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ested in the success of the experiment now in progress in Accordingly, it seems that besides the definitely the Dublin Gardens, where over one hundred lion cubs | attested births of the years 1824 and 1827, there were have been successfully reared, he thinks it desirable to also, probably, some others. One of the accounts states Tecord all the details which he has been able to collect that there is no great difficulty in promoting the union of on the subject

the two species. So far as can be ascertained the only lion-tiger cubs, Besides the cub already referred to as having been preas they have been called, which were ever produced be sented to the British Museum by J. Atkins, I have also longed to several distinct litters by different parents, been shown by Dr. Günther unmounted skins of two reperhaps, but in the same menagerie-that of F. Atkins, puted hybrid lion-tiger cubs, which are said in Dr. Gray's of Windsor.

list to have been purchased from a dealer named Mathur, The father of the first litter of these cubs was a lion in 1842. They cannot, I think, have survived more than bred in Atkins's menagerie, the head-quarters of which two or three days after birth, and their markings are too were at Windsor. The mother was an imported tigress. indistinct to justify any special description, particularly as From Griffith's account (" Animal Kingdom," vol. ii. their parentage is not more definitely attested. But it is P. 448, 1827) it would seem that the lion and tigress of some importance to place on record here what is said were about two years together, in the same cage, before as to the markings of the cubs first referred to. The any issue appeared. The first litter, consisting of three specimens in the British and the Edinburgh Museums cubs, was born at Windsor on October 17, 1824- are both somewhat faded. In Gray's list the former is being the result of a particular intercourse which lasted thus described : “Hybrid cub between lion and tigress ; for ten or twelve days in the beginning of the previous yellow ; back slightly waved ; limbs and tail banded with July. The cubs were shortly afterwards exhibited to his | black." Majesty, who, according to the showman's own handbill Sir William Jardine merely says the general colour was

-a copy of which has been lent to me by Dr. William not so bright as that of the tiger, and the transverse Frazer-christened them lion-tigers. The lion died six bands were more obscure. weeks afterwards, and the cubs, as related by Griffith, Griffith describes the cubs he figured as follows:were fostered by several bitches and a goat, and it was “ Our mules, in common with ordinary lions, were born expected would attain to maturity ; but although there is without any traces of a mane, or of a tuft at the end of the no clear intimation as to the exact date when this was tail. Their fur in general was rather woolly ; the external written, the figures of the cubs accompanying the account ear was pendant towards the extremity; the nails were are said to represent them at the age of only about three constantly out, and not cased in the sheath, and in these months. It is stated by one writer, however, that they particulars they agreed with the common cubs of lions. did not attain to maturity (English Cyclopædia Nat. Their colour was dirty yellow or blanket colour : but from Hist," vol. ii. p. 763, art. " Felidæ," 1854).

the nose over the head, along the back and upper side of The next litter was born at Edinburgh on December the tail the colour was much darker, and on these parts 31, 1827, according to Atkins's showbill and Sir William the transverse stripes were stronger, and the forehead was Jardine's works. There were two cubs, and it would covered with obscure spots, slighter indications of which seem that they were exhibited together with, and there- | also appeared on other parts of the body. The shape of fore probably reared by, the mother, in the same den ; the head, as appears by the figures, is assimilated to that but whether she were the same tigress as the mother of of the father's (the lion); the superfineness of the body on the previous litter is not clear.

the other hand is like that of the tigress” (p. 449). They were seen by Sir William Jardine in September, Prof. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S., keeper of the natural 1828, and his figures may have been taken from them ; but history division of the Edinburgh Museum, has kindly had it has some resemblance in details, though not in general a photograph taken of the specimen above referred to pose, to the figures published by Griffith of the 1824 prepared for me, and the transverse markings are dislitter. It would seem that Sir William was under the tinctly visible in this picture. impression that it was these very cubs which were sub- I am tempted to conclude this record with an extract sequently exhibited together with their parents in the from Atkins's somewhat quaintly-expressed handbill, same cage in the autumn of 1829. But there is a difficulty which does not bear any date, but probably belonged to in accepting this conclusion, because the stuffed specimens the year 1828. The greater part of the bill consists of a of these two cubs still exist-one in the British Museum long poetical description of the family with “a tigress (Natural History) and the other in the Science and Art their dam, and a lion their sire," and of the numerous Museum, Edinburgh. I have recently had opportunities distinguished persons who had paid them a visit. The of examining both, and I should be inclined to think that following prose portion will probably be sufficient to the cubs were not more than about nine or ten months extract from what is possibly one of few still existing old when they died. So that either the cubs seen in 1829 copies of the handbill. were born subsequently to December 31, 1827, or the stuffed cubs just relerred to must have been born previous

“ATKIN'S IMMENSE MENAGERIE. to that date. That the cub in the British Museum was presented by J. Atkins, of Windsor, is attested by Dr.

