c.
Diary of Societies
NEW MODEL SPECTROPHOTOMETER
For accurate quantitative measurements of light absorption,
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THE CAMBRIDGE NATURAL HISTORY,
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VOLUME VII. FISHES, &c. FISHES (exclusive of the Systematic Account of Teleostei). By T. W. BRIDGE, Sc.D., F.R.S. FISHES (Systematic Account of Teleostei). By G. A. BOULENGER, F.R.S. HEMICHORDATA, By S. F. HARMER, Sc.D., F.R.S.
ASCIDIANS AND AMPHIOXUS. By W. A. HERDMAN, D.Sc., F.R.S. KNOWLEDGE.—“We have the greatest satisfaction in welcoming the somewhat belated appearance of this long.expected volume, as a trustworthy and up-to-date work on fishes written on more or less popular lines was a desideratum. '. . As a whole, we cannot but express an opinion of the high scientific value of the latest volume of the excellent Cambridge Natural History."
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