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Life's history becomes in this way a history of conflict, investigation of Sir G. Stokes, or the formula
wave at a distant point, and which enables the not disappeared, but a struggle within the individual life
factory reasoning on which the principle of He occurs, which has never been visible in the history of any inferior order of life” (p. 55).
depends to be dispensed with. The diffraction
diverging from a focus is next discussed, and the ima Another aspect of the rational nature is thus of light diffracted by a circular aperture or disc * A defined :
tained in the particular case in which the post “The difference which severs man from the animals observation is the projection of the centre of the ze lies beyond the craving, and the cunning, and the con- or disc upon a screen ; but no mention is made of bu suming of what has been captured. We trace it in his
Lommel's able investigation in the general case a plans for the day, in his preparation of his weapons, in
excentric point. A few stock problems relating lost his survey of the heavens, in his taking of reckonings for direction. He deals with the relations of means to ends ;
diffraction of parallel rays are also discussed, but not he utilises past experience in his reflections over what is said about the resolving power of optical instras has happened ; he reaches general conclusions” (p. 270). / or the theory of gratings, including Prof. Rowland's
genious invention of concave gratings. Perhaps the finest passage in the book is at p. 287,
Chapter V. commences with the theories which bor tracing the moral element in the thought of all kinds of
been proposed to explain the photogyric properties : men and all diversities of race, as shown by the sense!
quartz and certain organic substances, and concludes 2 of wrong and injustice. We can only give here the
an account of some of the theories of ordinary dispers concluding lines :
This is followed by a long chapter which begias s " To this appeals the criminal in the heart of our surging | Fresnel's theory of double refraction, and then proced crowds, placed under arrest, if he should be condemned
to discuss the theories of Cauchy, Neumann, Sartal U on insufficient evidence. To this appeals every buyer in the market, defrauded by the thrusting of adulterated
Bousinesq. goods into his hands. And to this does every gentle one
In all these theories the ether is regarded as a make appeal, defrauded in ways still worse, by false ex æolotropic elastic medium, and in considering thes the pressions of love, from whose falseness recoils a blighted author is to be congratulated on haring sborn no se life, bearing through long and weary years witness to the
pathy with the small minority who regard the writing cruel wrong that has been done. Where, along the
down of equations as a foolish process; but alboczy devious paths in which man is found, is justice not honoured, at least by outcry against harsh wrongs?”.
during recent years much time has been spent in ea
rating such theories, it may be questioned wherber e There is much in this volume that will attract readers
majority of them have contributed any very substanı more disposed towards the esthetical and moral than to- |
addition to scientific knowledge. The theory of the wards the scientific aspects of evolution. Agreeing, as
pagation of waves in an æolotropic elastic medium sa the present writer does, with most of the conclusions of
rigorously investigated by Green as long ago as 18%. the author, he can but regret that they have not been set
and although a theory of this kind is useful in enable forth in a manner more likely to attract scientific the mind to form a mental representation of the medias readers.
A. R. W.
| ism which is required to produce double refraction, . well known that Green's theory, and all others of .
similar character, fail to furnish a satisfactory explasatze POINCARÉS “THÉORIE MATHÉMATIQUE
of this phenomenon. The principal defects of ad DE LA LUMIÈRE."
theories are, that although most of them lead to Frene's Théorie Mathématique de la Lumière. Par H. Poincaré, wave surface, or to one which is a very close approximaMembre de l'Institut. (Paris : G. Carré, 1889 and
tion thereto, they require us to suppose that the vibratons 1892.)
of polarized light are parallel instead of perpendicular THIS work consists of two volumes, the first of which the plane of polarization ; and they also fail to give refad
comprises a course of lectures delivered by the which explain crystalline reflection and refraction, mes author in 1887-1888, whilst the second contains a further certain additional assumptions of a very questionable course delivered in 1891-1892.