“WONDERFUL PHENOMENON IN NATURE. Gray's “Old List," page 40, which, through the courtesy of Dr. Günther, I have been able to consult.

The singular, and hitherto deemed impossible, occurThat the specimen in Edinburgh was one of those born

rence of Lion and Tigress in one den. in 1827, and figured by Sir William Jardine, is, indeed, "Cohabiting and producing young, again took place in stated in the "English Cyclopædia," which adds that this menagerie, on the 31st of December, 1827, at the the cubs of that litter died young. Hence, it seems most City of Edinburgh, when the royal tigress brought forth probable that the cubs seen in the autumn of 1829 two fine cubs!! And they are now to be seen in the belonged to a subsequent litter, as has been suggested same den with their sire and dam. The first litter of above. Further, Mr. J. G. Robertson, formerly of these extraordinary animals were presented to our most Kilkenny, has informed me that he saw a lion, tigress, gracious Sovereign, when he was pleased to express conand their thrce hybrid cubs in one cage in Kilkenny, siderable gratification, and to call them lion-tigers, than where they were brought by a showman about the year which a more appropriate name could not have been 1832. They were the sole stock of the show.

given. The great interest the lion and tigress have i "The Menageries, Quadrupeds," Sir William Jardine (and edition),

excited is unprecedented; they are a source of irresistible vol. i. pp. 191, 193. 1830.

attraction, especially as it is the only instance of the kind

ever known of animals so directly opposite in their dis The method of connecting the quadrants to the
positions forming an attachment of such singular nature. equal halves of a water battery, so that they might an
Their beautiful and interesting progeny are most admir be at equal opposite potentials, and of attaching
able productions of nature. The group is truly pleasing needle to the collector, was after many trials ader
and astonishing, and must be witnessed to form an ade | partly because higher insulation was thus possible,
quate idea of them. The remarkable instances of sub in order to get a straight line law. Deviation from
dued temper and association of animals to permit the due to what is called the “electric directing compla
keeper to enter their den, and to introduce their perfor- | not overlooked, but by a stiff suspension and small
mance to the spectators, is the greatest phenomenon in it is minimised.
natural history."

An interesting chapter is that on “collectors."
V. BALL. water-dropper was mostly used, but its freezing is an

interrupt the record. “Sergeant Morrill experiment OBSERVATIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC

on a special flame collector," supplied with gas ata

stant pressure and arranged so that wind could not ELECTRICITY IN AMERICA.

tinguish it, and “before the termination of the THE meteorological official of the United States obtained very satisfactory results." But in order to get

1 known as "The Chief Signal Officer” has sanctioned uniformity between different stations he also design the publication of this voluminous report of 320 quarto mechanical collector-a clockwork machine with or pages, embodying the result of a widespread photo- | ing arm and intermittent contacts, which is vir graphic record and direct reading of atmospheric electro gigantic replenisher, utilising the atmospheric per meters carried out under the auspices of the United States as an inductor, and thereby feeding the electromete Government during the years 1884 to 1888, with the the same potential. It seems to be as quick in repe immediately utilitarian object of ascertaining how far it as a water-dropper (an important point, as some was possible to use electrical indication in weather pre fluctuations of potential are very rapid), but“ as it diction. As Mr. Mendenhall says, "No studies or inves only completed towards the end of the period of den tigations which did not bear upon this question were tion nothing very definite can be said of its performan [considered] proper or allowable.”

An illustration of the ingenious device is given in Although thus limited in scope the actual observations made and here recorded can hardly fail to be of service

Observations. to future investigators into this obscure subject.

