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originally moving in the direction of propagation with a topography : A. Laussedat. An account of an application velocity slightly less than that of radiation may be picked of the photographic method to the survey of the region up by the waves and carried forward with the velocity of round Mount Argée, in Cappadocia, on a scale of 1/80,000. radiation.

The use of photography has the advantage of reducing very The conclusion is that the propagation of disturbances of considerably the time required as compared with the any form in a straight line involves a sorting of free ions ordinary methods of surveying, and is especially advanand molecules according to their initial circumstances, and tageous in mountainous regions.-Observations of the streaming of these both with and against the waves must Borrelly comet (1904 e) made with the Brunner equatorial take place.

at the Observatory of Lyons : J. Guillaume. The apparent These results are general, and are limited only by the position of the comet was measured on January 3, together limits of the electrodynamic equations. They suggest, how- with the positions of two comparison stars. The comet ever, a possible explanation of the action of all kinds of appeared as an object of the tenth magnitude, and possessed ionising agents.

a small nucleus.-Observations of the sun made at the In particular, it is suggested that if a radio-active sub- Observatory of Lyons with the 16-centimetre Brunner stance is an origin from which electromagnetic disturbances equatorial during the fourth quarter of 1904 : J. Guilare radiated, these disturbances probably ionise the gas in laume. The results are summarised in three tables giving the immediate vicinity and produce streaming of ions and the number of spots, their distribution in latitude, and the molecules with their associated properties both outwards distribution of the faculæ in latitude.--Actinometric observfrom and inwards to the substance. This view does not ations made at the summit of Mont Blanc: A. Hansky. necessarily involve the supposition that there is a continual The observations were made in the observatory at the diminution of the substance.

summit of Mont Blanc with the instruments of M. Crova. The results may also throw some light on the question of The conditions in 1900 were more favourable than in 1897 the energy sent out. For, suppose that there exist a posi- and 1898, and the results for this year are given in detail, tive and a negative ion which, in the absence of the pulses, the most probable result for the constant being between would recombine at some point A, thereby radiating a certain 3.0 and 3.5.-On linear partial differential equations : M. amount of energy, then the directive action of the pulses Hadamard.—On the deviation of falling bodies : Maurice may make them recombine at some other point B. Thus the Fouché. A reply to a criticism of M. de Sparre on a radiated energy will proceed from the point B instead of former paper by the author.-The thickness of transparent from the point A. The transference of a single free ion can sheets of iron : L. Houllevigue. After trying unsuccessbe accomplished without the expenditure of energy, and it fully various methods for estimating the thickness of thin is possible that the transference of the positive and negative films of iron, a colorimetric estimation with sulphocyanide ions may take place without any abstraction of energy from was found to give trustworthy results. The transparency (T) the pulses. Since, however, in general the transference may of these films was determined before dissolving in acid for involve a relative displacement of the two ions, abstraction the colorimetric test, and for films varying in thickness of energy from the pulses may be involved, so that the ques- from 0.024 to 0.056 milligram per square centimetre the tion is one about which the greatest caution must be exer- thickness was found to be a linear function of log T. This cised. It cannot be decided without further investigation. curve being established, the thickness of any given film

These considerations are in general agreement with the could be quickly determined by the photometer.-The autoviews that have been expressed by Lord Kelvin and Prof. and matic registration of atmospheric ionisation : Charles Madame Curie.

Nordmann. The charge introduced by the ions is removed The question whether the apparent velocity of drifting may from the condenser plate by falling drops of water, 'the be of the order indicated by experiment is considered ; and constancy of flow being secured by a Marriotte's bottle. it is shown that in order to give velocities comparable with The deviations of the electrometer in the arrangement that of radiation, the theory leads us to expect that the fre- described, a diagram of which is given, are proportional quency of vibration of the waves radiated by the particles to the number of ions per unit volume of the gas.-On the should be of the order for visible or ultra-violet light. heat given off by paraffin submitted to the action of a

