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to the inclination of the earth's axis to the plane of (1) Opere matematiche di Francesco Brioschi. Vol. iii. the ecliptic, or to altitudes at noon. On p. 11 we Pp. x+435. (Milan: U. Hoepli, 1904.) Price 25 read :- By refraction we mean the property of the lire. atmosphere to bend the rays of light from celestial (2) Opere matematiche di Eugenio Beltrami. Vol. ii. bodies, and so make them appear at a point in the Pp. 468. (Milan : U. Hoepli, 1904.) Price 25 lire. heavens some distance (greater according to the These are the continuations of series of collected proximity to the horizon) from their true position." papers of which the previous volumes have already Such a statement, to the man in the street, could apply been reviewed in NATURE. equally as well to a horizontal as a vertical change The mathematical papers of Francesco Brioschi are of position. On p. 19 is written :-“

solid body published under the auspices of a committee consistof the Sun himself, which is probably a relatively | ing of Profs. G. Ascoli, V. Cerruti, G. Colombo, dark body ..."; for such readers as this book is in

L. Cremona, G. Negri, and G. Schiaparelli. Of the tended a statement of this nature should have been

papers in the third volume, Nos. 90 to 100 were pubcarefully avoided.

lished in the Annali di matematica pura ed applicata On the same page we must conclude that for most

from 1887 to 1897, Nos. 101 to 125 in the Lombardy days of the year, especially in years away from sun- Rendiconti between 1867 and 1896, the next two in spot minimum, the earth is subject to nearly a con- the Memorie of the Modena Society in 1855, and the tinuous series of magnetic storms, for “the appear-remainder (Nos. 128 to 144) in the Atti of the Lincei ance of spots on the sun is nearly always accompanied Academy between 1870 and 1886. The papers have by a magnetic storm' The use here of the been revised by Profs. Bianchi, Capelli, Cerruti, terin“ magnetic storm " is quite unnecessary and Gerbaldi, Loria, Pascal, Pittarelli, and Tonelli; the misleading.

volume has been edited by Profs. Gerbaldi and Pascal, Enough, perhaps, has been said about the text of and the former is mainly responsible for the revision this “ simple worded treatise," and we leave intend of the proofs. ing readers to criticise the drawings themselves, their The second volume of Beltrami's works, like the attention being specially directed to those on pp. 6, first, is brought out under the auspices of the faculty 25, 36, and 89.

of science of the University of Rome, and contains Observations océanographiques et météorologiques numbered 27 to 45, and published between the years

nineteen papers arranged in chronological order, dans la Région du Courant de Guinée (1855–1900). 1867 and 1873. The series is to be completed in five (1) Texte et Tableaux. Pp. iv + 116. (2) Planches,

volumes. viii. The Netherlands Meteorological Institute.

(Utrecht: Kemink & Zoon, 1904.) Price 5 francs. The Science Year Book for 1905. Edited by Major THESE volumes contain the results of a discussion of B. F. S. Baden-Powell. Pp. iv +393. (London : observations recorded by Dutch shipmasters. The

King, Sell and Olding, 1905.) area extends from the equator to latitude 25° N., and A PLACE should be found for this Year-book on the from the meridian of Greenwich to 40° W. The work writing table of every astronomer and meteorologist, is a revised and more complete edition, brought up to and the volume should be available for ready referdate, of “ De Guinea-en Equatoriaal Stroomen,”. ence in laboratories and schools where science is published in 1895. Currents, winds, temperature and studied. The first section of the work contains an specific gravity of the sea water, temperature and astronomical ephemeris throughout the year, short pressure of the air, frequency of rain days, records of notes relating to the movements of the earth, parcurrent ripples, flying fish, phosphorescence, and of ticulars as to paths of the principal planets this year, green, brown, and blue water have been tabulated for details of eclipses, many useful tables, and maps of each month in spaces of 1° squares, then grouped constellations. There are also meteorological tables into 30 squares for each month and the year, also for and diagrams, physical and chemical constants, and each of twelve three-monthly periods-December to tables of weights and measures of various kinds. February, January to March, '&c.—and finally, the Another section is devoted to particulars of scientific current and wind results in 50 squares for each month societies at home and in America, and notes on prizes and the year for each octant. So far as they go, the and awards offered for scientific research. This list, results for the various elements are interesting and which at present occupies only two pages, might be valuable. Unfortunately, throughout this long period made a very valuable part of the book; for, so far of thirty-six years Dutch ships kept so very closely as we are aware, the information does not exist in within the narrow limits of the recognised outward a convenient form anywhere. Particulars might be and homeward routes that the information immediately given, for instance, of the subjects and values of the beyond has been exceedingly sparse; indeed, over an prizes offered each year by the Paris Academy of area of about 400,000 square miles in the south-western Sciences and many similar bodies. Short articles are quarter of the region under discussion not a single contributed on the progress of different branches of observation was available for the four consecutive pure and applied science last year, and there is a months August to November, a period of the year biographical directory which includes the names of when the east-going counter-current would be met fellows of the Royal Society and a few other men with in this locality. We are presented, therefore, of science, but is not complete enough to be of much with very incomplete results to the seasonal use as a directory. extension and contraction of this important current. The remainder of the volume consists of a diary It is admitted that, having failed to devise a wholly with pages for every day, for monthly notes, cash satisfactory system of weighting the frequency of account, &c. For each day astronomical particulars winds, a method " subject to some objections " has are printed at the top of the page, and there are been followed, so that whether the wind has been columns in which to enter results of meteorological logged from the same point once or six times in the observations. It is very convenient to have all these day it has been counted as one observation, whereas if matters brought together so handily for reference logged from six different points in the same interval and record; and we have no hesitation in saying six observations have been tabulated. Except in that all who are interested in natural phenomena or table iv., and planches vi. and vii., the absence of concerned with sci

