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bearing would falsify the direction of all that followed, the process. The expense of pictorial telegra like a bend in a wire.

foreign countries would be large in itself, but a The difficulties of dealing with detached portions of the relatively to the present great expenditure by new drawing, such as the eye, were easily surmounted by em- | on telegraphic information, so the process migh: ploying two of the spare letters, R and S, to indicate pected to be employed whenever it was of obriols! brackets, and other spare letters to indicate points of The risk is small of errors of importance arising reference. The bearings included between an R and an mistakes in telegraphy. I inquired into the end S were taken to signify directive dots, not to be inked of the Meteorological Office, whose numerous me in. The points of reference indicated by other letters are | telegrams are wholly conveyed by numerical sigtal those to which the previous bearing leads, and from the 20,625 figures that were telegraphed this year which the next bearing departs. Here is the formula office from continental stations, only 49 seem to have whence the eye was drawn. It includes a very small part erroneous, that is two and a third per thousand. A of the profile of the brow, and the directive dots leading rate the 8oo figures needed to telegraph the Greek thence to the eye.

would have been liable to two mistakes. A mistale The letters should be read from the left to the right, figure would have exactly the same effect on the de across the vertical lines. They are broken into groups as a rent in the paper on which a similar qu.. of five, merely for avoiding confusion and the con been drawn, which had not been pasted together venience of after reference.

with perfect precision. The dislocation thereby

sioned would never exceed the thickness of the i The part of the Profile that includes U

The command of 100 figures from o to it iiilU jiihi &c. &c.

of only 26 letters, puts 74 fresh signals at det The Eye.

posal, which would enable us to use a]

points of the compass, instead of 16, and to del U Rkkk kklll mSVap ponmn mmlmm

long lines and curves. I cannot enter into this mlmlm llmzz ! VoTon 1mninmm mmmlm

nor into the control of the general accuracy of them mmnzz | Tjjjj jjkkccbmmn mnnnn

by means of the distances between the points of in onooz

each formed by any three points of reference. Ne Letters used as Symbols.

need I speak of better forms of protractor. That R....S=(....). Z=end.

on the table by which the ghost of a compass U, V, T are points of reference.

thrown on the drawing. It is made of a doubly ren

image of Iceland spar, which throws the By succeeding in so severe a test case as this Greek “extraordinary" image of the compass card on outline, it may be justly inferred that rougher designs can ordinary image of the drawing and is easy to ma be easily dealt with in the same way.

All that I wish now to explain is that this page At first sight it may seem to be a silly waste of time

application of the law of the just perceptible dire and trouble to translate a drawing into a formula, and

| optical continuity gives us a new power that he then, working backwards, to retranslate the formula into

tical bearings. a reproduction of the original drawing, but further reflection shows that the process may be of much practical

PostSCRIPT.-A promising method for practice utility. Let us bear two facts in mind, the one is that a

that I have tried, is to use " sectional” paper ; that

ruled into very small squares, or else coarsed very large quantity of telegraphic information is daily

either to make the drawing upon it, or else to last published in the papers, anticipating the post by many

sectional paper, or muslin, over the drawing. Dota days or weeks. The other is that pictorial illustrations of

made at distances not exceeding 3 spaces apan, current events, of a rude kind, but acceptable to the reader,

course of the outline, at those intersections of the rak appear from time to time in the daily papers. We may threads) that best accord with the outline. Each do be sure that the quantity of telegraphic intelligence will sion is to be considered as the central point, numbes steadily increase, and that the art of newspaper illustra- | the following schedule, and the couplet of figures com tion will improve, and be more resorted to. Important local events frequently occur in far-off regions, of which

IT 21 31 41 51 61 71 no description can give an exact idea without the help of pictorial illustration; some catastrophe, or site of a

22 32 42 52 62 72 battle, or an exploration, or it may be some design or even some portrait. There is therefore reason to expect a

3343536373 demand for such drawings as these by telegraph, if their expense does not render it impracticable to have them.

14 24 34 44 54 64 74 Let us then go into details of expense, on the basis of the

15 25 35 45 55 65 75 present tariff from America to this country, of one shilling per word, 5 figures counting as one word, cypher letters

16 26 36 46 56 66 76 not being sent at a corresponding rate. It requires two figures to perform each of the operations described above,

17 27 37 47 57 67 77 which were performed by a single letter. So a formula for 5 dots would require 10 figures, which is the tele- to the portion of the next dot, is to be written wat graphically equivalent of 2 words; therefore the cost for | pointed pencil in the interval between the two dots. The every 5 dots telegraphed from the United States would subsequently copied, and make the formula. By empty be 2 shillings, or £2 for every 100 dots or other indica for zero, the signs of + and – are avoided ; 3, standing tions.