character are made. Probably it will not be thought u The first volume commences with a discussion of the exaggeration to say, that the only theory of elastic media constitution of the luminiserous ether, in which the latter which satisfactorily explains double refraction is the 00: is regarded as a system of discret molecules in stable which is due to the joint labours of Lord Rayleigh, Lord equilibrium under the action of molecular forces, and the Kelvin, and Mr. Glazebrook. author finally deduces equations of motion of the same At the commencement of Chapter VII., which des form as those which are furnished by the ordinary theory with reflection, the following statement is made isee of isotropic elastic media. He then adopts the hypo- | p. 320) :thesis, originally due to Lord Kelvin, that the velocity “La réflexion vitreuse a donné lieu à trois thérie of propagation of the longitudinal wave is practically également confirmé par l'expérience, ce sont celle de zero. The principle of Huygens is next dealt with, and Fresnel, celle de Neumann et MacCullagh et celle de this is followed by a chapter on diffraction. A com- | Cauchy." plete discussion of all the difficulties attending the reso | The theories of Neumann and MacCullagh depend lution of waves would carry us too far, but the author upon the hypothesis that the density of the ether is the does not appear to be acquainted with the masterly same in all media, and that it is the rigidity wid
ries ; and it is somewhat surprising that M. Poincaré | The next four chapters are devoted to the principle of es not appear to be aware of the investigations of Huygens and to diffraction; and in Chapter X. the author yrenz and Lord Rayleigh, who completely exploded this has discussed Von Helmholtz's theory of anomalous dispothesis twenty years ago by showing that it leads to persion. The advantage of theories of the class, to O polarizing angles. The weak point in the investiga- which that of Von Helmholtz belongs is, that they endeavons of most French mathematicians on the subject of our to account for dispersion and absorption by taking flection and refraction arises from the fact that, in con- | into account the mutual reaction between ether and quence of their not having made a careful study of matter, and show that when one or more of the free reen's papers and the subsequent developments by Lord | periods of the vibrations of the matter coincides with one ayleigh and Lord Kelvin, they are unable to deal satis- or more of the free periods of the rays of the spectrum, ctorily with the longitudinal or pressural wave. The absorption and anomalous dispersion will be produced. fficulties arising from the existence of these waves may | By the aid of this theory the absorption produced by so
got rid of either by assuming, as Green did, that the dium vapour may be accounted for, as well as the itio of the velocity of propagation of the longitudinal anomalous dispersion and selective reflection produced by ave to that of the transverse wave is very large, or, by fuchsine and other aniline dyes. The author has not, dopting Lord Kelvin's hypothesis, that the above ratio however, developed the consequences of this theory as
very small ; but it cannot be too emphatically stated far as might be done. sat the existence of such waves must not be disregarded, It is not unnatural that M. Poincaré should have given nd that any attempt to ignore them will inevitably end special prominence to the writings of his own country1 failure.
men ; his treatise would, however, have been much imThis chapter concludes with a brief account of metallic proved had he not confined himself so exclusively to the eflection, in which the author has adopted the equations writings of French mathematicians, but had given a f motion given by Voigt. The chief difficulty in trying fuller account of the work done by mathematicians of o explain metallic reflection, by the introduction of a other nationalities.
A. B. BASSET. iscous term into the equations of motion, is due to the fact hat Eisenlohr has shown that for certain metals the pseudo-refractive index is a complex quantity whose real
THE MOTHS OF INDIA. part is negative.