The differences between ionising agents would turn to a rotating electrostatic field of high frequency : Ch. Eug. considerable extent on the character of the disturbances Guye and P. Denso.--On a new reaction of aldehydes and radiated.

the isomerism of their oxides : A. Conduché. The aldeSince the propagation of waves through a region of space hyde is added to a dilute aqueous solution containing equicontaining matter involves streaming of the matter, the con- molecular proportions of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and tinued propagation cannot be quite independent of any potassium cyanate. Well crystallised compounds separate statical, electric or magnetic field present.

out, the melting points of which characterise the aldehyde. February 2.-“ Note on the Determination of the Volume

The discussion of the composition of these compounds throws Elasticity of Elastic Solids." By Dr. C. Chree, F.R.S.

light on the constitution of the isomeric aldoximes. No

corresponding compounds are obtained when a ketone is Paris.

substituted for the aldehyde in the reaction.-The action of Acadenıy of Sciences, February 13.-M. Troost in the hydrocyanic acid on epiethyline : M. Lespieau. The chair.-On the existence of an ellipsoid of absorption in all nitrile C,H,.O.CH-CH(OH)-CHZ.CN is obtained in this translucid crystals, even when without a plane of symmetry reaction, and the preparation and properties of several subor a principal axis : J. Boussinesq.-Study of the silicide stances derived from this are described.--On the non-existof carbon from the Cañon Diablo meteorite : Henri Moissan, ence of two stereoisomeric ethyl dioximidobutyrates: L. In the residue left after dissolving a block of this meteorite Bouveault and A. Wahl. The supposed existence of two weighing 53 kilograms in hydrochloric acid, a hexagonal stereoisomers indicated by Hantzsch and by Nussberger is crystal of silicon carbide was noticed. It was completely shown to be erroneous.-On the transformation of amyloidentified by its appearance, density (3:2), and indifference cellulose into starch : Eugène Roux.-On the electrolysis of to most chemical reagents. Fused caustic potash gave organic acids by means of the alternating current : André potassium silicate, and fused lead chromate, carbon dioxide. Brochet and Joseph Petit. The electrolysis of formic and The origin of this block of iron may be terrestrial or oxalic acids can be easily effected with the alternating sidereal, but the existence of silicon carbide in the midst of current; the results are the same as with the direct current, the metal shows that the products prepared with the elec- but the yields are much higher.-On the phosphorescence tric furnace are met with in nature.-On some constants of of phosphorus : E. Jungfleisch. It is shown that an inert pure methane, and on the action of solid methane on liquid gas, saturated with the vapour of phosphorus, contains an fluorine : H. Moissan and Chavanne (see p. 400).--The extremely small weight of phosphorus, the oxidation of eruptive basic rocks of French Guinea : A. Lacroix. which gives rise to scarcely appreciable light effects. The Besides biotite granite, numerous basic eruptive rocks have author regards his experiments as proving that a lower been found in French Guinea, especially gabbros, peridot- volatile oxide is first produced, and that it is the oxidation of ites, and diabases, a detailed account of which is given. this which gives rise to the luminous phenomena.--On Attention is directed to the difference in the mode of weather- isodimorphism : Frédéric Wallerant.-On the extension ing in tropical and in temperate climates, as exemplified of the alkaline rocks in the basin of Aouache : H. Arsanin these samples. On the use of photography as an aid to daux.-Two species of Dalbergia in Madagascar produr. 388

388

THURSDAY, MARCH 2. ing a variety of ebony wood : Henri Jumelle.-On the

Royal Society, at 4.30.-Probable Papers : Further Researches on the biology of the Saprolegnia : Paul Dop.—The utilisation of

Temperature Classification of Stars. No. 2: Sir Norman Lockyer, the essential oils in the etiolated plant : Eug. Charabot K.C.B., F.R.S.-On the Radio-active Minerals : Hon. R. J. Strul and Alex. Hébert. It is shown that in the absence of Atmospheric Electricity in High Latitudes : G. C. Simpson.-On the