Preliminary records are given showing the cries The report begins with a historical introduction, in at a roof station and a balcony station, also at CE which it is admitted that electricity was first purposely observatories in the same town. Some also from the drawn from the clouds in France by Buffon and of the Washington Monument, which naturally stem D'Alibard about a month before Franklin tried his already greater potential and changes than the instruments projected experiment ; and that de Saussure was one of Signal Office. the first to obtain fairly quantitative results and to detect There are plotted a number of zigzags obtained a diurnal period.

the different stations about the States, and very at Volta "hit upon the capital device of a burning match” cated and entangled the record is. None of the sa to replace the previous feeble collecting devices such as a show any agreement; and, particularly at Ithaca, the bullet and wire shot up into the air. But nothing really | trometers seem usually to have been in a wildly er exact and continuous was done "until Sir W. Thomson state. attacked the problem." He introduced the quadrant elec But during an Aurora on May 20, 1888, they were trometer and the water-dropper, which have been the larly quiet, and the remark is made : “It will be oder universal recording instruments ever since.

that the indications of the electrometer were In fact "the work of Palmieri on Mount Vesuvius | during the day and night, and that no unusual flucts constitutes perhaps the only extensive series of observa

occurred.” tions in which instruments founded on the original design The atmospheric potential is usually positive, of Sir W. Thomson have not been used."

has been often thought that a change to negative In the States the first energetic and influential mover ised bad weather. Certainly this does frequently in the direction of a serious record appears to have been sufficiently often to make it worth while spect Prof. Cleveland Abbé, who got himself authorised in examine this point ; and several curve charts are gite 1880 by the Chief Signal officer to consult with Prof. Row show that “negative electricity in clear weathe: land on the subject, and afterwards with Prof. Trowbridge, observed at most if not all of the Signal Service Size and to make arrangements for a series of effective obser- / on numerous occasions during the progress of the ri vations. Under the auspices of these gentlemen a staff in many cases precipitation occurred at points 10! of observers were trained and suitable instruments miles distant, but in others clear weather prevailed a obtained, tested, and improved. Various collectors were almost the entire country. A number of instand tested, and in 1883 a photographic registration appara- | negative potential during clear weather occurred at tus of M. Mascart was put into operation. In 1884 Mr. where careful attention was given to the matter of sal Mendenhall“ was appointed to assume the direction of observation by Mr. Schultze. the work as chief of the physical laboratory and instrument division of the office in Washington." Stations

Effect of Dust, Haze, Fog". were established in Washington, Baltimore, Boston, New

“The effect of dust, haze, smoke, &c., in prodai Haven, Ithaca, and Ohio.

negative potential has been noticed by more that i Much work was done in connection with electrometers observer. [Query whether the negative potential as by McAdie and McRae, but this is incorporated in the ever produced or permitted the haze.-0. J. L. 56 article “ Electrometer” of the “Ency. Britt."

instances of the action of clouds of dust were Dott The instrument ultimately adopted was a quadrant Sergeant Morrill at Boston. On March 7, 1882. *' electrometer of the Mascart pattern with special improve afternoon the potential was observed to fall raped, ments, and was constructed by the Société Génevoise. A - go to – 270 upon the rising of an especially heart picture of it is given.

of dust, and similar phenomena were observe

April 7." "A fall of potential could be certainly pre 1“Report of Studies of Atmospheric Electricity." By T. C. Mendenhall. Extract from Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, 1889.

when a dust cloud was seen rising. On other dand (Washington.)

high winds and dust clouds prevailed negative p." s observed. A figure is given of an observation at | “Although these records are somewhat unsatisfactory rre Haute, Ind., on a day when a fog formed after sun- | as far as throwing any light upon the nature of thunder, and the potential then rapidly fell from + 1000 to storms, it must not be forgotten that with a single 200 volt.." " The same phenomenon was frequently exception [two stations at Washington] none of these served during the autumn when the formation of a haze storms have influenced more than one station. The

fog just as the sun was setting was a common complete investigation of a storm would demand a large currence."

number of observing stations relatively near to each The observer at Terre Haute (Sergeant McRae) wisely other, by means of which a full history of the potential ade special observations as to the possible effect of changes about and in all parts of the storm could be comotives on a railway a quarter of a mile distant ; ) obtained. it, so far as the recods show, the passage of a train, "Such an examination might result in bringing order Den not happening to coincide with a fog formation, and system out of what seems at present little less than d not seem to disturb the curves.