Turning now to Volume 11., which consists of a further | The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and course of lectures delivered in 1891-1892, we find that it
Burma. Published under the authority of the Secretary commences with the theory of isotropic elastic media in
of State for India in Council. Edited by W. F. its ordinary form. Next follows a chapter on the electro
Blanford. “Moths.” Vol. i. By G. F. Hampson. magnetic theory, in which the author confines himself to
(London: Taylor and Francis, 1892.) the case of an isotropic medium, and has given no ac M R. HAMPSON is already favourably known to count of the investigations of Glazebrook on crystalline 1 entomologists by his work on the “ Lepidoptera reflection and refraction, in which it is shown that the Heterocera of the Nilgiri District,” which forms Part viii. intensities of the reflected and refracted waves satisfy of the series of " Illustrations of typical specimens of Lepithe same equations as those deduced many years pre- / doptera Heterocera in the collection of the British viously by MacCullagh from an erroneous theory, but Museum." In the work before us he has undertaken a far which nevertheless explain the facts in a fairly satisfac- | more important task; nothing less than a descriptive tory manner. M. Poincaré assumes that the vector handbook of the moths of India, which, when complete, potential satisfies the solenoidal condition ; but although will prove as useful to Indian entomologists as the wellthe employment of the vector potential is valuable as a known work on the butterflies of India by Marshall and mathematical artifice, its use requires extreme care, in- De Nicéville. asmuch as it contains an undetermined quantity; and I! Hitherto the available information on the moths of believe it can be proved that in certain cases the India has been scattered over a great variety of books solenoidal condition is not satisfied. In the electro. and periodicals, far too numerous and costly to be easily magnetic theory of light this difficulty can always be available out of London or Calcutta, and extremely diffievaded by eliminating the vector potential from the cult to use satisfactorily, even if accessible. But Mr. equations, which is the preferable course to pursue. Hampson has been given the fullest facilities for examining
In Chapter V., after discussing ordinary reflection and all the principal public and private collections of Indian refraction, the author attempts to construct an electro- | moths, from that of the British Museum downwards, magnetic theory of metallic reflection and refraction by and has also made free use of the libraries of the British taking into account the conductivity. This theory leads Museum at South Kensington, which now contain the to Cauchy's formulæ, but requires that the real part of finest series of entomological books in the world ; and the the pseudo-refractive index should be positive, whereas result is a work which can hardly fail to give an Eisenloor has shown that for certain metals these formulæ enormous impetus to the collection and study of Indian cannot be reconciled with experiment unless the real part moths. is negative. In the case of steel this quantity is positive Much attention has been paid to the classification of throughout the whole range of the visible spectrum ; but moths, and the introductory pages are occupied with as thin films of iron, when magnetized, exhibit anomalous details of structure, illustrated by woodcuts of parts of dispersion, it is doubtful whether this hypothesis is satis- the head, antennæ, legs, and neuration. I his is followed factory even in the case of steel or iron.
| by a genetic tree of the families of moths, and by a tabular key based chiefly on neuration and antennæ.
OUR BOOK SHELF. Mr. Hampson admits thirty-four families of Indian moths,
| The Year-Book of Science (for 1892). Edited by FE of which the first twenty-three, including 1158 species,
G. Bonney, D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. (London: are dealt with in the volume before us. The earlier and Co., 1893.) families of moths are, however, much less numerous in
| ALL interested in scientific progress will welco species than the later ones, and it must not be supposed appearance of the second volume of this useful year-> that Mr. Hampson has dealt with anything like half the The staff of contributors includes such names a Indian species in his first volume, which comprises the
Ramsay, Prof. Seeley, Mr. Botting Hemsley, &c, z: series of families usually classed under Sphinges and
accuracy of the summaries of the year's develope
may therefore be thoroughly relied upon. The pa Bombyces, extending, according to the author's classifica
the volume follows closely on the lines of its predeces tion, from Saturniida to Hypsida. The important but it has been extended so as to include geograd Bombycide families, Arctiida, Agaristidæ, and Uraniida, and anthropological matters, and zoology has rez are, however, relegated to the second volume, while
more complete treatment. If one may judge of the several families of more or less doubtful position find a
in different departments of science by the space re place in vol. i., such as the Cymatophorida, Thyridida,
for the account of their progress, electricity and a
chemistry would appear to take the lead. As is 21 Sesiida, and Tinageriida. We observe that Mr.
volume, no attempt has been made to present a com Hampson closes the series of moths with the Tineide,
catalogue of papers. The object has been simply tas Pterophorida, and Alucitida, and in this adopts the the memoirs of exceptional interest ; and so fu s usual classification, though in the main he has struck out
have been able to judge, the selections have been judo an entirely new classification of his own, and the very
An excellent index of subjects, and one of autha.
plete what will no doubt be found a very useful toc first innovation which meets the eye is the novelty of commencing the moths with the Saturniidæ.
