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pendants of the same material, showing a close imitation THE December (1904) number of the Johns Hopkins of Egyptian models. The form of this mausoleum, with Hospital Bulletin (vol. xv., No. 165) contains an account its square chamber, is unique, and contrasts with that of of the opening of the new surgical building and clinical the tholos tombs of mainland Greece. The position in amphitheatre of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, a descripwhich it lies commands the whole south Ægean to Melos tion of a new chromogenic bacillus, B. cyaneum, and and Santorin, and Central Crete from Dicta to Ida. various papers of medical interest. In the new buildings

a tablet has been erected to the memory of Dr. Jesse We have to welcome an addition to the already lengthy Lazear, who died from an attack of yellow fever while list of American biological serials in the form of a Bulletin

investigating that disease in Cuba. issued by the Springfield (Mass.) Museum of Natural History, of which the first number is in our hands. This It is proposed to add to Reichenbach's " Icones Flora is devoted to the description of the early stages in the

Germanicæ et Helveticæ a number of extra volumes condevelopment of the ground-beetles of the family Carabidæ, taining monographs of critical genera. The publishers, as exemplified by a member of the genus Dicælus, in which Messrs. von Zezschwitz, of Gera, announce the immediate the larva is of the ordinary predaceous type, and one of

issue of the first of these, in which the genus Hieracium Brachinus, in which the larva is parasitic and degenerate.

is treated by Dr. J. Murr and Mr. H. Zahn. Of the adult beetles, the more specialised seems to be

The cultivation of mushrooms is not such an important Brachinus. The authors of the paper are Messrs. Dimmock

business in the United States of America as in Great and Knab.

Britain and France. With the view of extending and imThe Albany Museum, according to the report for the proving the trade, Prof. B. M. Duggar has written a first half of 1904, continues to make steady progress, and

pamphlet on the subject, which has been issued by the it is satisfactory to learn that arrangements are under U.S. Department of Agriculture as a Farmers' Bulletin. consideration both for augmenting the staff and for in- The preparation of English brick spawn and French flake creasing the size of the building. An important part of spawn is dependent upon the haphazard collection of what the museum's work is the investigation of the life-history is known as "virgin spawn in the open. Prof. Duggar of insects injurious to agriculture and horticulture, and

has for some time attempted to discover the conditions the discovery of the best means of checking their ravages.

which are necessary for the germination of mushroom For this purpose a piece of ground adjoining the museum spores. He has already succeeded in germinating spores has been enclosed, and it is hoped that funds will shortly in pure cultures by means of chemical stimulation, and be forthcoming for erecting in this enclosure an insect- hopes shortly to make the process more practical. This house, without the aid of which the work can be carried will enable the grower to produce a definite strain, and on only with difficulty.

if necessary to obtain improved varieties by selection. The Field Naturalists' Quarterly for December, 1904, The Ani-i-Akbari, or annals of the Emperor Akbar, strikes us as being an unusually excellent number. It

written in the Persian language, contain descriptions of includes, in the first place, the second of the series of various customs which prevailed during the Moghul period. plates illustrating the development of the frog. Later on Amongst these was the use of perfumes in religious we have the first instalment of a set of articles by the observances, and the emperor took a personal interest in editor (Dr. G. Leighton) explaining modern investigations the preparation of the ingredients. A short summary of on heredity in a manner calculated to bring home the

the principal substances and their sources is contributed fundamental truths of this complex subject to every in

by Mr. D. Hooper to the October (1904) number of the telligent reader, the development of the germ-plasm being Calcutta Review. Among vegetable products, Aquilaria the text of this contribution. In a preliminary note the

agallocha, aloe-wood, was then as now valued for the editor expresses the hope that his articles will induce many

oleo-resin agar, and an oil known as chuwab; sandalpersons who reside in the country to take up the practical wood was used as a powder, and perfumes were distilled investigation of some form of heredity for themselves. A

from the rose, orange, jasmine, and broad-leaved willow, third article to which we may direct attention is one by Salix caprea. Ambergris obtained from the sperm whale, Mr. H. E. Forrest in which simple methods of distin

the moist secretion of the civet cat, and the opercula of guishing the various species of British bats are formulated.

certain molluscs, known as “ fingernails,” were important We notice that the author adheres to the old-fashioned

animal products. nomenclature for the members of this group. We have received the January number of Climate, which

