« PreviousContinue »
"I may repeat my conviction that if the prevalent the S.E. one are parallel to the avenue, and therebeliefs and traditions concerning Stonehenge were fore represent the solstitial orientation. true, and the bluestone' circles were transported So much, then, for the stones. We see that, deal. from some distant locality, either as trophies of war, ing only with the untrimmed sarsens that remain, the or as the sacred treasures of a wandering tribe, it is places of the May sunset and June and November quite inconceivable that they should have been hewed sunrises were marked from the same central point. and chipped, as we now know them to have been, and Statements have been made that there was the reduced in some cases to half their dimensions, after 'stump of another stone near the vallum to the S.W., having been carried with enormous difficulty over land in the line of the Friar's Heel and Slaughter Stone, and water, and over hills and valleys. On the other produced backwards, at the same distance from the hand, in the glacial drift, which once probably thinly old centre as the N.W. and S.E. stones. This stone covered the district, the glacial deposits dying out was not found in an exploration by Sir Edmund very gradually as we proceed southwards, we have a Antrobus, Mr. Penrose, and Mr. Howard Payn by source from which such stones might probably have means of a sword and an auger. But the question been derived. It is quite a well-known peculiarity of will not be settled until surface digging is permitted, the glacial drift to exhibit considerable assemblages of as a “road " about which there is a present constones of a particular character at certain spots, each tention passes near the spot. of these assemblages having probably been derived But even this is not the only evidence we have for from the same source.
“I would therefore suggest as probable that when the early inhabitants of this island commenced the erection of Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain was sprinkled over thickly with the great white
of the sarsen-stones (grey wethers'), and much more sparingly with darker coloured boulders (the so-called 'blue-stones '), the last relics of the glacial drift, which have been nearly denuded away. From these two kinds of materials the stones suitable for the contemplated temple were selected. It is even possible that the abundance and association of these two kinds of materials, so strikingly contrasted in colour and appearance, at a particular spot, may not only have decided the site, but to some extent, have suggested the architectural features of the noble structure of Stonehenge.'
If we grant everything that Prof. Judd states, the question remainswhy did the same men at the same time treat the sarsen and blue stones so differently in the same place?
I shall show subsequently that there is a definite answer to the question on one assumption.
I next come to (2). The important point about these stones is that with the amplitude 26°, at Stonehenge, a line
Fig. 9.– The rod on the recuinbent stone is placed in and along the common axis of the from the centre of the circle over the
present circle and avenue. It is seen that the Friar's Heel, the top of which is sboan in
ihe distance, would hide the sunrise place if the axis were a little further to the S.L. N.W. stone would mark the sunset place in the first week in May, and a line over the the May worship in early times. There is an old S.E. stone would similarly deal with the November tradition of the slaughter of Britons by the Saxons sunrise. We are thus brought in presence of the May- at Stonehenge, known as “ The Treachery of the November year.
Long. Knives."; according to some accounts, 400 Another point about these stones is that they are British chieftains were killed while attending a ban. not at the same distance from the centre of the sarsen quet and conference. Now at what time of the year stone circle, which itself is concentric with the ' did this take place? Was it at the summer solstice temenos mound; this is why they lie at different June 21? 1 have gathered from Guest's distances from the mound. Further, a line drawn “Mabinogion," vol. ii.
p. 433, and Davies's from the point of the Friar's Heel and the now re- Mythology of the British Druids," p. 333, that the cumbent Slaughter Stone with the amplitude deter- banquet took place on May eve Meinvethydd." is mined by Mr. Penrose and myself for the summer it likely that this date would have been chosen in solstice sunrise in 1680 B.c. cuts the line joining the a solar temple dedicated exclusively to the solstice? stones at the middle point, suggesting that the four Now the theory to which my work and thought have untrimmed sarsen stones provided alignments both led me is that the megalithic structures at Stonehenge for the May and June years at about that date.