2, for – 2; and i, for – 3. The first figure in each compete In the Greek outline there is a total of 400 indications,

its horizontal coordinate from zero ; the second figurt, including those for directive dots, and for points of refe

tical one. Thus any one of 49 different points are so rence. The transmission of these to us from the United

corresponding to steps from zero of o, +1, +2, 2013

vals, in either direction, horizontal or vertical. Hotel States would cost £8. I exhibit a map of England made

practice suffices to learn the numbers. The first with 248 dots, as a specimen of the amount of work in

and 9 do not enter into any of the couplets in the sche plans, which could be effected at the cost of £5. It is remaining 51 couplets in the complete series of 10 easy to arrange counters into various patterns or from oo to 99), contain 21 cases in which o, 8. orgia parts of patterns, learning thereby the real power of first figure only ; 21 cases in which one of them

i figure only, and 9 cases in which both of the figures are visited New Guinea, if we may judge by internal evidence, i by one or other of them. These latter are especially although his phraseology in many places is not unlikely tive. This method has five merits-medium, short, or very to lead the reader to suppose that he has had a share steps can be taken according to the character of the linea in the results presented in its pages. Had the author had At any point; there is no trouble about orientation ; the

some personal acquaintance with the country of which igs are defined without a protractor, the work can be

he writes he would have formed opinions, we believe, revised, and the correctness of the records may be checked

different from many of those he has expressed on his own omparing the sums of the small coordinates leading to a of reference, with their total values as read off directly

account throughout the book. nethod of signalling is also in use for military purposes, in

The work opens with a sketch“ of the historical { positions are fixed by coordinates, afterwards to be

aspects of the whole of the great Papuan land," but we cted by lines.

F. G: miss in it the names of many who deserve honourable

mention for their contributions to the “ making” of New

Guinea. We find no mention of the investigations of BRITISH NEW GUINEA.

Dr. Otto Finsch carried on in all three possessions, of

those of Mr. O. Stone, of the missionaries in Geelvink R. THOMSON'S work on British New Guinea has Bay, of Mr. Romilly, of the Special Commissioners Sir

been looked for with some impatience. Now that it Peter Scratchley and the Hon. John Douglas, of Mr. come it falls short of our expectations. We had hoped | Milman, and of Commanders Pullen and Field, who have a comprehensive work marshalling into order and all contributed to our knowledge of different regions.

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summarising the observations and investigations made in This chapter is prefaced by a quotation from the writings the British part of New Guinea, by so many missionaries, of Plinius Minor :-“It appears to me a noble employexplorers, navaland government officers and scientific men, ment to rescue from oblivion those who deserve to be for many years. Instead of this we find that the book eternally remembered, and by extending the reputation is made up almost entirely of the explorations during the of others, to advance at the same time our own." These past four or five years of the administrator, boiled down words are the true key-note of the book from which our out of the official reports by Mr. J. Thomson, the Brisbane Pliny- Plinius Major-has never once deviated secretary of the Queensland branch of the Geographical throughout his task. It is doubtless no small compliment Society of Australasia. Throughout the volume there is to any man to have his deeds held up in the light of everywbere evidence that its author is new to literary "eternal remembrance" by one of his fellows, but the task composition. In consequence, the terse and vigorous requires the delicate hand of a judicious fellow; and English of the original reports suffers severely in the we fear that our Pliny has marred the compliment in the process, so much so that we regret that their important paying. So inspired with veneration for his patron is he parts have not been presented to us as extracts in the that every act of his appears almost extraordinary, and his explorer's own words. Mr. Thomson has himself never name too august ever to be mentioned without the humblest ,''British New Guinea." By J. P. Thomson, F.R.S.G.S., &c. (Lon.

obeisance expressed in the constant recapitulation of his

obeisanc lon: George Philip and Co., 1892.)