Pamphlet series No. 32, issued by the Imperial Depart

ment of Agriculture for the West Indies, gives a summary contains an illustrated description of the Japanese soldier's

of the results on the cultivation of seedling and other outfit, and articles on black water fever, water and its con

canes at the Barbados experiment stations in 1904. As in nection with disease, the drinking habits of native races,

previous years the investigation has been conducted by climate and health in hot countries, &c. The medical

Prof. d'Albuquerque and Mr. Bovell. Sixteen sugar estates articles are semi-popular in character, and should be useful

in typical localities were selected, thirteen on black soil to missionaries and others stationed in districts remote

and three on red soils. The seedlinge were treated in from medical aid.

precisely the same manner as the ordinary canes. The The Journal of the Royal Sanitary Institute (vol. xxv., season was favourable, there was very little root disease, part iii.) forms a bulky volume of some 600 pages. It and the crop consequently was above the average. Cane contains a number of interesting and important papers and B 208 again gave uniformly good results, both as plant discussions thereon contributed to the congress of the in- canes and ratoons, and it is recommended for a general stitute at Glasgow last year. They are on such varied trial on a field scale in all red soil districts. A newer rane, subjects as disinfection in phthisis (Prof. Kenwood and Dr. B 1529, however, takes the first place in the black soal Allan), prevention of diphtheria (Dr. Cobbett), sewage list, coming out second to B 208 in the red soil list. Its disposal, school hygiene and ventilation, conditions of cultivation will consequently be extended to as mans et housing, &c.

perimental plots as possible. Cane B 147. at one time considered the most promising of the seedling varieties, the present number of the magazine is the largest since did not give such good results as in previous years, but its foundation in 1866; we hope to refer shortly to another it appears to be cultivated with some success in the rather of the interesting articles that it contains. light soils in the parish of St. Philip.

We have received the Journals of the Meteorological THE Barbados Official Gazette of December 19, 1904,

Society of Japan for October and November last. They contains some correspondence relating to Cassava poison

contain (as we see from the English titles) several interesting. Mr. Briggs, one of the district coroners, noted to

ing articles in Japanese. There is also one in English, on the Colonial Secretary that witnesses in inquest cases

the duration of rainfall, by T. Okada. The object of the frequently assert that if roasting and poison cassava grow

author is to show that Dr. Köppen's formula for the closely side by side, the roasting cassava takes up some

calculation of the probable duration of rainfall in a month, of the poison from the poison cassava; also that the

or any interval of time, from three or six observations roasting cassava gets a “spring in it," and that makes daily, holds good for all climates. The calculation is very it poisonous. The Colonial Secretary submitted the note simple, and the formula in question, (r/n)N, is contained to Sir Daniel Morris, who replied that (1) “ there can be

in an article by Dr. Köppen in the Austrian Meteorno direct connection between the two plants, and it is ologische Zeitschrift for 1880; n is the total number of impossible that the poison can pass through the soil from

observations, r that of observations with rainfall, and N the poisonous cassava to the sweet," and (2) “ if by the

the total number of hours in a month (or other period). spring in it’ is meant that the plant starts into second

The author shows that the duration of rainfall, computed growth after heavy rain, it is probable that certain changes

from tri-daily observations, does not differ materially from may take place inducing an increase of the poisonous

that computed from hourly observations—in the annual quality." What probably happens when persons die from

mean at most 4 per cent., and in the monthly mean 18 eating sweet or roasting cassava is that it is either too old

per cent.

In the majority of cases the differences are much or it has not been sufficiently cooked to drive out all the

less; the method gives more approximate results than an acid. It is only really wholesome when the roots are not

ordinary self-recording rain-gauge, owing to the usual too old, and when they have been cooked until they are

want of sensibility of such instruments. quite soft. If the centre is hard it is probably more or In the Zeitschrift für physikalischen und chemischen less poisonous, and should not be eaten. Even properly Unterricht, xvii., 5, Mr. Walter Stahlberg, of Steglitz, cooked cassava which has been allowed to become cold is gives an account of the Zeiss “ Verant by which photonot fit to eat unless it is cooked a second time.

graphs are made to stand out in natural relief with monBECKELITE, a new mineral species named in honour of

ocular vision. The apparatus can hardly be correctly deProf. F. Becke, of Vienna, is described by Prof. J.