SS will find this Yearcurrent or wind has been ignored.

book of great se




successive dilution of the emanation is performed in an [The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions entirely new apparatus with new mercury and rubber expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake

connections. Otherwise emanation is absorbed from the to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected gas rich in it and given out to the diluted gas, and when manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE.

the final dilution should contain only one-millionth of the No notice is taken of anonymous communications.)

original emanation, as in these experiments, it will be in

reality far richer. This explains the apparently paraThe Origin of Radium,

doxical result I obtained that the determinations of the Eight months have elapsed since I wrote in your

amount of radium produced were far too low, owing to columns (NATURE, May 12, 1904) giving an account of the extraneous radium of the laboratory. some experiments designed to test the view advanced The research is being continued with the view of eliminby Prof. Rutherford and myself that radium is a product ating what appears a probable explanation of the too low of the radio-active change of uranium. I then stated that rate of production. It may be that under the conditions in i kilogram of uranium nitrate that had been under of the experiment the greater part of the emanation is observation over a period of one year since it was com

retained by the uranium solution and not evolved as gas. pletely freed from radium, the quantity of radium repro

New methods are being tried, and it is hoped that they duced in that time was less than one-ten-thousandth of will give a positive answer to this question. the quantity theoretically to be expected. This result has

FREDERICK SODDY. been widely quoted, more widely, perhaps, than I intended, The University, Glasgow, January 20. for the result was a preliminary conclusion only, and, as I pointed out, obtained under very unfavourable conditions

A New Radio-active Product from Actinium. owing to the very powerful preparations of radium that had been in use in the laboratory for other researches. At the suggestion of Prof. Rutherford, I have made an The necessity for publishing it was to a certain extent examination to see if there is any product in actinium forced upon me by the attention the problem was beginning corresponding to the product UrX in uranium or Thx in to attract from other investigators, and by the prospect

thorium. The investigations were made with a preparof several months' absence abroad. I relied on the fact ation of the emanating substance of Giesel (of activity that the result being negative, the presence of the radium 300 times that of uranium), which has been shown to in the laboratory could have had no effect, but in this I be identical in radio-active properties with the actinium was mistaken.

of Debierne. Since my return I have resumed the research in the Taking into consideration the similarity of actinium new chemical laboratories recently erected here, into which and thorium, both as regards their chemical and radio. no radium has so far been brought, and have found that active properties, I resolved to try if the method used by the earlier result was affected by an error which invali- Rutherford and Soddy for the separation of ThX would dates the conclusion drawn. It is therefore my duty to serve also to separate an analogous product from point this out at once without waiting for any further actinium. The experiments were at once successful. If results. I am now fairly satisfied that there is a steady ammonia was added to a solution of actinium in hydroproduction of radium from uranium, and although the chloric acid, the actinium was precipitated, while a small quantity formed, as measured by the amount of radium amount of a very active substance was left behind in the emanation evolved, is of a lower order of magnitude than filtrate. This substance, which is so similar in properties is indicated by the disintegration theory, it is much greater to Thx, will be called actinium X (AcX). than the ten-thousandth part.