Then follow many specimens of the actual photographic Clouds and Wind.

record at Baltimore on days when lightning occurred, • The direct action of a cloud or group of clouds in and finally a mass of tables embodying abstracts of roducing a fall of potential was often observed." results at the different stations, and also some taken at 'or instance the following at Boston: -“In the Kew and Greenwich in England; though at both of aorning of January 3, 1888, the potential had been these institutions the scale used appears to be arbitrary. teadily positive. At 11.30 it was + 32 volts, from which fell steadily at the approach toward the zenith of a

General Conclusions. imall cumulus cloud, reaching - 21 volts. As the cloud Among the conclusions the following may be noted : yassed away the potential rose to +6, again falling to "Instruments similar in every respect, separated by a - 31 as a large mass of cumulus clouds approached. distance of a hundred meters may give very dissimilar Later the sky became overcast, and the potential became indications.” (Not merely, it is explained, as regards steadily negative.

absolute values only, which may be expected to disagree, “On June 7, at 5.30 p.m., the potential fell from + 43 but as regards fluctuations also.) “ Observers were into - 173, and then rose slowly to its former value. The structed to study the appearance of negative electricity rise and fall occupied fifteen minutes, and coincided with before and after and during precipitations, and at one the appearance over the buildings to the west of a fleecy time the hope was indulged in by the writer, as well as cirro-stratus cloud and its disappearance over the institute by several of the observers, that this phenomenon might building in which the electrometer was located.

afford great assistance in the prediction of local storms, "Again, on June 9 the potential was positive all day up rains, snows, &c., which offer so much difficulty in to 5 p.m. At that hour it fell from +73 to - 113, then forecasting by present methods. rising to +52. The sky was nearly free from clouds, and “Further observation and investigation, however, did the fluctuation coincided with the approach and departure not justify this expectation, serving rather to increase of a cirro-stratus cloud, passing about 15° from the the meteorological conditions under which negative pozenith. The inductive action of the cloud was plainly tential might be looked for, and to diminish the definisuggested in all of these cases."

tion of relationship between it and precipitation. That High wind also usually causes a drop of potential. negative electricity is tolerably certain to be observed

in connection with precipitation in a majority of cases Averages.

is doubtless true, but it does not appear in such a way Some charts are then given of average monthly as to be of any value in forecasting." potentials, showing nearly always positive average values, Near the end of the historical introduction we learn highest in the winter, lowest in summer.

with regret that the observations thus tabulated and Some smoothed diurnal curves are also given, and discussed are now no longer going on. " seem to indicate the existence of two principal maxima “In August, 1888, all observations were discontinued. of potential in the day, and also in a general way that It was thought that a sufficient number had been accuone of these occurs not many hours before noon and the mulated to decide the question of their use in weather other toward the latter part of the day.”

forecasting, and in fact their study up to that date gave Thunderstorms.

little encouragement in that direction.” “Many ques

tions of great scientific interest ... had to be set aside Special attention was paid to the observations before, for those likely to be of immediate practical value.” during, and after the occurrence of thunderstorms, but The amount of material thus rapidly accumulated, the needle then dashes wildly to either side, and sparks centralised, and well discussed, is typical of what can be often begin to pass. And the remark is made :-“ Aside done under efficient Government authorisation and by from the general characteristics (rapidity and range of the head of a National Laboratory. The carrying on of fluctuation) these potential curves seem to have little in the research for immediate utilitarian ends, and stopping common. The examination of a few cases only might it as soon as it was seen that the results aimed at were lead to interesting conclusions, which would almost cer not forthcoming, is perhaps also typical. tainly be overthrown by the study of a greater number. It is to be hoped that some day the question will be Sometimes the potential falls rather steadily until the reopened, and a fresh series of results obtained. So far violent movements begin, but sometimes it rises just as as I (who am by no means a meteorologist) can judge, I long and steadily. In many cases the fluctuations start should surmise that a number of fairly concentrated from a high positive, while in many others the reverse is stations over a large plain would be desirable ; and also the case. The storm is usually accompanied by precipi- that the vertical gradient of potential should be attempted tation; sometimes this begins before the needle starts on by a series of collectors at different attitudes on a tall its series of swings from side to side, and sometimes these mast, or possibly up a hill-side. movements precede precipitation. The steady rise of Further, the general aspect of the curves seems to me potential for some hours immediately following a thunder- to suggest that the instruments were almost too sensitive storm may mean that clear and fair weather is to be ex- , and not sufficiently dead-beat. They should be quick pected, but Fig. 71 is good evidence that it may also be in indication and at the same time thoroughly damped, interpreted to mean that another thunderstorm is just so that the record shall contain as little as possible of at hand."