scribed as a stereoscope, since one of the most important Morozewicz in the December (1904) Bulletin of the Cracow

features of the stereoscope depending on binocular vision Academy of Sciences. It occurs as an accessory constituent is absent. The Verant is a single lens, the focal of a dyke-rock composed of albite, nephelite, ægirite, and length of which should be equal to that of the camera magnetite in the elæolite-syenite complex near Mariupol, on

used in taking the photographs, and this lens is convexothe Sea of Azov. The wax-yellow octahedral or rhombic- concave, so that the axes of the pencils from different dodecahedral crystals resemble pyrochlore in general parts of the picture meet in the eye. From Mr. Stahlappearance and physical characters, though the somewhat berg's account, we think the principle of the Verant may indistinct cleavage is cubic instead of octahedral. be roughly explained by the following illustration :- When Chemically, however, the new mineral is quite distinct a photograph of cloisters is taken from one corner in the from pyrochlore, containing 17.13 per cent. of silica and

interior the photograph gives the impression that the two 03-31 per cent. of rare earths, with no niobium or tantalum.

colonnades meet at a very acute angle instead of at right The formula is Ca,(Ce, La,Di),Si, 0,5, which presents a

angles. If the picture were seen through the Verant the certain resemblance to the garnet formula with rare earths angles would appear correct as they would to a person

cloisters themselves. The in place of alumina. From analogy to calcium“ alumo- standing in the

now oldsilicate," the new mineral is described as a calcium cero

fashioned graphoscope appears to have had a somewhat lanthano-didymo-silicate.

similar purpose. For the twenty-second time, the climatological records

Two papers which are of importance in the study of of the British Empire are summarised in the current

superfusion phenomena are published by Drs. Tullio number of Symons's Meteorological Magazine, viz. for the

Gnesotto and Gino Zanetti in the Atti of the Royal year 1903. The stations number twenty-five, but, as the

Venetian Institute (1903, vol. Ixii., p. 1377). editor points out, it is impossible to represent the average

means of a modified ice calorimeter, the variation of the conditions of the climate of the Empire by so small a

specific heat of superfused liquid sodium thiosulphate at number of stations, however well distributed. Adelaide, temperatures between o° C. and the melting point of the which has almost constantly held the first place in the

salt, 480.8 C., was determined, the observations being also summary for extreme maximum temperature, now, as in

extended above this temperature up to 100° C. On calcu1902, gives way to Coolgardie, in Western Australia, lating the specific heat at all temperatures within this where the shade temperature reached 113°4 on January 27;

range, it is seen that in the neighbourhood of the melting the lowest shade temperature was - 60°.8 at Dawson on

point a sudden diminution in its value occurs, but that January 26. Dawson had also the greatest yearly range

slightly above this temperature the specific heat again (150°3). The greatest mean daily range was 23°:5 at

increases, so that the curve resumes the same direction Winnipeg, and the least 89.5 at Hong Kong. London had

that it had below the melting point. The latent heat of the highest relative humidity (82 per cent.) and Adelaide

fusion of the salt at o° C. was also determined. the lowest (62 per cent.). The greatest rainfall, 93.67 A VALUABLE paper on the properties of chrome-vanadium inches, was recorded at Hong Kong, and the least, 10-74 steels was read before the Institution of Mechanical inches, at Dawson. We may mention, incidentally, that Engineers on December 16, 1904, by Captain Riall Sankey

By

and Mr. J. Kent Smith. These steels appear to be most which has a period, variously estimated, of about 6-76 valuable from their power of resisting rapid alternations years. This object returned as comet ii. 1891, and

comet iv., 1898, its perihelion being passed during the of stress and sudden shock, especially after they have been

latter return on July 4, although its nearest approach subjected to special thermal treatment. The temperature

to the earth did not take place until the end of November. of their recalescence is at about 715° C., and the effect | Accordingly it should again pass through perihelion early of quenching in oil from 900° C. and subsequently re in April next. heating at 600° C. is to increase enormously the resist CHANGES ON THE SURFACE OF JUPITER.-An interesting ance of the alloy to shock, as measured by an impact test, popular exposition of the knowledge acquired during the and to alternations of stress, without affecting the tensile

past twenty-five years concerning the conditions of, and

| the changes on, the visible surface of Jupiter is given by strength. A spring of chrome-vanadium steel which was

Prof. G. W. Hough in No. 1, vol. xiii., of Popular prepared was found to have double the strength of an

| Astronomy. ordinary steel spring of the same dimensions, the extension Prof. Hough's own observations of Jupiter have extended being directly proportional to the load throughout a very over twenty-five years, and the present article summarises much wider range. Like the nickel steels, those which

them and the conclusions to which they have led him.

