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The physiological side of the game is not lost sight the several acts and bye-laws that regulate or hamper, of, and is dealt with by the author in three short as the case may be, the particular work he has in chapters, while Part iv. is devoted to “lawn tennis hand. The author, judging by this, and by the titles encyclopædia,” containing much miscellaneous in- of his previous works, seems to be a good Samaritan

and to take pleasure in pointing out the numerous formation useful to players, including a bibliography pitfalls that must be avoided by the man who would, of the literature on the subject, which, by the way, if possible, live at peace. The

present book is is very considerable.

largely filled with a recitation of laws and of district The volume concludes with an account of the council requirements which no one would wish to history and growth of the game of lacrosse", by tains examples of work in very full detail and with

read unless under compulsion. The latter part conWilliam Harvey Maddren.

illustrations. The very complete index adds considerably to the

However, the author has not, as might have been utility of this publication, which should form expected, lost all interest in the progress of his subject welcome addition to any sportsman's library, in wrestling with these dismal details. For instance, In the second of these volumes, which is the com

on p. 2 he says :bined work of Messrs. G. Beldam and P. A. Vaile,

"'The author is one of a few surveyors who believe

that all wide carriageways (where traffic is considerwe have another valuable contribution to the

able), should have the channel in the centre instead literature of lawn tennis. Mr. Beldam presents us

of at the sides, thus obviating the tendency of with 229 of his action photographs, all of which are vehicles to slide down the haunches of the road here beautifully reproduced. In his book on “Great towards the kerb. The gradient to the centre channel Golfers " he showed how much could be learnt by from the kerb need not exceed 1 in 40." closely studying action-photographs, and

Whatever advantages or the reverse there may be in the

in this plan, spectators on the pavement would no present volume on great lawn tennis players a

doubt prefer to see this sliding in the direction similar attempt is rewarded with equal success in desired by the author, especially if the vehicles spite of the greater difficulties involved, since both happened to be quick motor-cars going in opposite player and ball are in rapid motion. The photo directions. graphs here given are not casual snapshots, but taken

The author is to be complimented on performing a specially to illustrate the positions occupied by tedious and uninteresting task for the general good.

C. V. B. players for particular strokes. Mr. Vaile, writes, so to speak, round these pictures, and in his breezy and A Popular Guide to the Heavens. By Sir Robert S. straightforward style points out which in his estima- Ball, LL.D., F.R.S. Pp. xii +96; 83 plates tion are the good or bad points. This author is of (London: George Philip and Son, Ltd., 1905.)

Price 155. net. the opinion that the true science of the game is but dimly appreciated in this country, and it is his main This is a new edition of the “ Atlas of Astronny,' endeavour throughout these pages to indicate in by the same author, which appeared in 1892, the which direction progress can be made. The lawn

revision having extended even to the title of the book. tennis reader will find, therefore, much to think over

As before, star maps and pictures of the heavenly

bodies the chief feature, but in many cases in these pages, and particular attention is drawn to drawings have been replaced by admirable reproducthe first chapter, in which the racket, per se, and the tions of some of the finest celestial photographs at methods of holding it are discussed. Mr. E. G. present available. The star charts, comprising Meers contributes an interesting chapter on twelve maps indicating the aspect of the heavens vanced Tactics of the Single Game," while The

in the different months, and twenty others showing

much greater detail, are excellent in every respect, Half-Volley” is treated by Mr. G. A. Caridia.

and will meet the needs of those making a first acquaintance with the stars as well as of those who

may wish to observe interesting objects with teleOUR BOOK SHELF.

scopes of moderate aperture. A valuable feature in New Streets: Laying Out and Making Up By whereby the positions of these bodies in each month

connection with the maps is an index to the planets, 4. Tayler Allen. Pp. 175. (London : The Sanitary during the next fifty years may be approximately Publishing Company, Ltd.) 35. net.

ascertained. A very complete guide to observations This is not the sort of book that anyone but a proof of the moon is also provided by the maps and catareader could read straight through, not

logues of lunar formations. So far, the book reviewer or a surveyor., or

architect, for whom justifies its title, but the remaining parts give the especially it is written. This statement is not made impression of a scrap-book with pages still remaining by way of disparagement, quite the reverse, and the

to be filled, and pages which would have been filled author would be the first to agree to it.