Treatise on Thermodynamics. By Peter Alexander. We hope that Mr. Hampson will take an opportunity Pp. xii, 203. (Longmans, Green, and Co., Inc." of discussing the various systems of classification of This is in many respects a singular work. Whole moths which have been proposed by Guenée, Herrich
we may almost say whole sheets, are devoted -- 1 Schäffer, Plötz, and other entomologists, not forgetting
multiplication of elaborate proofs of intrinsicalls
theorems for which a few lines would be ample alone the strange system proposed by Zebrawski, in his work
while some of the real difficulties of the subject 2:1 on the Lepidoptera of Cracow, in which the butterflies lightly touched on. The other special characters_ are placed in the middle instead of the beginning of the far as we have seen, are three in number. First, mis series of Lepidoptera. Such a discussion would be un prominent, the extraordinary proportion of fursa suitable in the present work, but if published elsewhere
text, which gives the whole the look of a trez
Partial Differential Coefficients rather than on a tra might be very useful.
of Physics. Second, the fearful and wonderful color Long descriptions of genera and species in a work of
of names for special cycles, e.g. Isothermet this character would have been out of place, and we are Isobarymegacycle, Isenergentropicycle, &c. Foi glad to find that they have been avoided. Each family expressions of doubt or hesitancy with which mit or subfamily is succinctly characterised, and usually
universally recognised as valid, are introduced by illustrated by a figure of the larva. This is followed by
first and second of these characteristics the autre
transcends the results of the licence willingly allure a tabular key to the genera, and then by a notice of the
pioneers like Clausius and Rankine. But there genera and species. The notice of each genus con
been (at least in great part) long since discarded. sists of synonymy, type, range, and a brief indi never be reintroduced. The third characteristic is cation of the principal characters. That of the species the least, not precisely one to be desiderated in a includes synonymy, description, including both sexes, book, where we naturally expect to find some slights
of “ Sir Oracle." and transformations when necessary, range and expanse. An excellent woodcut is usually given of one represen Mediæval Lore : an Epitome of the Science, Ger tative of each genus, showing the wings and body on
Animal and Plant Folk-Lore and Myth of the one side, and the neuration on the other, extra figures
Ages. Being Classified Gleanings from the Ess
pædia of Bartholomew Anglicus on the Proes of antennæ and legs being sometimes added.
of Things. Edited by Robert Steele. No book, however useful or carefully compiled, can be
Elliot Stock, 1893.) free from errors, but these cannot be detected at a glance,
| The original work of which parts are translatec and the only technical mistake of importance which we
present volume, may be said to have a place have noticed in turning over Mr. Hampson's work is in the history of European literature. It was ve that the broad-bordered Australian Macroglossum kingii, the thirteenth century, and the Latin text was soon Macl., is included among the synonyms of the narrow appreciated, while in the course of the fourtees bordered Cephonodes hylas, Linn.
tury it was translated into French, Spanish, Dat
English. The book is full of interest, for it pre Much, no doubt, remains to be said about Mr. Hamp
summary of all that was known in the Middle son's classification, his use of generic names, and his about man and the world. The change which has placing together insects regarded as distinct by other gradually effected by the use of modern scientific authors as synonyms. But these are all points admitting is, of course, incalculable ; but some readers of great difference of opinion, and we do not propose to
bably be surprised to find to how large an extes discuss them further in the present notice.
tholomew mingles the results of shrewd and We should add that various new families, besides many
observation with quaint fancies and unverified:
The present volume consists of selections ** new genera and species, are described by Mr. Hampson edition of Berthelet, 1535; and the good style for the first time.
W. F. K. | translator adds greatly to the charm of the
losophy and science. Mr. Steele has done his work place. A natural selection would thus be effected. In every I much tact and care, and an interesting preface is
succeeding generation (bred in the dark place) this would be tributed by Mr. William Morris.