He particularly refers to the determined values for the contain vanadium and chromium are very efficient in with

rotation periods at different latitudes, and sees no evidence standing bending tests.

for the existence of any law connecting the two, giving Messrs. DAWBARN AND Ward, LTD., have added a

diagrams which illustrate the point. Two other diagrams

show the variations in the latitude and the rotation period booklet,“ How to Read a Workshop Drawing,” by Mr.

of the great red spot from 1879 to 1903. whilst yet W. Longland, to their “ Home-Worker's " series of another illustrates the changes in the position and width practical handbooks.

of the equatorial belt during the period 1895-1904. From

the latter diagram it is seen, very clearly, that the changes A THIRD edition of Mr. M. M. Pattison Muir's. trans

in the northern part of the belt are much more sudden lation of Prof. Lassar-Cohn's “ Chemistry in Daily Life" and of a greater magnitude than those which take place has been published by Messrs. H. Grevel and Co. The in the southern portion. book has been revised and enlarged.

STARS HAVING PECULIAR SPECTRA.-During the examin

ation of the Henry Draper memorial plates, Mrs. Fleming A TEACHERS' edition of part ii. of “ Elementary Algebra,"

has discovered some additional stars which are either by Messrs. W. M. Baker and A. A. Bourne, has been variable or have peculiar spectra. Thirty-one of these are published by Messrs. George Bell and Sons. Teachers announced and briefly described in No. 92 of the Harvard are likely to find the plan of printing the answers on the

College Observatory Circulars. Of those having peculiar page opposite to the examples a convenience in class

spectra a few are worthy of special notice. For instance,

à Cephei (mag. 5-6) was found to have a spectrum identical work.

with that of Puppis, which hitherto has been regarded The Engineering Standards Committee has just issued

as unique. The stars D.M. -11° 1460 (Monoceros) and the “ British Standard Specification for Portland Cement."

+64° 1527 (Cepheus), amongst others, show a bright

HB line. In the former the other hydrogen and the helium The specification deals with the quality and preparation

lines are double, whilst in the latter they are single but of the cement, gives particulars as to sampling and broad. The spectrum of D.M. +3904368 (R.A.= preparation for testing and analysis, and goes on to 20h. 51.6m., dec.= +39° 55', mag. = 7.2), as photographed enumerate what should be its fineness, specific gravity,

| on September 15, 1904, was continuous, showing no trace chemical composition, &c. The specification also considers

of lines, although the lines in the spectra of neighbouring at length the various tests which a satisfactory cement

stars were sharply defined ; on other plates the hydrogen

lines show faintly, although the spectrum was not so well should pass. Copies of the publication may be obtained defined. from Messrs. Crosby Lockwood and Son, price 25. 6d.

REAL Paths, Heights, AND VELOCITIES OF LEONIDS.net.

From the observational data submitted to him by various

observers, Mr. Denning has computed the real paths, THE 1905 issue of “ Hazell's Annual ” has now been

heights above the earth's surface, and velocities of several published. Twelve pages are devoted to scientific progress Leonids seen during the last shower. From three observduring 1904, and about five to scientific societies and ations of the brightest meteor seen at Greenwich, at institutions. Education in the United Kingdom in all | 16h. 24m. 425., November 16, 1904, he finds that the height its branches is given some fourteen pages.

of this object was from 88 to 44 miles along a path extending not more than 60 miles from near Petersfield to Hungerford. The velocity was about 46 miles per

second, and the radiant point was 151° + 22°. OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