—the worked sarsens with their mortices and lintels. Vor is this all; the so-called tumuli within the and above all the trilithons of the magnificent naos vallum may merely have been observation mounds, for represent a re-dedication and a re-construction, on the lines passing from the northern tumulus over a much more imposing plan and scale, of a much the X.W. stone and from the southern tumulus over older temple.
right errors. For instance, the statement on p. 313
that Lake Baikal was recently connected with the WITH the appearance of this half-volume we have
sea is totally opposed to modern views; and it is to congratulate the author and his publishers equally untrue that the great Indian rhinoceros on the completion of a work which must have involved “ bites” (p. 373), while the statement (p. 421) that an enormous amount of labour, and which, in this there are no wild oxen in Africa at least requires country at any rate, is unique. The great impulse qualification. On p. 469
find the usual which has of late years been given to " nature-teach- exaggerated statement of the size of dinosaurs (115 ing" rendered a work of this class almost essential instead of 60
Among misspelt (for the mode of treatment could not have been
names it must suffice to mention (p. 430) Padus for adopted in a systematic natural history), and Prof. Pudua, and (p. 432) Euneces for Eunectes (we can Davis has realised the want, and done his best to
guess whence the author copied the latter); but it supply what was required.
may be added that Saccomyidæ is not the proper In spite of certain errors and blemishes, to some title for the pocket-gophers, or Euspongia for the of which we have directed attention on previous typical sponges. An expression on p. 375 leads one occasions, and bearing in mind the magnitude of to believe that the author is unaware of the existence
of the Devon and Somerset staghounds; while (p. 379) the term “ hunting, as applied to fishes, seems somewhat misplaced.
The section on geographical distribution may perhaps be best described as feeble, the author “wobbling the subject of “Wallace's line," and being apparently unacquainted either with the works of Max Weber or with a certain text-book published by the Cambridge L'niversity Press. fairness to his readers the author should have told them that there are distributional divisions of the globe other than those adopted by Dr. Wallace; and also that such divisions are based on the range of mam
mals and birds, and do Axe Rook
not accord with that of
several other groups. FIG 1.-Mexican Puisonous Lizard (Heloderma horridum). From “The Natural History of Animals."
The coloured plates
render this and its the task for a single individual, it may be safely said sellow volumes attractive to the general reader, and that, on the whole, the author has been successful in most of the other illustrations (one of which is here his efforts, and that when a second edition is called reproduced) are well chosen and well executed. for, and th“ necessary emendations and corrections
R. L. have bccn madr the work will tal. - its plait as an important popular text-book of bionomics.
The half-volume now before us includes some of THE CONDITION OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES the most interesting sections of the whole subject,
IN FRANCE. discussing as it does the economic aspect of zoology, the natural history of sport, animals as pets, geo- THE
HE results of an inquiry into the present condigraphical distribution, the palæontological record,
tion of French chemical industries are described and the doctrine of evolution and heredity. l'n
in the Revue scientifique of January 28. The upfortunately, the author has not allowed sufficient
shot of this inquiry is the recommendation that a space for
some of these subjects. Fur-bearing society should be founded for France, having its headanimals are, for instance, very imperfectly described quarters in Paris, with branches in all large towns no mention being made of such important furs as
in France, with a council consisting of the heads of Arctic and silver fox, otter and nutria; and if only
industrial enterprises, the professors in universities the author had let out the “old wives' tales" about
and “ lycées,” of independent persons, and of all the shrew on pp. 319 and 320 he would have had interested in industrial chemistry. The duties of this ample room for proper treatment.
society should be (1) to suggest and press on the Neither is the volume altogether free from down
Government solutions of the great economic problems
of importance to chemical industry; (2) to collect 1 The Natural History of Animals; the Animal Life of the World in its statistics abroad and to endeavour to gain markets for various Aspects and Relations." By J R. A Davis. Half vol. viii. Pp. xviii + 361-555. (London: The Gresham Publishing Co., 1904.) Price 7s.