titles, dignities, and office, which must be as nauseous to that officer as to every reader of Mr. Thomson's book. | noisy with the “joyous shouts” of “merry ch In this “noble employment," however, we hope that our It is difficult to comprehend why Australian historiographer for Papua may reap the reward hoped New Guinea will so persistently-for Mr. Thi for by his prototype. gregor says that the features of these people, which Geographical Society, which Mr. Thomson quietly "remarkably good, indicate more character and ignores, the writer has already pointed out that along the gth than those of the coast man, and the cheek | route by which the administrator approached Mount s in many are rather broad and prominent. The Owen Stanley, it would have been impossible to have is generally of the semitic type, with nostrils either seen the features " named and described by Mr. Forbes." rched or much more so than is usual in Papuans. Mr. Thomson, posing as a court of geographical appeal, :hin and under jaw are stronger.” They may be com has graciously condescended to intimate that if these I with the Fly river people, also here figured (Fig. 3). names had been "judiciously and appropriately applied Tropean names were bestowed on the chief physical 1 to well-defined places,” they would have received full res of the country passed through by the expedition recognition” from him. “It is also,” he continues, “renecessity," because of its “entire unacquaintance gretable that in describing localities to which he assigns their orthography (sic) through limited intercourse positions, that explorer has omitted to supply the data the native inhabitants.” This being in Dr. Mac employed in their determination." To every unprejudiced r's case evidently a right and sufficient reason for person it must be evident that the map published by the omenclature bestowed, how can Mr. Thomson with writer could not have been plotted in England without e animadvert, as he does on an earlier page, on the | data, any more than that of Sir William Macgregor, who hat "the most important affluents [of the Kemp- has not supplied to the general public, so far as the writer h river have received [from Mr. Cuthbertson] knows, the data by which his localities are fixed. It will be pean appellations ?.... This disregard of the time, however, to submit to Mr. Thomson these data, when e nomenclature is, in the interests of geography, | it is acknowledged that a back parlour critic of a country 1 to be regretted.” However, we are pleased to | in which he has never set foot is a competent judge of

not the only author who thus sins, nor haver The next two chapters deal with Sir William Macgregor's the only specimen of this style of writing in hi explorations in the Louisiade and D'Entrecasteaux archi overlaud the capabilities and the vast naturalan pelagoes. In Chapter IV. is an account of the pursuit and resources of the country, heedless whether i punishment of the natives of Chads and Cloudy bays for induce their too trustful readers to embark in the murder of European traders visiting their shores. The enterprises in this "never, never land."

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country lying to the south-east and north-west of Port The seventh chapter, containing an acco Moresby forms the subject of the following two chapters. William Macgregor's splendid feat of the ascent Speaking of that portion to the south-east Mr. Thomson Owen Stanley, is naturally the most interesting says, “ It may not be altogether unreasonable to assume the book. During this expedition almost if De that in the future . . . fields once the scene of battle and native bridge yet known in New Guinea was feudal strife may be beautified by sites of local industry It was suspended from trees on each ban and manufacture, and enlivened by the joyous shouts of very similar in every respect to those built by merry children and the harmonious peals of village bells." of Sumatra and the Dyaks of Borneo. Ho

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that the European names selected by the admini- either the judiciousness and appropriateness of the names or have been bestowed “upon the broadest national applied, or the accuracy of the localities, or the data on ment, as being compatible with the principles which which they are based. pted the bestowal of an English name on the range Chapters VIII., IX., and X. are devoted to an account e officers of H.M.S. Rattlesnake." It is not improb- of the administrator's ascent of the Fly river, and of his that the explorer of the Kemp-Welch felt the same visit westwards to the Anglo-Dutch boundary, and the ssily, and was actuated by the same broad sentiment. / eleventh to his voyage along the north-east coast. D'Albertis ently the actor here sanctifies the act. We must, long ago gave us a very accurate account of his 400 mile ver, take exception to the statement made by Mr. navigation of the Fly river. Sir William Macgregor n:on that it was to the range that the name Mount carried his flag right to the German territory, and added 1 Stanley was given. It is evident from observa- | several unknown rivers and new mountains to the map; in his book, that the author is aware of the discus- | but both in this region, as on the north-east coast, his that followed on the reading of Dr. Macgregor's voyages, though they contributed many additional facts, r on his ascent of the mountain before the Royal added little essentially new to the observations of his fraphical Society in London. On that occasion the predecessors, except his account of the piratical Tugere dent of the society clearly pointed out that this tribe, living on our boundary line west of the Fly river,