A second meteor recorded by two observers was seen at

Greenwich, at November 14d. Ioh. 26m., and at Enniscorthy THE REPORTED Sixth SATELLITE OF JUPITER.-A telegram (Ireland), 280 miles away. This had a long horizontal from the Kiel Centralstelle gives the position of a minor flight from over the neighbourhood of Sheffield to near Carplanet, P.V., photographed by Prof. Wolf on January marthen, and was 83 to 78 miles high, the velocity being 23.135 at the Konigstuhl Observatory, at 7h. 8.8m. about 40 miles per second. Another meteor travelled at a (Konigstuhl M.T.), as

height of 79 to 58 miles from over Faringdon to Stroud, R.A. = 1h. 31m. 595., dec. = +8° 36' 13".

its visible path being 35 miles long and its velocity 39

miles per second (Observatory, January). The daily movement of this object is +23' in R.A. and -9' in declination, and it is suggested that the body

New METHOD FOR MEASURING RADIAL-VELOCITY SPECTROmay possibly be identical with the object announced by

GRAMS.-At a meeting of the International Congress of Prof. Perrine as a sixth satellite to Jupiter.

Arts and Sciences held at St. Louis in September, 1904,

Prof. J. Hartmann, of Potsdam, gave a brief outline of PERIODICAL COMETS DUE TO RETURN IN 1905.-In the a new method whereby he proposes to reduce considerably January Observatory Mr. W. T. Lynn directs attention to the labour involved in measuring the displacements of the periodical comets which are due to return to peri- | lines in stellar spectra for the purpose of determining the helion this year. There are only two, of which the first, radial velocities of the stars. Hitherto it has been Encke's, has already been seen, and passed through peri- customary to measure the displacement of each line helion on January 4. The second is that discovered by separately, and subsequently to reduce the individual Prof. Max Wolf on September 17, 1884 (comet iii., 1884), measures; but in Prof. Hartmann's new method the dis

a

on

placement of the whole of the lines in the star spectrum precipitate thus obtained a substance may be extracted would be measured simultaneously. He proposes to photo with normal saline which possesses toxic properties of a graph the spectrum of the star, with the terrestrial com- very high order. The toxic value is about ten million, parison spectrum alongside it, as usual, and then to photo- that is, 1 milligram will kill 10 kilograms of guinea-pig graph the solar spectrum and the same comparison with -a figure of the same order as that obtained for similar the same instrument. The two negatives are then placed preparations from the venoms of the more poisonous in a specially devised measuring machine, and the solar serpents. A full-grown specimen of the common Egyptian plate moved by the micrometer screw until the similar lines species (Buthus quinque-striatus) contains about 3) milliin both the solar and the stellar spectra coincide. Then grams of this (impure) toxin.” If the susceptibility of the solar plate is again moved by the screw until the man is the same as that of the laboratory animals, it lines in the comparison spectrum on it coincide with the follows that a single sting can kill at the utmost 35 kiloanalogous lines in the comparison spectrum on the stellar grams. These calculations correspond very well with the spectrogram. The difference between the two settings fact that fatal cases of scorpion sting in adults are gives the displacement of the stellar lines, from which the extremely rare, though the mortality in young children radial velocity is computed. In the reduction, which is reaches 60 per cent. Scorpions are in this way on simple, the only assumption made is that the lines have different level from many of the poisonous snakes; as the same wave-lengths in the solar and the stellar spectra, Captain Lamb has shown, the amount of toxin normally and this is permissible, at least with second-type stars for injected by a vigorous cobra is many times the minimum which the method was primarily devised (Astrophysical lethal dose for an adult man. Dr. Wilson finds that Journal, vol. xx., No. 5).

certain animals living in the desert (including the hedgehog) are naturally immune (at any rate relatively) to the

venom ; and Dr. Tallart has immunised goats and obtained MEDICAL RESEARCH IN EGYPT.'

an anti-toxic serum with curative properties.

An article by Dr. Tribe shows that phthisis in Egypt AV interval of three years has elapsed since the first does not differ very much in frequency, incidence

volume of these “ Records was published. The pre- rural and urban populations, and type from the same sent series of papers would alone afford abundant evidence of disease in western Europe ; and Dr. Sobhy gives a curious the activity of the members of the staff in the intervening

account of the obstetric customs of the natives, which period. But it is still more satisfactory to recollect that seem to have undergone no material change since very this does not represent the total output of research, for remote times. The volume concludes with the first instalmany other memoirs from the same source have already

ment of what promises to be a monumental contribution appeared elsewhere. There are evidently many problems of

to the morphology of the human brain, by Dr. Elliot both local and general importance which require investi- Smith. The present section, which is fully illustrated, gation, and the standard of excellence reached in the deals with the occipital region, and contains a great deal * Records " already published arouses a desire that succeed

of original matter on the vexed questions of the signifiing volumes should appear more frequently.