French products by aid of the consular service; and
to devise means to prevent competition between French
manufacturers, and to promote combination among in 1899. Evidently German chemical industry is them against their foreign rivals; and (3) to act as prosperous, and profitable to all classes concerned. an advisory body to industrial chemists, and to take | Indeed, the dividend of artificial colouring companies steps to direct the education of young chemists into shows 'a still better figure; the increase in dividend channels helpful to the progress of chemical industry is from 15 per cent. in 1888 to 20% per cent. in 1900, It is suggested that the work of the society should Unfortunately, similar statistics are not furnished be aided by congresses in certain towns, which should for France, either because they do not exist or because be attended by the local manufacturers, as well as by they are better concealed. those who carry on the same or similar processes How can this distressing state of affairs be elsewhere. In conclusion, the future president, it is remedied? To what is industrial France to turn? suggested, should be Prof. Haller, who has done so The opinions of many manufacturers are quoted, and much for the industrial progress of the town and some shall be adduced here. First, secondary educaUniversity of Nancy, and who is now professor at tion is at fault; all initiative is crushed in the the Sorbonne, the University of Paris.
secondary schools, and all pupils are turned out of Such are the recommendations of the report. The one uniform mould. But, it is acknowledged, an reasons annexed to these recommendations, which attempt is being made to remedy this. Second, it is form the earlier part of the report, are derived from said nearly unanimously, by all those asked for their numerous letters from and interviews with members opinions, that the training of young chemists is not of some eighty-two representative firms. The opinions sufficiently practical. There is in the universities of some of these form amusing reading. Thus we too much tendency to train teachers rather than learn from the manufacturers of “ eau de Javel,” the industrial men; and the professors, often look down precursor of bleaching-powder, that Monsieur B., on the commercial side of their science. The union * suffit à l'exploitation." In another " The of science and industry is recommended. Like ourbrewery has no chemist at all, and gets all its selves, the French manufacturers, ignorant themanalyses made at the brewing-school.” Another firm selves, often engage a young chemist, and expect which produces “some rare bodies " (one would like him at once to know all about their work and to be to know what they are) dismisses the question in able to devise improvements; when they find out that almost the historical words which preceded the decapita- he is of little value they contemn chemistry, as we tion of Lavoisier-—" Aucun besoin de la collabora- have seen in what precedes. Others complain that tion des savants”! Another intelligent manufacturer, they have to pay their chemists for a year or a year designated as X, (1) ventures the daring statement and a half while he is learning their needs; and yet that " the candle industry and chemistry have nothing it is acknowledged that no education in a technical in common." Oh, shade of Dumas! X (10) does school can be of any value; for the teacher cannot not think that the collaboration of " savants" would teach anything worth knowing about the really im. be useful in the extraction of dyeing stuffs from portant dodges employed by the manufacturer, nor wood; and a soap-maker, X (16), who confesses him- | is he welcomed in the work if he lectures on any self ignorant of chemistry, thinks that “chemistry special process. In a minority of works the German can contribute nothing of use to the soap industry, system is followed; young men are engaged as seeing that soap is always made in the same way '' ! juniors, and work under the supervision of seniors;
These examples show that some educative action according to the ability and tastes which they show is necessary in France. The necessity is also for routine work, for management, or for invention, apparent when recent statistics are considered. For they are kept as analysts, made managers, or left while the raw materials exported from Germany have in the research laboratory. But it is justly remarked remained practically stationary for the last twenty that this excellent plan is impossible for small years, those imported have doubled in value; and manufacturers. while the imports of manufactured products have In many (most?) cases the difficulty lies in the barely increased in value during the same interval smallness of the remuneration. It appears common of time, the value of the exported manufactured for a chemist to receive 481. to 721. a year, rare for chemical substances has risen from 200 million marks the pay to exceed 100l. Now that is little more in 1880 to 352 million marks in 1900. The progress than workmen's wages; and it is the reward of an in France, accordingly, is much behind that of expensive education. Yet the manufacturer often Germany: To add insult to injury, the red trousers, grumbles at having to teach such young men their so conspicuous in the French Army, were designed business, and says that they should pay for his originally to encourage the cultivation of the madder tuition; and on the other hand, the chemist who has plant; the plant is commercially as extinct as the survived the kicks, cuffs and insults from the dodo, and the trousers are now dyed with artificial foreman, and hard work of the first year, and has alizarin supplied from Germany! Sacre nom de acquired some practical knowledge, does not see why tonnerre !