was bestowed, as has been marked on all maps of whom so much had been heard but so little known. rty years, on the peak, not on the range. Through This handsome volume, which presents us in a colhe book this imperious disregard for nomenclature is lected form with the record of the important contributions, vited. D'Albertis' name of Snake Point in the geographical and biological, of a most energetic officer, river has without reason been changed to D'Albertis to our growing knowledge of New Guinea, would have tion ; Annabel Harbour, close to Boundary Cape, been more valuable and welcome, even in its restricted ugh marked on the official map of Sir Peter / range, but for the bias unduly exhibited throughout its tchley's voyage to the north-east coast, becomes pages, the verbiose platitudes by which it is marred, and glas Harbour; Fort Harbour, Clayton Inlet in the extreme looseness of its descriptions, as “Morna san ock Bay, and the peaks named on the same occasion, island) is of the usual formation," "features of oriental

ell as the region delineated by the present writer at type," " the Papuan dialect," and such-like expressions, base of Mount Owen Stanley, are also all ignored on which are numerous. In a long appendix we have a nap attached to the volume now being considered. | résumé of the results of the geological, botanical, and failsto comprehend what principle except personal feel- some of the zoological collections made by Sir W. Macne author has followed, on the one hand in his agreeing gregor and others. Of these the chapter by Mr. Ethee change of the thoroughly established Mount Owen ridge, Government Palæontologist of New South Wales, ley to a new name, and on the other, in his restoring is specially valuable. Several important zoological groups, e Aird river, which had recently been re-christened however, such as the birds, are, curiously enough, entirely Douglas, the name given to it by Captain Blackwood disregarded. Vocabularies of many of the dialects

a century before. Not only are these arbitrary spoken in widely separated districts of the possession ges an unwarrantable violation of the laws of are given, and are very valuable, and we sincerely hope enclature, but they are in the remover an illegitimate that no opportunity may be lost of amplifying them. tion of authority over previous fellow-explorers, In fine, we regret to feel that this work will not yet ell as an assumption of an honour to which he has | relieve those who desire to make themselves acquainted tle.

with the accurate and complete history of British New r. Thomson has drawn on the face of his map two Guinea, from the labour of searching through the

red circles, from purely arbitrary centres of the original reports of the explorations, not of the adminislly arbitrary radius of 6° 8' 56", which are tangential trator alone, but of the many other equally trustworthy :where in the valley of the Strickland river. It is workers who have contributed to its records issible to divine their purpose, except perhaps to

HENRY 0. FORBES. a seasonable puzzle for his readers. le writer of this notice feels entitled to remark on the ving observation, occurring on page 109: _“Although

NOTES. : care was exercised, the expedition was unable to ify places on the Owen Stanley range, named and Prof. R. VIRCHOW W

PROF. R. VIRCHow will deliver the Croonian lecture before ribed by Mr. Forbes. We are reluctantly constrained the Royal Society on March 16, the subject to be the position mit these names." In the Proceedings of the Royal of pathology among the biological sciences.



We greatly regret to have to announce the death of Mr. G. temperature became much lower, sharp frosts occurring
M. Whipple, Superintendent of the Kew Observatory. He over England, the readings on the grass in the southea
died on Tuesday night after a long illness.

falling as low as 17°, but in the north and west the care
The Journal of Botany records the death, on January 18, peratures were between 45o and 50°. The weather in
at Brighton, of Dr. Benjamin Carrington, the highest authority southern parts of the country became bright and fide, w
on British Hepaticæ.

sogs, which extended as far as central England. Dar Dr. H. J. JOHNSTON. Lavis has been appointed Professor

early part of this week depressions from the Atlant: of Vulcanology in the University of Naples. A chair of

skirted our western coasts in a north-easterly direction, 2 vulcanology existed for some time at Catania, but was abolished

south-westerly gales in the north and west, and a co on the death of Prof. Silvestri.

increase in temperature, the maxima on Monday exceei SOME important work with regard to technical education in

in Ireland and the extreme south-west of England. Te

pression rapidly increased in intensity, and by Tuesday they London was done by the London County Council on Tuesday. The Council began the consideration of the recommendations of

south-west winds had spread over the whole country, the the special committee appointed to investigate the subject, and

temperature amounting to over 20° in the south-east of Eadopted the following proposals-that the Council should de

A bright aurora was observed in the north-east of Scivote to technical education some portion of the funds from time