the case, and even those with weak but still seeing eyes would
in the course of time escape, until only a pure race of eyeless or tronomy for Every-day Readers. By B. J. Hopkins, blind animals would be left in the cavern or deep sea.” F.R.A.S. (London : George Philip and Son, 1893.) My own position in regard to the hypothesis of the transmisis is a little book which aims at explaining in "as
sion of acquired characters remains what it was ten years ago,
viz. that in the absence of observed instances of this transmission curate and interesting a manner as possible such of the
and in the presence of repeated observation that particular anomena of the heavens as should be known to every acquired characters are not transmitied, I do not consider it elligent person." It consists of six chapters dealing legitimate to assume a transmission of acquired characters as the pectively with day and night, the phases of the moon, explanation of any given case, such, for instance, as that of the e tides, the seasons, eclipses, meteors, shooting stars, blind cave-animals. I am confirmed in this attitude by the fact
d comets. Descriptive astronomy is not touched upon, that a little consideration has enabled me and others to explain it there is an introductory chapter giving a general
satisfactorily, by reference to no hypothetical causes, but to the rvey of the solar system and its dimensions. The book
admitted and demonstrable facts of “congenital variation" 15 been very carefully written, and the scientific ex
and “natural selection,” instances brought forward as “only anations are much relieved by interesting references to
to be explained on the assumption of the truth of Lamarck's le history of the subject. The author has succeeded in
On the other hand, I have always considered that there is not ving very clear and concise accounts of the every day
sufficient ground for asserting that a transmission of acquired henomena with which the book specially deals, and it
characters can not take place. The important question is still as rems well adapted to awaken a desire for more in the
it was five years ago, “ Does it take place?”. lass of readers to whom he more particularly appeals. Oxford, February 14.
E. RAY LANKESTER. biography of the author--who is described as "the vorking-man scientist "-is also included.
Glacier Action. - - - - - -
- I HAVE read with great interest and pleasure the short review
in your paper of last week by Prof. Bonney, giving a summary LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.
of ihe results of a survey of the French freshwater lakes, and in
dicating as the most probable conclusion that they cannot be The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions ex- |
accounied sor on the theory of the late Sir A. Ramsay, by the pressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake
digging out power of glaciers. to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected
Living as I do in a highly glaciated country, and in a country manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE.
also full of lakes, both fresh and salt, I have never believed in No notice is taken of anonymous communications. ]
that theory. Lakes seem to me to be due to the same causes Blind Animals in Caves.
which have produced the glens and hollows in which they lie,
and these causes cannot be identified with glacier action alone. IN an article in the current number of the Contemporary | The theory of Ramsay attributes to glacier action powers and Rainw Mr. Herbert Spencer discusses the “familiar instance" effects which have never been proved to belong to them. of blind animals in caves as bearing upon the hypothesis of Glaciers do not dig out. They rub down-abrade—and scoop, the transmission of acquired characters. Mr. Spencer is not
when they are moving down inclined planes at angles more or satisfied with the explanation of the blindness of these cave
less steep. But when they reach level ground they do not dig ; animals offered by Weismann, who endeavours to account for they rest upon the level surfaces, and when pressed from behind them by two conditions recognised as operating in regard to they now over it. But I have never seen any proof that they other cases by Darwin, viz. cessation of selection and can act like a ploughshare, or rather like one of the new digging parsimony of growth ("* Origin of Species," sixth edition, machines. p. 118), of which the former author has treated under In so far as all existing glens may have been formerly occupied the name Panayxia. Mr. Spencer shows that the saving of by glaciers, their depths must have been increased by glacier ponderable material in the suppression of an eye is but a small
action, on the supposition that they were tilted, or upraised at economy: he loses sight of the fact, however, that possibly, or
some angle required for this form of true glacier action. On this even probably, the saving to the organism in the reduction of an supposition, indeed, lake basins may be said to be partly due to eye 10 a rudimentary state is not to be measured by mere bulk, glaciers. But then this supposition involves and depends upon but by the non-expenditure of special materials and special The assumption that earth movements have made the lake basins activities which are concerned in the production of an organ so
what they now are-hollows in a comparative level. peculiar and elaborate as is the vertebrate eye.
Like all other general theories in the history of geology, the That, however, to which I wish here to draw the attention of Mr. " glacial theory" seems to me to have been ridden to the death, Spencer and his readers is this :-Mr. Spencer appears to think I and I have been long waiting for some signs of that reaction or that if he disposes of Weismann's explanation of the blindness
correction which is still much needed. I hold that in this country of cave-animals according to " Panmyxia"-there remains there is not only no evidence of " ice sheets" overriding all the only the explanation by "transmission of acquired characters"
hills, but the strongest evidence against such sheets. Our glens in the field. lle appears not to be acquainted with the explana. had true glaciers in abundance, no doubt, and they have tion which I have offered of the blindness of cave-animals. It left their tool-marks very distinctly. But those marks are quite is closely similar to that given by Darwin of the occurrence of inconsistent with one universal ice-cap or ice-sheet over all the wingless insects on oceanic islands. My explanation consists in land.