differently by different

The sun,

for In these days, with a multiplicity of petty and of example, is inadequately represented; the only photolocal bye-laws and regulations, all put together graph of a sun-spot which is given conveys no indicaprimarily and ostensibly to prevent scamping of tion of the dimensions of the spot, and there are no different kinds, but often, and the more so the more illustrations of faculæ or photographs in petty the authority, used as weapons to compel public chromatic light. A more serious omission, in a book spirited parties to go to unnecessary and extravagant which is styled a “guide,” is the absence of all referexpense so that the members of the petty body or ence to the modes of observing the sun, although their friends may be the more prosperous, it is above careful drawings of the paths of spots at different all essential that the surveyor or architect or engineer times of the year are included. Again, there is an or even private individual, who has occasion to make elaborate chart of the planet Mars, but nothing to a new street or a cottage or a side-walk or a retro- show what the planet looks like in an ordinary spective drain should act warily, and have before him telescope.


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No. 15

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The text amounts to little more than a description Toning Bromide Prints. “ Photography " Bookshelf of the plates and is too scrappy to give a connected Series, No. 16. By R. E. Blake Smith. Pp. view of the subject. The book, however, is well XV + 104. (London : Iliffe and Sons, Ltd., 199+) produced, and will be valued for its excellent star Price is. net. maps and examples of celestial portraiture.

INSTEAD of producing a black and white bromide

print it is often desirable to change the normal tone Denkmäler mittelalterlicher Meteorologie.

to suit the subject photographed. There are many (Schlussheft). Neudrucke von Schriften und Karten methods by which this change of tints can be obüber Meteorologie und Erdmagnetismus heraus- tained, and these pages are devoted to describing the gegeben von Prof. Dr. G. Hellmann. Pp. lviii + various processes that are available. The material on 269. (Berlin : Asher and Co., 1904.)

which this book is based first appeared in a series of This is the final volume of a valuable series of publi-form it will be found more convenient for workers.

articles in Photography, but in the present handy cations which we owe to the energy of Prof. Hellmann. In them we have had brought before us the The author gives a good detailed account of each more interesting abstracts and reprints of early works case, and discusses the probable effect of the different dealing with meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Workers with bromide papers will find this book of

processes on the permanence of the finished picture, Prof. Hellmann has thus made available to those

considerable service. interested in these subjects, the records of ancient times, which to many would have remained unread and possibly unknown.

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. In the present volume, which deals more especially with meteorology, we have presented to us a set of | [The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions twenty-six separate parts ranging from the seventh expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake

to return, or to correspond with the writers oj, vejected to the fourteenth century. Many others have been

manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. taken from printed works, but some of them, as we

No notice is taken of anonymous communications. ] are told in the preface, are here published for the first time.

Charge on the a Particles of Polonium and Radium. Further, many of these old texts have here been

With reference to the interesting letter on this subject be translated into Germ so that those who are not

Prof. Rutherford in last week's NATURE, I should like to familiar with old Saxon, old English, old Norwegian, point out that in my paper " On the positive electrification or Arabic will still be able to gain a good insight of a rays and the emission of slowly mnoving kathode rars into the ideas of the Middle Ages.

by radio-active substances (Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc., alin.. In the introduction to this volume Prof. Hellmann p. 49) I have described experiments which demonstrare gives a brief sketch of the character of meteorology the communication of a positive charge of electricity to at these periods, and adds a short and interesting bodies struck by a rays from polonium or radium. I summary of biographical facts relating to the writers

had considerable difficulty in disentangling this positive of the texts to which reference is here made. An charge from the copious streams of slowly moving appendix contains additions and corrections to the negatively electrified corpuscles which I found were earlier numbers.

given out by these substances, and the experiments

in which I finally succeeded in doing this were For the labour involved in bringing together and


completed until a few days after the reading of the paper on preparing this collection of old texts a large debt of November 14, and are not referred to in the abstract quoted gratitude is due to Prof. Hellmann, and it is hoped by Prof. Rutherford. A description of them will be found in that from time to time, when further ancient writings the paper which has lately been published. I may take this are brought to light, he will render them in like opportunity of saying that I have recently found that manner so conveniently available.

uranium also gives out slowly moving corpuscles, so that

this effect seems a general property of radio-active subThe Birds of Calcutta. By F. Finn. Second edition.