Spectrum of Silicon, with a Nole on the Spectrum of Fluorine : J. Lant. light the plant is capable of consuming the essential oil

--On the Electric Resistance to the Motion of a Charged Sphere in which it contains, especially the terpenic compounds.-The

Free Space or in a Field of Force : G. W. Walker. relations between Bougainvillia fruticosa and Bougain. CHEMICAL Society, at 8.-The Latent Heat of Evaporation of Benzese villia ramosa : Paul Hallez. The author regards these as and some other Compounds : J. Campbell Brown.-The Relation between one and the same species, the one belonging to calm

Natural and Synthetic Glycerylphosphoric Acids: F. B Power and

F. Tutin.- The Reduction of Isophthalic Acid : W. H. Perkin. jen, and water, the other to rough water, the slight difference be

S. S. Pickles.-The Transmutation of Geometrical Isomers: A. W. tween the two being due to this difference in the surround- Stewart. ings.—Experimental researches on the relations between ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-Recent Astronomical Progress : Prof. H. H.

Turner, F.R.S. arterial pressure and the amounts of chloroform absorbed :

RÖNTGEN SOCIETY, at 8.15.-A discussion on "The Necessity of Accurate J. Tissot. In the case of subjects under chloroform the Measurement in X-ray and High Frequency Work," opened by Dr. examination of the arterial pressure gives indications of W. D. Butcher. approaching trouble earlier than the respiratory modi

CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS' Society, at 8.-Engineering Expert

Evidence : J. F. Reade. fications, the latter only appearing when the dangerous LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-Zoological Nomenclature ; International Rules condition is already set up.-A comparative study of the and Others (to be followed by a discussion): Rev. T. R R. Stebbing. auto-conducting cage and the condensing couch in the F.R.S.-Biscayan Plankton. Part IV. The Thaliacea : Dr. G. Herbert

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graph : D. Murray. the solenoid are better than with the couch, the commonly

FRIDAY, MARCH 3. accepted view that the two are equivalent being erroneous. ROVAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-Recent Advances in Wireless Telegraphy -The action of radium on the torpedo fish : Maurice

Chev. G. Marconi.

SATURDAY, MARCH 4.
Mendelssohn.-On the tectonic of the region north of the

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3. ---Archæology : D. G. Hogarth.
Montagne Noire : Jules Bergeron.—The daily variation of
temperature in the upper regions of the atmosphere : L.
Teisserenc de Bort.

CONTENTS.

PAGE Recent English History

385 DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

Stereochemistry.
By A. McK

386 A Traveller's Guide to India. By R. L.

387 THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 23. ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4. 30. -On some New Species of Lagenostoma ; a Type Our Book Shelf :of Pteridospermous Seed from the Coal-measures : E. A. Newell Arber.

Newman :

“Bacteriology and the Public Health.” — On a New Rhabdosphere: G. Murray. F.R.S. -Two Cases of Tri. chromic Vision: Dr. F. W. Edridge-Green.--On Changes observable

Dr. A, C. Houston in the Liver Cells during Digestion, and their Relation to Hepatic “Die bisherige Tätigkeit der Physikalisch-technischen Secretion : Prof. E. Wace Carlier. - The Colour-Physiology of the

Reichsanstalt ; ** Die Tätigkeit der PhysikalischHigher Crustacea Part III.: F. Keeble and Dr. F. W. Gamble.-Phosphorescence caused by the Beta and Gamma Rays of Radium.

technischen Reichsanstalt."-J. A. H. Part 11.-G. T. Beilby.

Ostwald : “The Principles of Inorganic Chemistry."
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-Recent Work of the Geological Survey: Prof. W. R.
J. J. H. Teall, F.R.S.

388 INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Continuation of Dis. Letters to the Editor :cussion :- The Value of Overhead Mains for Electric Distribution in the United Kingdom : G. L. Addenbrooke.

A Contemplated Magnetic Survey of the North Pacific FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 24

Ocean by the Carnegie Institution.—Dr. L. A.