The product AcX, immediately after its separation, At the present time, about eighteen months since the weight for weight, was more than a hundred times more commencement of the experiment, the kilogram of uranium active than the original actinium. The activity increased nitrate in solution contains, so far as the amount of in the first day after removal to about 15 per cent, of emanation evolved is a measure, about 1.5 X 10' gram of its original value, and then decayed with the time accordradium, and if the whole series of measurements from ing to an exponential law, falling to half value in about the commencement are re-calculated, eliminating the error ten days. The actinium from which the AcX had been alluded to, they are fairly consistent with there having removed, almost inactive immediately after separation, been a steady production of radium at this rate gradually recovered its lost activity. As in the case of tinuously from the commencement. This gives the value thorium, the curve of recovery of the activity was com2 x 10-12 for the fraction of the uranium changing per plementary to the curve of decay of AcX. year, whereas the most probable theoretical estimate is The behaviour of the product AcX is thus completely 10-". The new result is thus still only one-five-hundredth analogous in all respects to that of ThX, only the constant of the theoretical.

of change has a different value, which is characteristic The error in the result published last May was not in for AcX. the determination of the amount of radium emanation Special experiments, made for the purpose, showed that evolved from the uranium, but in the determination of the the emanation was produced from AcX, and not directly amount of emanation given by a known weight of radium, from the actinium. The latter, immediately after separagainst which the first mentioned determination was com- ation of AcX, gave off very little emanation, while Act pared. The measurements on the uranium are in good produces the emanation in large amount. The amount of agreement with those recently obtained, whereas the com- emanation from AcX diminished with the time at the parative experiments with radium gave results too high same rate that AcX loses its activity. At the same time owing to extraneous radium in the laboratory. For the the actinium gradually increased in emanating power, due effect from the uranium is so minute that to obtain a to the production of fresh AcX, and finally reached an comparable effect with the radium emanation, the quantity equilibrium value. of the latter obtainable from the smallest weighable The product AcX gives out both a and B and probably quantity of pure radium bromide must be diluted and sub


It is, however, difficult to determine whether the divided until only a millionth part at most remains. Thus B rays arise directly from AcX or from the excited activity if any emanation were present in the air of the labor- to which the emanation gives rise. atory used for the dilution, or if by mischance any of the There is an interesting point of distinction between the gas apparatus, rubber tubing, or mercury had been used radio-activity of thorium and actinium. After the separpreviously in experiments with powerful radium prepar- ation of Acx, the actinium is almost completely inactive. ations, the results obtained would be completely false. only 4 per cent. of the maximum activity being observed. It is now known (vide Rutherford, Phil. Mag., November, It is probable that this amount could be still further pp 1904, p. 637) that even metals, as copper and silver, duced by successive precipitations. Thorium and radium, absorb the radium emanation appreciably and slowly evolve on the other hand, always show a non-separable activity it. The utmost precautions have be observed in of about 25 per cent. of the maximum. This points to standardising the rate of leak of the electroscope by the the fact that the activity from ordinary actinium is due emanation from a known weight of radium, so that each entirely to AcX and its successive products, and that little,



if any, is supplied directly by actinium itself. From the at last longitudinal. Then a regular longitudinal wave is point of view of the theory of radio-active changes, this observed to proceed from one' end to another. shows that the change of actinium into AcX is a ray- On the other hand, a longitudinal wave can first be less " change.

excited, and then be transformed into a transversal one. A more complete account of these investigations will be Raising the end of the upper rod, and separating the two published later.

T. GODLEWSKI. horizontal rods m and n, each pendulum is simultaneously McGill University, Montreal, January 2.

set in a longitudinal motion by a long rod with receiving holes for pendulum-bobs. A longitudinal wave is gradually

formed; if a wave of a suitable length be obtained, the rod A Simple Model for Illustrating Wave-motion. L is lowered to its initial position; then wave-motion of Mach's model for illustrating the transversal as well

a definite form is established. By turning the links the as the longitudinal wave is known to work in a beautiful

longitudinal wave is transformed into a transversal one. manner. The arrangement for exciting the wave-motion

Tokyo, Japan.

K. HONDA. is not, however, very simple. The fact that the period of a pendulum varies with the length of the string may conveniently be availed of for producing a wave-motion in

Recently Observed Satellites. a row of pendulum-bobs.