| any effect due to instrumental inertia. Some very light quartz-fibre instrument might be devised, and perhaps it satisfaction the steps that were proposed to be take might contain its own recording apparatus in a compact the Earl of Onslow, when Governor of New Zeaz form, so as to make registration a much easier and less and by the Houses of General Assembly for the cumbrous business than it has been hitherto.

servation of the native birds of New Zealand, by me When so much is unknown it is a mistake to begin by ing certain small islands suitable for the purpose, ads observing with too great intricacy of detail. The salient affording the birds special protection on these island features should be first obtained, and then attention (2) The council much regret to hear that difficul directed to the minutiæ ; but one of the first things to do have been encountered in carrying out this plan as tegut is to arrange that every swing in the curve shall mean one of these islands (Little Barrier Island), and trust to a swing of atmospheric potential, and not a mere excur the Government of New Zealand may be induced to the sion of a heavy needle.

the necessary steps to overcome these difficulties and I hope that the energy, skill, and judgment of the carry out this excellent scheme in its entirety. various observers in the States, and of Mr. Mendenhall, (3) The council venture to suggest that besides a the author of this valuable report, may be utilised through native birds to be protected in these reserves stere the resources of the U.S. Government by the inauguration should also be afforded to the remarkable Sauriz R of a fresh series of observations under somewhat different Tuatera Lizard (Sphenodon punctatus), which is at prea conditions, and without the hamper of any immediately restricted to some small islands on the north coast of a specified practical object.

OLIVER J. LODGE. Zealand, in the Bay of Plenty.

These resolutions have been communicated to the

sent Governor of New Zealand, and will, we trust, THE PRESERVATION OF THE NATIVE

some assistance to him in inducing his Ministersts c2 BIRDS OF NEW ZEALAND.

this excellent scheme into execution. IN our issue of September 16 last year (vol. xlvi. I p. 502) we printed an excellent memorandum drawn up by Lord Onslow, late Governor of New Zea

THE EARTHQUAKES IN ZANTE. land, relating to a proposal for the preservation THE following is a list of the shocks of earthquake of the native birds of that colony by setting apart 1 Zante, compiled from telegrams published two islands for this purpose, namely, Little Barrier Times and Standard :-January 31, at daybreak or Hauturn Island in the north, and Resolution Island in most destructive earthquake, of which, however, I the south. As regards the first of these islands, we have

warning must have been given, if we may judge free lately received a copy of the report by Mr. Henry Wright

comparatively small loss of life. Other slighter she (addressed to the Hon. John Ballance, Premier of New followed during the day. February 1, 2 ani, sed Zealand) upon the subject. According to Mr. Wright, severe shock, felt also in Cephalonia. February Hauturn Island, in the Gulf of Hauraki, which is almost more violent shocks, one of which caused some circular in shape, and contains an area of from 9000 to damage. February 3, further shocks, but less frez 10,000 acres, rising in the middle to an elevation of about