Bauer ROVAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-Fungi: Prof. H. Marshall Ward, F.R.S.

389 PHYSICAL SOCIETY, at 5.-On the Curvature Method of teaching Recently Observed Satellites.-Prof. William H. Geometrical Optics : Dr. C. V. Drysdale. – Exhibition of Dr. Meisling's

Pickering Colour Patch Apparatus: R. J. Sowter. -A Method of illustrating the

390 Laws of the Simple Pendulum, and an Exhibition of String Models of

Compulsory Greek at Cambridge.-R. Vere Optical Systems : J. Schofield.

Laurence, H. Rackham, A. c. Seward, INSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS, at 8.-Morecambe Sewerage : Method

F.R.S. ; W. Bateson, F.R.S. of laying a 15-inch Cast-iron Sewer under the London and North

390 Western Railway: F. D. Flint. - The Reconstruction of Bow Bridge

Secondary Radiation.-Prof. J. A. McClelland . 390 over the River Lea: H. M. Rootham.

Tenacity to Life of a Grass-snake.-E. V. Windsor 390 SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 25. Rovai INSTITUTION, at 3.-Archæology: D. G. Hogarth.

Notes on Stonehenge. IV. The Earliest Circles The Essex FIELD CLUB, at 6.30 (at the Essex Museum of Natural History, (continued). (Illustrated.) By Sir Norman Lockyer, Stratford).--Straw Plait; a Lost Essex Industry, 1.: Chalkley Gould.Family and Life of Gilberd, of Colchester : Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson,

K.C.B., F.R.S.

391 F.R.S. -Revised List of the Hymenomycetal Fungi of Essex : Dr. The Approaching Total Solar Eclipse of August M. C. Cooke and George Massee.

30. (With Maps.) By Dr. William J. S. Lockyer · 393 MONDAY, FEBRUARY 27ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL Society, at 8.30.--The Scientific Results of the

The Ceylon Pearl Fisheries. (Illustrated.) By National Antarctic Expedition : Capt. R. F. Scott, C.V.O., R N.

W. P. P...

395 SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 8. --Internal Combustion Engines : Dugald Clerk. INSTITUTE OF ACTUARIES, at 5.-Changes in Pure Premium Policy.

Notes. (Illustraled.)
Values consequent upon Variations in the Rate of Interest or the Rate of Our Astronomical Column :-
Mortality, or upon the Introduction of the Rate of Discontinuance :
G. J. Lidstone.

Ephemeris for Comet 1904 e
TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 28.

Revised Elements for Borrelly's Comet (1904 €)
ROVAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-Some Recent Biometric Studies : Prof. K.
Pearson, F.R.S.

The Sun's Rotation ...
SOCIETY OF Arts, at 4.30.—The Manufactures of Greater Britain. I.

Secondary Shadow on Saturn's Rings

401 Canada : C. F. Just. INSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS, at 8.--Surface-Condensing Plants, Observations of the Zodiacal Light and the Value of the Vacuum produced: R. W. Allen.

Permanent Numbers for the Minor Planets discovered WEDNESDAY, MARCH 1. SOCIETY OF Public Analysts, at 8.-- The Estimation of Oxygen in Studies in Eugenics

during 1904 Copper : S. Dickson.-(1) Some Conditions affecting the Ether Value

401 of Brandies ; (2) The Determination of Higher Alcohols in Spirits. I. : The Absorption of Light by the Atmosphere

Dr. Philip Schidrowitz and F. Kaye. ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8. – New Species of Diurnal Lepidoptera John Hunter and his Influence on Scientific from Northern Rhodesia : Herbert Druce and Hamilton H. Druce.

Progress. By John Tweedy.

#03 On Three Remarkable New Genera of Microlepidoptera : Sir George F. Hampson, Bari.

University and Educational Intelligence Critical Society O- UNIVERSITY COLLEGE (Gower Street, W.C.), at 5. Societies and Academies

--Evolution and Speculation : Sir Frederick Pollock, Bart. Visitors invited.

Diary of Societies

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