cance and homologies of the convolutions. The papers are naturally chiefly concerned with problems The general printing of the volume is excellent, though of special local importance. The three scourges of Egypt the inevitable misprint has crept in here and there. The are said to be the malarial parasite, Ankylostoma and illustrations are good and useful, but we are sorry to see Bilharzia. The last seems to bring an extraordinary that the coloured plate illustrating Dr. Symmers's case number of cases under the care of the surgical staff, some of secondary sarcoma of brain could not be printed in 16 per cent. of all surgical in-patients suffering directly Egypt.

A. E. B. from lesions produced by this parasite. From the pathological report by Dr. Symmers, it would appear that about 7 per cent. of the deaths are directly due to

WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY IN WAR. Bilharzia. In 100 consecutive admissions to the medical wards, 35 were found to have the eggs in their urine, A

VERY interesting account of the working of the though only two of these were suffering in any way from

wireless telegraphic correspondence of the the infection. The surgical aspects of the disease are Times during the early part of the Russo-Japanese war discussed in two interesting papers by Mr. Madden and was given by Captain James at a meeting of the Society Mr. Milton; they find that many pathological conditions of Arts last week. This is the second occasion on which turn out most unexpectedly to be due to the worm. At the Times has played a prominent and important part in one period of life or another practically the whole of the the practical development of wireless telegraphy. The first native population is said to be infected. Unfortunately, no was when, shortly after Mr. Marconi had established commaterial progress has been made in elucidating the extra- munication between America and England, a regular corporeal history of the parasite; it is therefore impossible correspondence was started between the two countries by to take any direct preventive measures.

means of wireless telegraphy—a correspondence which was Dr. Phillips contributes an article on the relation of not, however, destined to last for very many days. Very ascites to malaria. In at least one-third of the cases of after its inception something went wrong, and ascites in Kasr-el-Ainy no cause could be found other than

though since that time the Marconi Company has greatly malaria, but the ætiological connection is not very clearly

developed its Transatlantic signalling and has effectively established. A definite malarial cirrhosis occurs in

demonstrated its utility and convenience for communicating certain number of the cases, but it is not always present,

with liners, the shore to shore correspondence has not and the conditions found appear to be very variable.

been renewed. Of ankylostomiasis there is nothing in this volume

The second case in which the Times intervened was beyond incidental mention. But, as is well known, the

also only of short duration ; but here the cessation most important recent contributions to our knowledge of

was due to its having met with too great success, the this destructive world-disease have come from the Cairo results achieved having demonstrated not that wireless Medical School. Dr. Looss, in a long series of papers,

telegraphy is useful for war correspondence, but that it has most ably carried on the investigations begun by

is too effective to be permissible. Griesinger in the same school fifty years ago, and we are

The system selected for the equipment of the Haimun disappointed to find here no sequel to his account of the

was that of Dr. de Forest, a system which had already Sclerostomidae of horses and asses which appeared in the

shown its efficiency during the yacht races of 1903 ; the first volume of the “ Records."

reasons that led to the choice of this system were its Dr. Wilson follows up his observations on the poisons

freedom from interference and the speed at which it could of spiders by a very interesting study of the venom of be worked, it being possible to transmit thirty to thirtyEgyptian scorpions. An aqueous extract of the poison

five words a minute, as against ten to twelve words by gland is treated with excess of alcohol, and from the any other system. The experiences of Captain James 1 " Records of the Egyptian Government School of Medicine." Vol. ii.,

seem certainly to bear out the claim of freedom from to Edited by H. B. Keatinge, M.B., Director. Pp. 169+plates. (Cairo :

interference. In spite of the fact that four other systems National Printing Department, 1904.)

were at work in close proximity to the Haimun-the

war

soon

a

Russian Japanese, British, and Italian—Captain James is almost like a tornado in its suddenness, destructibility. never found his messages interfered with in any way. and limited extent. The duration of this storm was only This notwithstanding that many of the messages sent half an hour, and the resulting flood lasted less than an were of considerable length, running from 1500 to 2000 hour. It was estimated that the storm area was from two words. To transmit these long messages under all the to four miles in width and eight to ten miles in length, and attendant difficulties was no mean achievement for wire affected an area of twenty square miles. less telegraphy and journalism alike.