May I ask whether the small, distant, eccentric, and As shown in the annexed figure, a series of pendulums possibly retrograde satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, which of equal length is suspended at equal intervals. Each have been discovered and seem likely to be discovered, ball hangs on two strings, each of which passes through ought not more properly to be regarded as cometary bodies, the corresponding one in the row of holes in one of two or a shoal of meteors not yet too much drawn out for parallel horizontal rods m and N; the strings pass through

visibility at a distance? Would it not be possible for the the holes from inside to outside, and are tied together to larger planets to be attended by such bodies, the orbits of a horizontal rod i placed symmetrically above the two

which have been made moderately elliptical by an accidental rods. One end of the upper rod is pivoted, while the perturbation? It is known that the larger planets are able

to capture comets for the sun; is it possible that with the

aid of their satellites and subsequent tidal action they may L be able to catch a few for themselves?

OLIVER LODGE. The University, Birmingham, January 20.



Compulsory Greek at Cambridge.

My experience of Greek at Cambridge is very similar

to that of Mr. Willis, but the slight differences are, I P

think, instructive.

When I decided to go up to Cambridge to study mathematics and philosophy I was living abroad, and I crammed Greek just as Mr. Willis describes, except that I worked entirely alone. But on going in for the “Little Go," though I passed easily in translation, I failed by a few marks in Greek grammar. It was so near a thing that I thought I ght pull through in December with a few hours more grind ; but unfortunately I ran it too fine, and again failed by a few marks. This meant that I had to get up a complete new set of translation books for the following June, and to prevent further mistakes I went to a coach for the grammar part. I then passed, getting a second class. Like Mr. Willis, I can only say my present knowledge of the language is nil, although I had a double dose of it. It cannot for a moment be pretended

that I got any insight into “ Greek thought " which I Fig. 1.

could not have got equally well by reading a good trans

lation. But I confess my opinion of the value of Greek other can be raised to a suitable height. If this end be

thought was not raised by what I read—at best it only

seemed to me creditable, considering how long ago it raised, the length of the pendulums increases from the end toward the other.

was written. But this may have been due to my resentThe two rods, u and N, can be separated or brought study, when I was keen to get on to something else.

ment at being forced to waste time in an uncongenial in contact by two links P and 2 (not shown in the

EDWARD T. Dixon. figure), attached to their ends. If the rods be in contact, the pendulums oscillate at right angles to the vertical

Racketts, Hythe, Hants, January 20. plane containing the rod l; if they are separated, the pendulums oscillate in this plane. Hence, by the position of the links, the longitudinal as well as transversal oscillations of the pendulums can be excited at will.

Super.cooled Rain Drops. To produce a wave-motion, the end of the upper rod L Walking home from the university last night at about is raised, and then the two rods M and n are brought in 8.45 p.m. an interesting phenomenon occurred. contact. Then the pendulums are set in motion simul- Something was falling which at first appealed to one taneously by a long rod. After one or two minutes the as hail, but I soon found that it was large rain drops phase-difference in each pendulum gradually increases, and evidently cooled below the freezing point; at the moment a beautiful transversal wave-motion is produced. The they struck objects such as one's hat, coat, or walking wave-length becomes shorter and shorter ; 'if a wave of a stick, &c., they instantly solidified in small hemispherical required wave-length is obtained, the rod 1 is lowered to lumps; falling on the ground they gave it the appearance its initial position. Each pendulum has then an equal of a sheet of ice, but the roads were not slippery, as the length, so that wave-motion of a definite form incessantly solidified rain gave the road just a nice amount of roughproceeds from one end to another.

ness. The noise of the falling rain was very curious-a If the links be rotated, so as to separate the two bars crackling noise, not unlike that of small electric sparks. * and x from each other, the plane of oscillation of each

EDWARD E. ROBINSON. pendulum gradually changes, until the oscillation becomes The University, Birmingham, January 17.




Polar Plotring Paper.

work. A few hours' systematised exercise with the polar May I be allowed to direct the attention of all interested paper will do more than days of arithmetical transformin mathematical teaching in our schools and colleges to

ations in the usual academic style. C. G. KNOTT. the polar plotting paper recently prepared by Mr. Ellice Horsburgh, lecturer on technical mathematics in Edinburgh University ? The special feature of this paper is that it is ruled