and violent. February 5, another violent shock. Fesz 2000 feet, is very well adapted for the purpose required. 6, continued shocks of slight intensity, followed by Writing with a thorough knowledge of all the north more severe ones in the afternoon and evening. Pe island, Mr. Wright is able to say that there is no other 7, another violent shock in the morning, resulting part of it where the native birds are to be found in anything little additional damage. February 8, some slights like such profusion and variety. He gives a list of forty February 10, some slight shocks in different se species to be met with within its limits, and mentions as February 11, I a.m., a somewhat severe shock, a particular varieties the stitch-bird or kotihe (Pogonornis by a succession of shocks between 8 and 9 F2 cincta) and the large dark kiwi (Apteryx bulleri) as both 12, further shocks in the early morning, soon aftes found there. There are slight difficulties in the way of night, and again at intervals during the day. Fee the project, such as the presence of about a dozen Maoris 13 or 14, renewed slight shocks, accompanied by load now living on the island, and of a claimant for the tim terranean ruinblings. The Athens correspondent ber, which, in the shape of kauri pine (Dammara aus Times, telegraphing on February 20, says: "The tralis), is present in large quantities. There are no of earthquake continue at Zante, with varying de Weka Rails (Ocydromus) in the island to destroy the violence. No serious damage is reported, but the birds' eggs; and there are no bees, which, for some are compelled to live in the half-ruined or insecure reasons, are considered to be highly inimical to the native are exposed to frequent alarms." It is estimated to birds in New Zealand. The wild pigs, formerly numerous, total loss of property due to the shocks mas have been killed out ; and the mutton-bird (Estrelata £600,000. gouldi), the young of which were formerly eaten by the According to a telegram in the Times for February pigs, will consequently be able to breed again undis. the tide in Venice on the evening of February 1 5 turbed. Cats unfortunately are very numerous, but Mr. so low as to leave several of the canals withod Wright proposes to offer at once a reward for their de The gondola traffic was interrupted at different struction, which is, of course, of great importance. and many of those craft were stranded. This phes:

Mr. Wright's report seems quite convincing as to the corresponded with the earthquakes at Zante a suitability of Hauturn Island for the object in view, but lonia." A simple calculation will show, hort we regret to hear that some difficulties have arisen in the this can hardly have been due to the principals Parliament of New Zealand as to the appropriation of the The straight line joining Zante and Venice passe: funds required for the purpose.

directly up the Adriatic, and its length is to Lord Onslow, however, is not disposed to let the matter

| miles. Taking the time between daybreak on it drop, and will, we are sure, be strongly supported by and the evening of Feb. I at 36 hours, this Lord Glasgow, the present Governor of New Zealand, in for the sea-wave an average velocity of 20 miles carrying the matter to a successful issue. The Council of corresponding to an average depth of about 30 le the Zoological Society of London, whose attention has is considerably less than the actual amount, it been called to the subject, have passed in its favour depth of the Adriatic being no fathoms. the following resolutions, which were communicated to a Earthquakes are frequent in Zante, and see general meeting of that body on the 16th inst.

very severe. One of the most destructive shock (1) The council of the Society have learnt with great occurred on October 30, 1840, is described by

is work on the Ionian Islands (pp. 415-419) chiefly from Museum, but they met no kind reception there then, or even he report of the Lord High Commissioner, Sir Howard | later, for the species finds itself in the Catalogue of Birds (vii. Douglas. The prison was in this case also unroofed, and | p. 20) far removed from what all naturalists who have observed iardly a house in the town of Zante escaped some injury. | it in life declare to be its nearest relations-The Stonechats or All of the villages on, or bordering on, the plain suffered

the Redstarts—and shot into the rubbish-hole placarded limemore or less, especially Sculikado, which was reduced to

liida, where no one would ever think of looking for it. M. a heap of ruins. The total amount of damage done was

Olphe.Galliard's latest publication consisted of letters addressed estimated at not less than £300,000. The great earthquake was followed by a large number of others,

to him by the somewhat eccentric Christian Ludwig Brehm, some very severe, ninety-five being counted up to

which appeared in the Ornithologisches Jahrbuch for 1892. November 4. Ansted notes (pp. 368, 369) the curious fact that each of the Ionian Islands seems

A MEETING of conchologists is to be held at 67, Chancery for the most part to have its own earthquakes,

Lane, on Monday, February 27, at 8 p.m., for the purpose of independently of the others. About the year 1818,

founding a “Malacological Society of London," he says, all the sensible shocks in Cephalonia and Zante were tabulated, the record extending over two and

The Geologists' Association has arranged for a visit of the a quarter years. “During this time thirty distinct and

members to the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell well-marked shocks were recorded in Cephalonia ; but in

Road, on March 18, when Mr. W. Carruthers will give a demonno case did the shocks in Zante, although nearly con stration on “Gymnosperms from the Devonian to the present temporaneous, absolutely coincide with them. In most time." There will be an excursion to Norwich, Cromer, and cases an interval of some days, and almost always more Lowestost at Easter. than twenty-four hours, seems to have elapsed between the times of the disturbances in the two, although they Some admirable suggestions for the guidance of teachers of are so near that in these days (1863] of long range, a evening classes in wood-working under the direction of County cannon-shot fired from the one might reach to the Councils have been prepared by the Examination Board and other."