ARGYLL. an application to the case in hand of Darwin's principle of
Inveraray, February 16. "* natural selection." I published it some years ago in my article "Zoology" in the "Encycl. Britannica,'' reprinted in 1890 in a
Dr. Joule's Thermometers. volume of essays, bearing the title “The Advancement of Science." My suggestion was (and is) as follows, and I should Every one will, I am sure, be glad to know that Dr. Joule's like to see what Mr. Spencer has to say to it :-"This instance thermometers are under investigation by Prof. Schuster. (that of the blind cave animals) can," I wrote in the article above. It is unfortunate that Joule does not give the actual readings named, " be fully explained by natural selection acting on con of the freezing point, but if the comparison quoted by genital fortuitous variations. Many animals are thus born with | Rowland was made in either 1879 or 1890 it may be that he distorted or defective eyes whose parents have not had their referred to the reading of November, 1879, when the total rise eyes submitted to any peculiar conditions. Supposing a number of the zero point was 12'92 scale divisions. In that case the of some species of Arthropod or Fish to be swept into a cavern original reading in April, 1844, would be 9.70 ; at any rate this Of to be carried from less to greater depths in the sea, those in number cannot be very far from the truth. dividuals with perfect eyes would follow the glimmer of light The temporary changes of zero point alluded to by Prof. and eventually escape to the outer air or the shallower depths, Schuster certainly complicate the matter, but from the numbers leaving behind those with imperfect eyes to breed in the dark given it would appear that since 1879 or 1880 there has been a
further secular rise of from 0:38 to 0.89 of a scale division. Nothing is said in Joule's paper about the temperatures at which the thermometers had been kept before the readings of the freezing point were taken, but as the later observations--and most of the earlier ones—were made in the winter months, it may perhaps be assumed that the temperatures were nearer 7° than 30°, and that the actual reading on the scale last winter should be taken as nearer 23:51 than 23.00. If this is so the total rise of the zero point last winter would be nearer 13.81 than 13:30.
Prof. Schuster states that “with properly annealed thermometers the secular changes are much smaller than the temporary ones," and that is no doubt true for observations extending over a limited time and with such comparatively large variations of temperature as from 7° to 30°. It may be pointed out, however, that the secular rise since 1879 or 1880 is probably greater than the maximum temporary change recorded by Prof. Schuster, and of course the total secular rise is enormously greater.
It may be true that the secular changes of a thermometer gradually vanish, but it must, I think, be conceded, that in the case of Dr. Joule's thermometer it will be a long time before absolute constancy is attained. There can be no doubt that even now, nearly sorty-nine years alter the first reading was taken, the zero point is still rising, and it does not appear to me to be very improbable that during the next fifty years there may be a further rise of two scale divisions, the amount calculated from the purely empirical formula which I have suggested.
SYDNEY YOUNG. University College, Bristol, February 20.
Colonial Meteorology. ON p. 363 of your last number your reviewer of the "Tea of ihe Imperial Institute,” after remarking that "clio tainly deserves better treatment," continues :
"We do not think space would be wasted in giving beer monthly temperatures acd rainfall for the average year two extreme years, at a few representative stations in the colonies. This information cannot indeed be found na isting books, but must be worked out from original which exist abundantly, and are rarely made available to pred workers.”
I am afraid that the reviewer does not always read NA for you, sir, have on several occasions noticed my effort ! direction, efforts which have gone on uninterruptedly to years. As, now that you have taken the matter up, 1 improbable that some of the funds lavished on the lang Institute may be devoted to the subject, and my small tion be swamped or superseded, I hope that you will, in to the directors of the various Colonial observatories we helped me for so many years, and as some consolation entire ignorement of our organisation by your revieve, me to give its history in the fewest words possible.