he should not better himself if he can. As this article is written in the hope of reaching Again, German firms employ chemists in many the ignorant, the author, M. Jean Jaubert, has taken walks of life. A man who is a chemist makes a some pains to show how many-sided the industrial much better traveller for a chemical firm than an chemist should be if he is to direct his enterprise ignoramus who can only tout his goods; and their intelligently, and he sketches the steps taken by the chemists, if they show commercial ability, often take Germans to secure such general knowledge. The to the business side of the concern, and they know collaboration of manufactories and university chemistry is a recommendation, not a drawback, professors, the give and take, the university train- In spite of the low pay, France, according to all ing of the scientific heads of departments in chemical reports, is overcrowded with chemists. Some pity works, account for an increase between 1887 and 1900 them; others think that this plethora will lead to the in the number of works in Germany from 4235 to survival of the fittest. The old-fashioned foreman is 7169; in the number of workmen from 82,000 to as undying in France as here, however, and as 153,000; and for an increase in the average wage of opposed to any attempt at innovation. Yet he is being these workmen from 381. to 50l. a year; and the displaced by chemists in some works; and this, average percentage dividend of joint-stock common in Germany, is one of the chief causes of companies, obliged by law to publish their accounts, her industrial prosperity. The foreman, knowing has risen from 91 per cent. in 1888 to 134 per cent. I some tips of importance, looks askance at anyone
who attacks experimentally the problems of his cerned learn to view such problems from a scientific manufactures; for he knows if they are once dis- standpoint, little more can be done. The only thing covered his use is past. On the other hand, if fore. is for those who can to preach, and above all man work is done by a chemist, trained in experi- practise.
W. R. mental methods and anxious to improve his product (and his position), reforms can be made, and are willingly undertaken. We in England are in
NOTES. similar plight; one of the greatest preventives to
The new session of Parliament was opened on Tuesday by progress is the foreman. Why, many chemists would be glad of his 31. a week, and would be infinitely
the King, who was accompanied by the Queen, with the cusmore useful.
tomary ceremonial. The King's speech to the House of A closer intimacy between professor and manu
Commons announced that provisions for amending the laws facturer is strongly urged. But in France there is relating to education in Scotland will again be brought forapparently mutual distrust. The standing of the ward, and that a proposal for establishing a Minister of Comprofessors is low, for one thing, the best paid post (at merce and Industry will be introduced. Paris) bringing in only Sool. a year; in the provinces the salaries run from 2401. to 400l. This
At the annual meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society contrasts unpleasantly with German salaries, which on Friday last, the gold medal of the society, awarded by the seldom fall below 600l., and may amount to 3600l. council to Prof. Boss, director of the Dudley Observatory, In France, many men have a taste for the career of Albany, New York State, was received by Mr. Choate, the professor, and will work cheap for glory; " that is United States Ambassador, for transmission to Prof. Boss. the French character." Most French professors,
The president afterwards handed to the secretary the according to one of them (rashly, named in this Jackson-Gwilt bronze medal for transmission to Mr. Tebbutt, article), do nothing and care nothing for industry. in short, collaboration between manufacturer and
who for many years has carried on astronomical research in chemist is wanting owing to jealousy of the latter his observatory in New South Wales. towards colleagues who meddle with industrial At a meeting of the trustees of the Percy Sladen fund, problems, to ignorance and shyness of both parties, held at the Linnean Society, Burlington House, and to the want of any intermediary who can bring February 3, grants varying in amount
were made to them into contact. Besides the recommendations stated in the outset,
Mr. W. R. Ogilvie Grant, toward the expenses of a it is advised that special schools be created, e.g. for
collector for the British Museum in Central Africa; to perfumes, for colours, for soaps, where young chemists
Miss Alice L. Embleton, to enable her to continue her shall receive special training,
investigations in insect cytology; and to Mr. J. Stanley Now what can we in England learn from this Gardiner, toward the expenses of an expedition to the exhaustive discussion? We have many of the same Indian Ocean. defects; we suffer from the supremacy of the foreman; from the want of interest in industry of the
M. Radau has been appointed president, Vice-Admiral professors (although this is lessening); from the want
Fournier vice-president, and M. Bigourdan secretary of the of intelligence and scientific training of many manu