Lissajous's Figures by Tank Oscillation. radially with lines which subdivide the region about a THE oscillation of a rectangular water basin may be point into aliquot parts of a radian. There are two forms utilised for the illustration of the composition of two of sheets now in the market. In one the origin is at the simple harmonic motions in two directions, perpendicular centre, and the radial subdivision is carried right round to each other. through four right angles. In the other, a reduced copy A light pendulum was constructed of a thin aluminium of which is here reproduced, the origin is taken near one rod, R (Fig. 1), 10 cm. long. The bob B was made of a corner, and the graduation is carried through a little more disc of wood. On the upper end of the rod a light mirror than a quadrant. Dotted radial lines show the backward was attached. The rod could be supported at any continuation of the axis from which the radians are desired point by a small gimbal G, so that the rod could measured, and also the axis perpendicular to it. These

oscillate as a spherical pendudotted lines do not, of course, belong to the system of

lum. A small brass weight lines dividing the region into aliquot parts of a radian. w was attached to adjust the

The radius of the fiftieth orthogonal circle is taken as period of oscillation by raising the unit, and on the margins just outside the proper

or lowering it to a proper radian subdivisions small radial lines are drawn giving position, the usual division into degrees. The two circles drawn,

The bob is sunk into the the one on the axis as diameter and the other on the

middle part of suitable dotted perpendicular of unit length, serve to give by in- rectangular basin, filled with

water to a proper depth. If
the basin be tilted suddenly,
and then let stand, the water
is set in an oscillation which
consists of two simple har-
monic motions in perpen-
dicular directions, the ratio of
the periods varying as the

ratio of the corresponding
sides. The amplitudes of two
component oscillations may be

varied at pleasure. If the
| natural period of the pendu-

lum is considerably shorter
than that of the basin, the
bob follows very nearly the
motion of water, as judged by
the motion of fine dust par-
ticles suspended in water.
Now, if a beam of strong
sun-light be sent as shown in
the figure, the motion is projected on the ceiling of the

I have also obtained a photographic record of the motion of a small bead attached to the upper end of a small

needle erected on the rod. By making the illumination spection the sines and cosines of the angles given in radians.

Thus the paper contains on its own surface the means of plotting with great ease the polar equations of curves involving radians, sines and cosines, and a little calculation will enable the student to take account of other functions.

The first important use in the hands of the student is obviously to get a clear idea of the radian as the true scientific measure of angle; but a great many other important uses will at once occur to the teacher of practical mathematics, such, for example, as finding reciprocals, geometric means, mean proportionals, fourth proportionals, squares, square-roots, &c.

Another use is the evaluation of the integrals ; 'rode and frdo. The former is got by simply co'inting the elements included in the area, and the latter by multiplying the total angle between the initial and final radius by the mean radius, the value of which may be obtained by a method similar to Simpson's rule.

From these few statements and indications the purpose of Mr. Horsburgh's patent will be readily appreciated. intermittent by means of a perforated rotating disc, the It is doubtful if the average student, taught along the difference of velocities at different phases may be shown. usual lines, ever gets an accurate working knowledge of The motion of a kaleidophone may be projected in a the radian or circular measure of an angle, indispensable | similar manner.

T. TERADA. though that is for all higher trigonometrical and analytical Physical Laboratory, Tokyo, December 19. 1904.


Fig. 1


FIG. 1

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having an entrance way of sufficient height, and

“Galgal,” similar but sinaller. In the “ Dolmen à 1.-CONDITIONS AND TRADITIONS.

l'allée couverte " there is a covered passage way to

the centre. It is a more elaborate cove. For the in Greece, had shown that the orientation theory relation between cromlechs and dolmens, see Borlase accounted as satisfactorily for the directions in which (loc. cit, and p. 424 et seq.). the chief temples in Greece had been built as I had With regard to dolmens, I give the following shon n it did for those in Egypt, it seemed important quotation from Mr. Penrose (NATURE, vol. lxiv., to apply the same methods of inquiry with all avail. September 12, 1901):able accuracy to some example, at all events, of the * Near Locmariaquer in the estuary named Rivière various stone circles in Britain which have so far d'Auray, there is an island named Gavr' Inis, or Goat escaped destruction. Many attempts had been pre- Island, which contains a good specimen of the kind of viously made to secure data, but the instruments and dolmen which has been named 'Galgal.' inethods employed did not seem to be sufficient. “ At the entrance our attention is at once arrested by

Much time has, indeed, been lost in the investi- the profusion of tracery which covers the walls. From gation of a great many of these circles, for the the entrance to the wall facing us the distance is reason that in many cases the relations of the monu- between 50 and 60 feet. The square chamber to which ments to the chief points of the horizon have not the gallery leads is composed of two huge slabs, the been considered; and when they were, the observ- sides of the room and gallery being composed of upations were made only with reference to the magnetic right stones, about a dozen on each side. The mystic north, which is different at different places, and lines and hieroglyphics similar to those above besides is always varying; few indeed have tried to mentioned appear to have a decorative character. get at the astronomical conditions of the problem. An interesting feature of Gavr' Inis is its remark