In 1873 I determined to try to publish monthly a table the principal climatic data for each synchronous month as spread stations over the entire British Empire. The leading was identity, so as to ensure comparability. I therefore some blank forms and sent them with a circular letter o twenty of our leading Colonial meteorologists. Every one out exception promised to helf, and it says moch torch climate to add ihat during the subsequent twenty years at than five or six of my original correspondents have away.
During the period occupied in the transit of my request the replies thereto, I wrote a series of short articles por the leading features, and as far as practicable the mean for the various stations, so that when we began publisko monthly values, the departures from the mean could be recy These articles and the tables themselves from 1974 to 18812 in The Colonies (subsequently The Colonies and India, in 1882 that paper passed into other hands, the poor declined to publish the tables, and I began to insert the Meteorological Magazine, where they have appeared It month by month for the subsequent thirteen years. At de of each year an extra table is given with a summary of the for the year, and NATURE has often done me the bar quoting portions of these summaries.
I enclose copy of our last table, and though I kdor 11 reproduce it would be to make a somewhat large deman: your space, I feel that the work (wholly unpaid, bet membered) of my Colonial friends during these past twenye claims some consideration and some recognition. Yos by the signatures that the authorities are the highest stan
G. J. STY 62, Camden Square, N.W., February 17.
Foraminifer or Sponge ? Under the above heading in last week's NATURE Dr. Hanitsch briefly draws our attention to Mr. A. Goës' report on the deep sea organisms procured by Prof. Agassiz in the American tropical Pacific, which he describes as Arenaceous Foraminisera, with the name Neusina Agassizi.
As it was from me that Dr. Hanitsch received the specimens he describes, which I had after a personal conversation on the matter sent him, for his opinion as to their relation to true sponges, I venture to send some further observations on these interesting forms.
Dr. Hanitsch is, I believe, quite right in referring Mr. Goës' Neusina to Prof. Haeckel's Stannophyllum zonarium, as described in his report on the Challenger deep-sea Keratosa. But while admitting my admiration of Prof. Haeckel's wonderful production on the Challenger specimens, I do not agree with him as to their being true Keratose sponges.
My conclusion is based upon the examination of nearly the whole Challenger collection, and in not one species could I find the slightest trace of any of the flagellated chambers characteristic of sponges.
Prof. Haeckel accounts for the absence of this important feature through the bad preservation of the specimens. Yet he describes the most delicaie parts of a commensal Hydroid in full, and was able to observe amoboidal cells, and the granulated sarcode bodies peculiar to all bottom living Foraminisera.
If, however, the forms described by Prof. Haeckel prove after all to be true Keratose sponges, the present state of our knowledge does not justify their separation from such recognised genera of Foraminisera, as Masonella, and Syringammina of the late Dr. G. Brady ; Technitella, Haliphysema, and Marsipella of Canon Norman ; or Hyperammina palmiformis, described by myself from the Faroe Channel, all which forms have the power of forming siliceous and chitinous skeletons.
Without going into further detail here it will be readily understood that I quite agree with Mr. Goës in piacing these organisms among the Foraminifera, although it would have been better had he given us a clearer and more detailed description of his Neusina.
I had hoped to have published my personal observations on these most interesting organisms, but circumstances have prevented me doing so up to the present.
I for one would be glad if Dr. Hanitsch would give his opinion as to their supposed sponge structure, which he has not done in his previous letter.
F. G. PEARCEY, Late of the Challenger Expedition and Commission. Owens College Museum, Manchester.
Ozone. With reference to a paragraph in NATURE, PA on observations of ozone in the atmosphere, and the pare observers and records, I may be allowed to state that! collected sets in the North Atlantic and Pacific Ocean Mediterranean. These have been taken by officers of the Navy and mercantile marine at sea, and some of the have been tabulated, and may be communicated to some in due course. Moffatt's papers, made by Negretti and 2 have been used throughout, so the observations are all and comparable.
W. G. ELLER Edinburgh, February 19.
LION-TIGER AND TIGER-LION HYBRIE THE Council of the Royal Zoological Socer
Ireland entertain some hope that it will be to produce in their Gardens examples of hybr cross-breeds between the two largest species of namely, the lion and tiger.
Ihat such hybrids have been produced is a su historical record, and as the writer is particularly