Bureau des Longitudes, Paris. facturers; and from the lack of special schools. In the old days of the Le Blanc soda process the works
M. F. J. P. Folie, honorary director of the Royal Observed as schools for young chemists; now things servatory at Brussels, died at Liège on January 29 in his are too specialised. In prosperous times, the manu
seventy-second year. facturer does not see the need of a chemist; when bad
WE regret to see the announcement of the death of Mr. times come, the luxury of a chemist cannot be afforded. What we want, what the Germans have got,
Robert Tucker, who was for thirty-five years (November, and what the Americans are rapidly getting, is a
1867-November, 1902) honorary secretary of the London race of scientifically trained manufacturers ; combina- Mathematical Society. tions of those engaged in the same industry, so that REUTER states that the Argentine sloop of war Uruguay, common laboratories of research may be kept running;
last reported at Punta Arenas, has returned to Buenos the replacement of rule-of-thumb foremen
by Ayres after her voyage in the Antarctic seas, having failed chemically trained submanagers of a better class, who have had something in the nature of a scientific
to obtain any news of the French Antarctic Expedition education, and who are imbued with the spirit of
under Dr. Charcot. research, leading them to keep their eyes open to It is proposed to establish an International Association of every possible improvement; this
, they would gain Anatomists at a meeting to be held at Geneva on August 7–10. first in actual educational establishments, under the guidance of capable professors, and later in the
The initiative has been taken by the anatomists of the Swiss special laboratories mentioned above; and lastly,
universities and has the support of the anatomical societies of thorough cooperation between teachers and manu
Germany, Great Britain, France, Italy, and America. facturers, so that problems capable of being solved in Tue Athenaeum announces the death, on January 29, of a university laboratory, and of scientific interest, should be transferred there, with the prospect of an
Prof. H. Landois, professor of zoology and director of the ultimate reward should they prove commercially Zoological Garden at Munster, in his seventieth year. Prof.
Der Mensch und das Tierreich, useful; and a liberal attitude of mind on the part of Landois was the author of manufacturers, so that they would take a little trouble
· Das Pflanzenreich," Das Mineralreich," and other to become acquainted with the progress of scientific works. chemistry, with the view of its utilisation for moneymaking purposes, and a readiness to consider any
CAPTAIN Jous Donnell Smith, of Baltimore, has given, problems suggested in the university laboratory, with says Science, to the Smithsonian Institution his private herthe view of their being worked out industrially. We barium consisting of more than 100,000 mounted sheets and are moving slowly towards attaining this ideal. Is it his botanical library of nearly 1600 bound volumes. Captain any comfort that France appears on her own show- Smith's collection is probably the largest private herbarium ing to be more backward ? Until the people con- in America, being very rich in tropical plants.
A TELEGRAM has been received at the office of the Scottish could ascertain, no cultures have been taken from phosNational Antarctic Expedition in Edinburgh announcing the phorescent meat, so that the bacteria by which the phenosafe arrival at Buenos Ayres of Mr. R. C. Mossman, who was menon is produced are still unknown. left in charge of the meteorological station at Scotia Bay, South Orkneys, last February. Mr. Mossman has spent two
The Times of February 9 devotes nearly a whole column continuous years in the Antarctic regions.
to the collection of giraffes in the Natural History Museum,
which has recently been enriched by examples of the KiliThe Treasury has agreed to make a contribution from
manjaro and Nigerian races. The article mentions the public funds toward the cost of establishing and maintaining
names of the various donors of the series in the national a national museum and a national library in Wales, on the
collection, which is altogether unrivalled. Brief reference condition that sufficient local support is forthcoming. The is made to the earlier specimens of giraffes brought to this Lord President of the Council has appointed a committee of
country, and to the history of the evolution of our know the Privy Council to consider and determine the place at
ledge of the local variations of the species. In conclusion, which each of the two institutions should be established and
special attention is directed to the importance of ascertainother matters relating to their foundation and future main
ing the reason for these and analogous colour-variations in tenance.
animals. M. JACQUES FAURE accomplished a successful voyage in a balloon from London to Paris on February 12. He left the
We have received copies of Nos. I to 3 of the fourth Crystal Palace at 6.45 p.m. on February it with M. Hubert
volume of the Goeldi Museum at Para, the first of which Latham, and they at once rose to a height of 500 metres,
is dated February, while the other two were published in which they kept until within sight of the sea, near Hastings.