The velocity of these corpuscles is very small comPp. vi+ 136. (Calcutta : Thacker, Spink, and Co; pared with that of the B rays, and is more nearly of the London : Thacker and Co., 1904.)

order of the velocity of the corpuscles emitted by metals when exposed to light.

J. J. THOMSON. The fact of a work reaching a second edition may Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, March 4. generally be taken as an indication that it has received the seal of public approval, and that it accord- A CONVERSATION I had with Prof. Bragg, of the Adelaide ingly needs no commendation from us. In the present University, in passing through Adelaide last summes instance, a ready reception would seem to be assured suggested some thoughts in regard to the nature of the to the new edition, since many additions and im

a rays which may be of interest in view of Prof. Rutherford':

letter in last week's NATURE. Prof. Rutherford announies provements have been made. The most important

that he has at last succeeded in detecting the positive charge addition is undoubtedly the series of life-like cuts

carried by the a rays of radium by using a magnetic firld of Indian birds, which adds very largely to the to deflect and remove the slow-moving electrons present with interest of the little volume; but it is also satisfactory the a particles. He says, “ I think these experimenis unto find that the arrangement and nomenclature have doubtedly show that the a particles do carry a poslov: been revised so as to bring the work into harmony charge, and that the previous failures to detect this charge with the volumes on birds in the “Fauna of British were due to the masking action of the large number wi India," to which it may serve in some degree as an slow-moving electrons emitted from the plates." Thes introduction. Mr. Finn has a vivacious, if some- results, while they afford a welcome confirmation of the contimes flippant, style, which removes his works from clusions drawn from the evidence of the magnetic and electric the dry-as-dust” category; but in some cases,

deviation suffered by the a rays, do not, to my mind, finally as in the application of the term “ disreputable

settle the question. the babbler, we venture to think some of his epithets cumstances do carry a positive charge. Certain evidence,

It must be admitted that the a particles in ordinary cit. might be better selected. To a former resident the however, seems to point to the conclusion that the a particle omission of the adjutant stork from the list of Calcutta

at the moment of its expulsion from the parent atom is birds seems strange, but it appears that for many uncharged, and that it derives its positive charge from years these weird birds have ceased to visit the city secondary causes, independently of, and subsequent to the of palaces.

R. L. expulsion process. To devise a crucial experiment which



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would decide between the two views would be far from easy, and s=H2/H, is the ratio of magnetic forces in the electrobut as I interpret Prof. Rutherford's letter, the results there magnetic case. Now (2) asserts that the reflected wave gets given do not definitely disprove the view that the o particle smaller as the mirror goes faster, and vanishes when u=tv. is initially uncharged.

Or if the mirror be pushed against the radiation, the reI recently directed attention (“ Radio-activity,” p. 181) flected wave gets stronger, and the resisting force stronger to the importance of the fact that in certain well-established until u=- tv, when it is infinite. The mirror could not be cases there appeared to be a simultaneous production of two pushed against the radiation faster than iv. positive charges in the disintegration of an electrically An immediate objection is that when u has risen to iv, if neutral atom. Thus in the disintegration of the emanation it be maintained at that speed it acts like a perfect absorber atom a positively charged a particle is expelled, and the to the incident energy. Moreover, since there is the pressure residue of the atom-the matter causing the excited activity Pi left, why should it not accelerate the mirror? But, if

is also positively charged, and is concentrated on the it does, po becomes negative, and s becomes imaginary. negative electrode in an electric field. In a recent paper by Considered mechanically only, say by F=, the motion Bragg (Phil. Jag., December, 1904, p. 721), the following of m is quite determinate when u> lv, up to v, in fact. sentence occurs :-“ It is easy to see that even if the a particle But electromagnetically it means that the energy in the is uncharged when it leaves the parent body, it must imme- reflected wave is negative. Now although there is nothing diately become positive, since in traversing an atom it is to object to quantitatively in a continuous transition from a just as likely to lose one of its own electrons as to take one