This storm was accompanied by a very heavy fall of Some of the incidents narrated by Captain James are l hail ; some of the hailstones measured 1 inches in diameter. both interesting and amusing. On one occasion, when the Japanese steamed in to attack Port Arthur, the Haimun telegraphed the news of the firing of the first shot to Wei-hai-wei, whence the message was forwarded express to London, with the result that two hours later the Times received the news, so that, on account of the difference in time, the journal knew that an engagement was taking place six hours before it started. On the occasion of the transmission of their first long message one of 1500 words—which was sent from a distance of 130 miles from Wei-hai-wei, the operator listened anxiously at his telephone receiver, after the first section of 350 words had been transmitted, to know whether it had been satisfactorily received. For five minutes he waited ; then his face lighted up, and he remarked, “Captain, we will deliver the goods, Wei-hai-wei says that it is coming in like a drum.” It is a remarkable achievement, which journalists and men of science highly appreciate, that wireless telegraphy is capable even in adverse circumstances of transmitting messages that will “come in like a drum." Wireless telegraphy may still be in its infancy, but the results attained by its use have shown that it is no longer in an experimental stage.

M. S.

[graphic]

FIG. 2.-Clifton after the flood of 1903.
FLOODS IN THE UNITED STATES.
IN our number for July 28 we gave particulars of the

Five days after the storm some that measured five-eighth 1 great food that occurred in the Mississippi valley in

by seven-sixteenths inch were removed from a house buried 1903, and of the damage done in Kansas and other places,

under silt and mud, and bodies were found in drifts of hail and also of floods in the Passaic River, the information

in nearly a perfect state of preservation.

Another destructive flood due to heavy rain occurred in being obtained from the reports issued by the Geological Department of the United States. We have recently re

South Carolina in the districtsituated on the southern ceived a further report on floods in other parts of the

slope of the Saluda Mountains, which includes the footStates.'

hills and rolling country. About half of it is covered with This report states that the year 1903 will be long remem

timber, the remainder being cultivated and pasture land. bered for its extreme local variations from normal climatic

The surface slopes are such that the water runs off rapidly, conditions. Besides the floods in the Mississippi valley

and there is very little storage. already referred to, due to heavy and continuous rainfall, !

Rain had occurred daily for some time previously, a cloud-burst at Heppner, in Oregon, caused the loss

saturating the ground, and culminating in a fall of from 31 to 5 inches in twenty-four hours.

The greatest destruction caused by the flood due to this rainfall was the wrecking of three large cotton mills situated at Clifton (Figs. 1 and 2), on the river Pacolet: At one mill a chimney stack 137 feet high was washed down, and the mill, with shops, engine and boiler houses, and sixteen cottages, entirely destroyed. At another mill 10 feet of the main building and the wheelhouse were totally wrecked, and the machinery of the lower floors severely damaged by water, mud, and drift, and several cottages were destroyed. In another mill fifty-two women and children were drowned. Railway traffic was stopped for a week. The damage to the mills and other property was estimated at 3 millions of dollars.

[graphic]

SEISMOLOGICAL NOTES.
THE third number of vol. x. of the Bolletino of the Italian

1 Seismological Society contains the first instalment of the earthquake record for 1903. This is now in charge of Dr. G. Agamennone, and follows the same lines as in previous volumes, except that it has been found impossible

to continue the attempt to reproduce all the records of Fig. 1.-Clifton before the Flood of 1903.

earthquakes registered in Italy. This change is a con

sequence of the great increase in the number of stations of 100 lives and of property valued at half a million dollars, i where instruments devoted to the new seismology have been one-third of the town being entirely destroyed. This flood set up, and the consequent impracticability of collecting in was due to a very heavy storm of short duration covering | one periodical all the records of even the limited number a very small area, such storms being peculiar to this arid of great world-shaking earthquakes. Italy will, therefore, region, and locally called a “cloud burst." Such a storm be content with publishing its own records, and at most

1 “Destructive Floods in the United States in 1903." By E. C. Murphy. a few lines will indicate those earthquakes which have also Water Supply and Irrigation Papers, No. 96. (Washington.)

been recorded out of Italy.

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