So far as I know, there has never been a complete able resemblance to the New Grange tumulus at inquiry into the stone circles in Britain, but Mr. Meath. In construction there is again a strong reLewis, who has paid much attention to these matters, semblance to Mæs-Howe, in the island of Orkney. has dealt in a general manner with them (Archaeo- There is also some resemblance in smaller details.” logical Journal, vol. xlix. p. 136), and has further While we generally have circles in Britain without, described (Journal Anthropological Institute, n.s., iii., or with small, alignments, in Brittany we have align1900) the observations made by him of stone circles ments without circles, some of them being on an in various parts of Scotland. From an examination enormous scale ; thus at Menec (the place of stones) of a large number he concludes that they may be we have eleven lines of menhirs, terminating towards divided into different types, each of which has its the west in a cromlech, and notwithstanding that great centre in a different locality. The types are (1) the numbers have been converted to other uses, 1169 Western Scottish type, consisting of a rather irregular menhirs still remain, some reaching as much as 18 single ring or sometimes of two concentric rings. (2) feet in height. The Inverness type, consisting of a more regular ring The alignments of Kermario (the place of the dead) of better-shaped stones, surrounding a tumulus with a contain 989 menhirs in ten lines. That of Kerlescant retaining wall, containing a built-up chamber and (the place of burning), which beginning with eleven passage leading to it, or a kist without a passage. rows is afterwards increased to thirteen, contains (3) The Aberdeen type, consisting of a similar ring altogether 579 stones and thirty-nine in its cromlech, with the addition of a so-called “altar-stone" and with some additional stones. usually having traces of a tumulus and kist in the Both circles and alignments are associated with middle. In addition to these three types of circles, holidays and the lighting of fires on certain days of there are what Mr. Lewis calls sun and star circles, the year. This custom has remained more general with their alignments of stones, and apparently pro in Brittany than in Britain. portioned measurements.

At Mount St. Michael, near Carnac, the custom It may be useful here to state, with regard to mega- still prevails of lighting a large bonfire on its summit lithic remains generally, that they may be divided as at the time of the summer solstice; others kindled on follows:

prominent eminences for a distance of twenty or (a) Circles. These may be single or double, and thirty miles round reply to it. These fires are locally either concentric or not.

called “ Tan Heol," and also by a later use, Tan St. (b) Menhirs, or single stones, in some cases still Jean. upright, but in many overthrown.

In Scotland there was a similar custom in the first (c) Alignments, i.e. lines of stones in single, double, week in May under the name of Bel Tan, or Baal's or in many parallel lines. If these alignments are Fire; the synonym for summer used by Sir Walter short they are termed avenues.

Scott in the “ Lady of the Lake" :(d) Cromlechs; this term generally means a collec- Ours is no sapling chance-sown by the fountain tion of stones; the term is applied to irregular circles Blooming at Beltane in winter to fade. in Brittany. It also applies to a single stone raised on the summits of two or inore pillar stones forming the

At Kerlescant the winter solstice is celebrated by ind and sides of an irregular vault generally open at

a holiday, whilst Menec greets the summer solstice,

The une end (“ Dolmens of Ireland," Borlase, p. 429).

and Kermario the equinoxes, with festivals.

adoration paid these stones yielded very slowly to (e) Coves. A term applied by Dr. Stukeley and

Christianity. In the church history of Brittany the others to what they considered shrines formed by three upright stones, thus leaving one side open. Í

Cultus Lapidum was denounced in 658 A.D.

Many of the fallen menhirs in these alignments have take them to be partially protected observing places. There are well-marked examples at Avebury, Stanton

been restored to their upright position by the French Drew, and Kit's Coity House.

Government. Some of them may have been over(1) Dolmens, from Dol Men, a table stone. These referred to. Several of the loftier menhirs are sur

turned in compliance with the decree of 658 A.D. above consist of a flat stone resting on two or more upright mounted by crosses of stone or iron. stones forming a more or less complete chamber, which may or may not have been sepulchral. I note

1 "The French Stonehenge : an Account of the Principal Ms.

Remains in the Morbihan Archipelago." By T. Cato Worl the following subdivisions, “Dolmen a galérie F.R.S.L. (London : Bemrose and Sons, Ltd.)

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