Maxwellian stress consisting of a tension along an axis away from the atom traversed.” As I am unaware that combined with equal lateral pressure, to its negative, a this consequence has received the attention it deserves,

pressure along the axis with equal lateral tension, still the perhaps I may be allowed to direct attention to its bearing on

negativity of the energy in the reflected wave causes diffithe present question. There is a fundamental distinction

culty. The stress for both the electric and magnetic energy between the ionisation of the atom of a gas molecule by

becomes of the gravitational type. That is, like imaginary radiant electrons or B particles, and radiant atoms

electrifications attract, and unlike repel, or matter is particles. For in the latter case, if the atom struck suffers imaginary electrification in this comparison. The moving ionisation, the radiant atom is just as likely to be ionised in the process also. The ionisation of a neutral atom

forces and energies are real. But let a real charge and an

unreal one co-exist, the energy density becomes imaginary. consists in the detachment from it of an electron which

That is out of all reason in a real universe. forms the negative ion, the atom thereby becoming positively charged and forming the negative ion. Hence the radiant à

We should, I think, regard (2) as a demonstration that particle, if uncharged initially, will become positively charged

(1) is untrue, in that (P + P.)u is not the activity of the on collision with the atoms of the gas or other obstacle

force on the mirror, although Þi+P: may be actually the in its path, and at the same time will lose an electron. The

pressure of the radiation. In fact, in the electromagnetic ** slow-moving electrons present with the a particles," which

case, the variation of p constitutes a force on the ether Rutherford describes as “ emitted from the plates,

itself. We must find the force on the mirror in another way. therefore in reality be derived from the a particles them

Let radiation fall flush upon the plane surface of a dielectric, selves in the act of becoming positively charged. The fact

which call glass, moving the same way at constant speed u, that they, unless deflected by a magnetic field, exactly

and let the circuital equations in the glass be neutralise the charge carried by the a particles seems to

dH/dx = cE+01/al, -dE/dx =B=uH; (3) point in the same direction.

In further support of the view that the positive charges on that is, the same as for the ether, with the addition of the
both the radiant particle and the residue of the atom after electric current of polarisation 01/at. The reference space
disintegration are derived by collision with the gas molecules, is the fixed ether, and ajat is the moving time differentiator.
Prof. Rutherford's results on the distribution of the excited Now if the relation between I and E is such as to permit of
activity in an electric field at low pressure may be cited an undistorted plane wave, we shall have
(Rutherford, “Radio-activity,'

p. 282).
If the excited-

(4) activity-matter particle gains its positive charge in its recoil

E, = uvH, E, = - MVH2, Eg=uwHz,

(incident) (reflected) (transmitted) br collision with the gas molecules, it is to be expected that at low pressures it will not become charged, and will not,

if v is the speed in the ether, and w the wave speed referred therefore, be concentrated on the negative electrode, as is,

to the ether in the glass. This w is a function of u. Also, in fact, the case. FREDERICK SODDY. the boundary conditions, E, + E, = E3, H,+H,=H3,

(5) The Pressure of Radiation.

combined with (4), give THE success of Lebedeff and Vichols and Hull in recog

H,H, = (v – W)/(v + w), H2/H, = 2v/(v+w). (6) nising and measuring the pressure of radiation has aroused An incident pulse of unit depth is stretched to depth much interest in radiation pressure generally, real or ap- (1 – u/V) - in the act of reflection ; the reflected pulse is of parent. It has some interesting and sometimes somewhat depth (v +u) (v – u)-', and the transmitted pulse of depth difficult theoretical aspects. In the first place, if the ether (w—u) (v – u)-1. is really absolutely at rest (this rigidity is a very difficult The rate of loss of energy from the waves in the process idea), the moving force on it has no activity, and its time of reflection is integral l'DB can only be called momentum out of compli

Dilo - 11) - D (v + u) - P(x-1),

(7) ment. The force becomes active in a moving ether, with

where the p's are the energy densities. But, by the above, interesting consequences not now under examination. The

Piz= P20 + Pow ;

(8) present question is rather how to interpret the pressure of radiation on the assumption of a fixed ether, in the measure therefore the rate of loss of energy is of its effects on matter which is either fixed or moving

(P3 - 6 -- P2)u,

(9) through the ether.

and the moving force on the mirror is The following is striking in what it proves. Let plane radiation fall flush upon a perfect reflector moving in the

F=P3 -- Di - P2.