The catalogue of Para mammals in They then descended until the guide-rope touched the water,
No. 1, by Messrs. Goeldi and Ilagmann, has been already when they travelled at the rate of 110 kilometres an hour.
noticed in our columns. Among the contents of Nos. At 10 p.m., seeing a lighthouse, they rose to 2000 metres,
2 and 3, mention may be made of a list of the mosquitoes and soon passed over Dieppe. The balloon descended at St.
of Para by Dr. Goeldi, with an account of the measures Denis, outside Paris, six hours after starting:
taken to exterminate Stegomyia fasciata and Culex fali
gans, and also of Dr. Hagmann's synopsis of the birds We regret to see the announcement of the death of Mr.
described by Spix, Wied, Burmeister, and Pelzeln. ConWilliam Sellers, the eminent mechanical engineer of Phila-siderable interest attaches to a paper on a disease which delphia. When president of the Franklin Institute in 1864, he
has recently affected domesticated animals in the Island of read a paper on screw-threads and nuts, and his form of Marajo. thread subsequently became the standard for the United States. He had many friends in this country. He was a
THE Scientific Imerican of January 21 contains an illusmember of the Institution of Civil Engineers, and as chair
trated account of the setting-up in the American Museum of man of the Philadelphia committee took an active part in the
Natural History, New York, of a skeleton of the dinosaur reception of the Iron and Steel Institute in its recent visit
Brontosaurus, obtained from the deposits near the famous to America.
Bone Cabin Quarry in 1898. The skeleton, which is the
largest and at the same time the least incomplete specimen The new Premier diamond-mine, situated about twenty of its kind, is being set up under the immediate direction miles W. W. of Pretoria, in the Transvaal, produced in of Prof. Osborn, and will be the only mounted example of January of this year an enormous diamond far surpassing in the bony framework of the brontosaur. Its estimated size the largest previously known. It measures 41 x 24 length sixty-two feet. Contrasted with that of Diploinches, is said to be of excellent quality, and weighs 3032 docus, the skeleton of Brontosaurus is characterised by carats (=676 grams, or nearly 1 lb. avoirdupois). The its relatively shorter body and limbs, and its more massive largest diamond previously discovered is the “Excelsior," general structure, the arrangements for lightening its which was found in 1893 in the Jagersfontein mine, Orange weight being more specialised than in any other member River Colony, and was valued at 1,000,000l. It was as large of the group. From the rough terminal surfaces of the as a hen's egg, weighed 9714 carats, and has been cut into
limb-bones it is inferred that the creature was largely nine brilliants. The world-famous Indian diamonds, the aquatic in its habits; and when sitting down it is sup “ Koh-i-noor” and “Great Mogul,” are considerably smaller posed that the weight of the body was partly supported than the “ Excelsior," and compared with this huge latest- by the extremities of the ischia and pubes, which may found diamond their size sinks into insignificance. An have been furnished with elastic pads of cartilage or account of the Premier mine was recently published in
connective tissue. the report for 1903 of the Geological Survey of the Transvaal
Tue “ One and All ” Annual, 1905, contains a number (NATURE, 1904, Ixxi., p. 55). The mine was opened up in
of articles connected with gardening, among which are 1902, since when it has produced a rich yield. It is of the same type as the Kimberley mines, but considerably larger
some practical notes on growing mushrooms, celery and
herbs. in size. The pipe containing the “ blue-ground
has an oval-shaped cross-section ; its longer diameter measures just The Japanese have a malted preparation, known as over half a mile, and its area is estimated at 350,000 square ame, which is a kind of candy or barley-sugar, made by yards. The pipe breaks through felsitic rocks, which were the action of barley malt on glutinous rice. Midzu-ame, earlier intruded in the quartzites of the Pretoria series. or liquefied ame, a syrup, forms the subject of an article
by Prof. F. H. Storer and Mr. G, W. Rolfe in vol. iii. “Notes on Phosphorescence in Plants and Animals " is part iv. of the Bulletin of the Bussey Institution, Harvard the title of a paper by Miss Bage in the l'ictorian
University. The preparation of ame dates back many Naturalist for November last, of which the author has centuries, and it is interesting to compare it with must, been good enough to send us a copy. Special attention
or the more modern wort. Prof. Storey also describes is directed the
of phosphorescence in some experiments made with pop-corn which bear cut butchers' meat, since a remarkable prevalence of this has the opinions of previous investigators that popping is been recently noticed in Melbourne. So far as the author caused by bursting of the starch grains.