Sunday night. The Weekly Weather Report of the 43 to time recoverable under the Local Taxation (Customs and

shows that the temperature exceeded the mean in all a Excise) Act, 1899; that, in order to promote efficient and

during that week. Bright sunshine did not differ sul united action, it is desirable that the Council should delegate,

from the mean in any district, the percentage of so far as is permitted by law, its powers in respect of technical

duration ranged from twenty-five in the south-west, to total education to a composite body, to be called the Technical Edu.

the east of England. cation Board, to be appointed by the Council, partly from its

The American Meteorological Journal for January own members and partly from other persons whose co-operation an article by Prof. D. P. Todd bearing upon the select is desired ; and that the Board should be appointed for a term stations for observing the total eclipse of April 16 next, of three years. It was agreed that the City Companies should with a map showing the entire region of visibility. Hull be asked to contribute to the funds for technical instruction a fair / gone to considerable trouble in collecting data, especial proportion of their corporate income as distinguished from their observations for the month of April, for the last three yll trust property.

together with particulars respecting the stations and || On Saturday the overhead electric railway at Liverpool was

means of reaching them. The utility of a systematic e l opened by Lord Salisbury, who afterwards delivered a very

țion of the cloud conditions of the eclipse localities is all effective speech on the great things which are likely to be

It is only in this way that the best observing state||

be selected. achieved for mankind by electricity.

The meeting of the American Psychological Associate The London Amateur Scientific Society will hold its annual general meeting on Friday, February ro, at 7.30 p.m., at the

the University of Pennsylvania on December 27 and

to have been very successful. According to a writer in Memorial Hall, Farringdon Street. The president will deliver

York Nation, no one who attended the meeting faol an address, and the officers and council for the ensuing year will be elected. At the conclusion of the annual general meeting

impressed with the quite unusual enthusiasm of the meze

the still more unusual peace and serenity that prevzat the ordinary meeting will be held, when objects of interest

the discussions. This writer is of opinion that, aparta botanical, zoological, and geological—will be exhibited.

Sanford's observations on dreams, the paper of mas A CONVERSAZIONE was held the other evening at Firth College

interest was President Hall's account of the history en to celebrate the completion of the additional building. The

pects of experimental psychology in America. A addition comprises new physical and biological laboratories,

stimulus” was brought to the meeting by Prof. Hago NA workshop and class rooms, and considerably increases the ac

berg, of Harvard, who has recently gone from Freiber commodation available for teaching purposes. The cost,

director of the Harvard Psychological.Laboratory. He £5,500, has been wholly raised from local subscriptions.

a vigorous discussion upon the very foundations of experts ANOTHER disastrous shock of earthquake occurred at Zante research. This discussion, as well as others, was erit on Friday last. It was followed by a terrific thunderstorm, ac the contributions of Prof. Titchener, of Cornell. Th companied by rain and hail. All the ovens in the island meeting of the association is to be held at Columbia were destroyed by the successive shocks, so that no bread New York, during the Christmas recess, 1893or biscuits could be made. Thousands of the inhabitants have

| The Annual Report of the Botanical Department, Jas been made homeless, On Monday there were three further inst been published the Director Mr w Fasteart F. shocks. The King and Queen of Greece have visited several

a good deal to say about the work of his Department, it of the villages, and have been deeply affected by the scenes of

oldest and most successful in the colonies. It was st utter ruin and desolation which have everywhere met their

long ago as 1777, and ever since, as Mr. Fawcett reca eyes. On Tuesday they visited the naphtha springs of the

successfully “introduced valuable exotics, and the pre island, which are believed to be the centre of the disturbance. of the most distant regions to the West Indies," u The mayor of the village of Deme Elatia, some distance from!

foundations of the present prosperity in place the town of Zante, telegraphed that a large chasm, from which poverty which followed the abolition of slavery. The smoke was constantly issuing, had been discovered near that |

establishing the Hope Gardens as the headquarters place.

Department near Kingston is still kept in view, a During the first part of the past week the weather in these amount allowed for this purpose appears much less islands was under the influence of barometrical depressions | Director considers desirable, taking into account the fame situated in the north-west. Rain fell in most places, and the portance of the island. A bill garden is looked upoca temperature exceeded 50° in the south and west, and even to the development of the high lands in Jarraic reached 56° in London. On Friday an anticyclone which lay | Fawcett shows that as about one-hall of the total 1 over the Baltic, spread westwards, and under its influence the island is above 1000 feet elevation, it is impossible 5 SE


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