Committee of the City and Guilds of London Institute. The suggestions relate to drawing lessons, object lessons, and bench

work lessons. NOTES. The French Academy of Sciences has opened a subscription

The type of weather during the past week has undergone but

little change from that of the preceding week. Anticyclonic in support of the movement for the publication of the writings of Jean Servais Stas and the erection of a monument in his

areas lay over Scandinavia and Spain, and low pressure systems memory.

continued to skirt our north and west coasts. The general

conditions, however, were much quieter, although a deep deA meeting of delegates of the Academies of Science at pression reached the west of Ireland on Sunday, causing gales Berlin, Göttingen, Leipzig, Munich, and Vienna was held on on our western coasts. On Tuesday a large and important disJanuary 29, under the presidency of Prof. Ribbeck. The object turbance arrived over the south-west of England from off the of the meeting was to prepare the way for a sort of federal union Atlantic, and the wind circulation around its central area was of the various German scientific societies, so that they may be able complete. The difference of barometric pressure was, however, to act together about important matters of common interest. A by no means large in different parts of the kingdom, and conhope was expressed that a great international confederation of sequently there was not much wind. The barometer fell as scientific societies might ultimately be formed.

low as 28.7 inches over the centre of the cyclonic area, and later

during the day the disturbance continued its passage across ANNOUNCEMENT has been made of the death, on February

England, and was accompanied by heavy rain. Temperature 2, 1893, at Hendaye, in the Department of the Basses Pyrénées,

continued high for the season, the daily maxima ranging generin his sixty-eighth year, of M. Victor Aimé Léon Olphe-Gal.

ally from 45° to 55°, while on Sunday, the 19th inst., the ther. liard, author, among other works, of “Contributions à la Faune Ornithologique de l'Europe Occidentale," in forty livraisons (of

mometer rose to 60° in the inland parts of England. In London

it reached 59', which was a higher reading than had been which the last was published in 1892) giving an elaborate de

recorded so early in the year since 1878. The sky was excepscription of the birds not merely of Western but of almost the

tionally brilliant in the east and south-east on that day, but on whole of Europe, to say nothing of allied species belonging

the whole the air has been very damp throughout the week, to other countries. M. Olphe Galliard (whose name few writers,

and rainsall has been of almost daily occurrence. For the week even Frenchmen, spell correctly) was remarkable among his

ended the 18th inst. the rainfall exceeded the mean in all discountrymen for his knowledge of other languages than his own,

tricts, except in the east of England. In the west of Scotland and his recognition of the works of foreign ornithologists stands

and the south-west of England the excess was considerable. out in great contrast with that accorded to them by most con.

Bright sunshine only exceeded the normal amount in Ireland tinental authors. He translated into French several valuable

and the north and east of Scotland. papers written in Swedish and other tongues as little known, thus bringing them before readers to whom they would have been The Pilot Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean sor February, otherwise inaccessible, while he still further showed his apprecia. | 1893, shows that the weather in the North Atlantic during lion of foreign naluralists by introducing into his principal work January was not abnormally severe, and that the eastern part of portraits of Johann Friedrich Naumann and William Mac | the ocean was unusually free from storms. A map is given gillivray as the representative ornithologists of Germany and illustrating the great size and severity of the hurricane of Great Britain. The carliest performance by which M. Olphe. | December 22 last, which had moved rapidly from Hatteras in Galliard will be remembered was his description in the Annales an east-north-east direction. At the time selected for illustraof the National Society of Lyons for 1852 of the interesting Al. tion, when the centre lay in longitude 36° west, the storm area gerian bird which he called Erithacus Moussieri, alter a French covered the entire Atlantic from Labrador and Nova Scotia to army surgeon of that name who had recognised it as a new Madeira, Portugal, and Ireland. Some very low barometer species in 1846. In the following year specimens of it were readings were recorded, the lowest being 27:75 inches. There procured by the late Mr. Louis Fraser, and placed in the British was a large amount of ice during January along the coast of

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