(10) same direction at speed u, a case considered by Larmor. Let This is, in its expression, exactly the negative of the the energy density p= pi + P2, the incident being pr the previous pressure difference. It is in the direction of the reflected pa. Assume, which seems reasonable at first, that rise of energy density. Its amount is ps, the pressure in the reflector, is zero, then the moving F=2u11, 11,=2p, (w w)/(v + w)= tull-- AcE; = V. (11) force pa+P2-p, reduces to Pi + paTherefore

The first form in terms of H1,H, is useful. The second is Pi(zu) - Po(v +u)=(P + P.),


in terms of the wave speeds. The third is in terms of the because the left side is the rate of loss of energy from the ethereal energy inside the glass. All these come out of the waves, and the right side the activity of the force on the ratios H, I, &c. Now the electric energy equals the reflector. So

magnetic energy in the transmitted wave. Consequently P2_1 - 2u1v


1, means the energy of the polarisation I. And the activity M 1+ 2u/v

is l,l, the convective flux of energy.

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=s”, say,

These properties are true for various relations between This discovery has proved useful in the investigation ol I and E. The first approximation is l=c, E. The second, secondary radiation proceeding from solids. introduced by Lorentz, is I =c,(E- uB), that is, the polarisa- It has been found that while the intensity of secondary tion is proportional to the moving force on moving ion. radiation from light substances varies considerably in Other forms allowing of undistorted pulse propagation may

different directions owing to the partial polarisation of the be proposed. All give special relations between w and u. primary radiation, the amount of this variation diministies In Lorentz's case,

with an increase in the atomic weight of the radiator, and 0,= }GE (1 – uw).

(12) ultimately is inappreciable. The radiations from air, carbon,

paper, aluminium, and sulphur vary in intensity in diferent To pass to perfect reflection, reduce w to u, its least value.

directions by a considerable amount. From calcium the U, does not vanish, but has the value given by (10), (11) variation is much less, while from iron, copper, zinc, and still, with w=u. But the transmitted wave is reduced to a

lead it is inappreciable. This must be connected with the surface film, moving with the glass. The moving force on fact that the radiation from light substances differs in the glass is now

character only very slightly from the primary, while the F=2P1 (w u)/(v + a),

(13) heavier substances emit radiations differing more from the and finally, if u=0, F=2P2.

primary producing them. The radiation from the heavier Here we come right back to the pressure of radiation.

metals was found not to consist of an easily absorbed radisIt does measure the force on the glass when at rest, when

tion superposed on a radiation such as proceeds from light it reflects perfectly, and it looks as if (13) were merely the

substances, and of intensity given by the law found for that form Pi+Pz a little modified by the motion.

But appear

from light substances, but is as a completely transiorined ances are very deceitful here, for (10) above is the proper

radiation. This is strong evidence that the freedom of formula.

motion of the electrons which permits what may be called As regards the distribution of F. With an actual trans

a simple scattering in substances of lower atomic weight is mitted wave consisting of a pulse of uniform intensity all

interfered with in the heavier atoms, for we find from them through, F is entirely at the wave front. So, with total re

a more absorbable radiation in place of, not simply superflection, it is just under the surface of the glass. Again, if

posed on, a more purely scattered radiation. Eg varies continuously in the transmitted wave, F is dis

With this change in character, the polarisation effect distributed continuously, to the amount B(ai/@t) per unit volume,

appears. No special absorption of the radiation proceeding What F means in (ii) now is the total of this volume force,

from a substance by plates of the same substance bas been

observed. i.e. the integral from the surface up to the wave front, ex

A considerable variation in the penetrating power of the pressed in terms of the momentary surface state. After a pulse has left the surface there is an equal opposite panied by a smaller change in that of the secondary

primary radiation incident on heavy substances is accomforce at its back, so there is no further loss of energy or moving force on the glass. The obscurities and apparent

(measured by change of absorbability). contradictions arise from the assumption that the ether is

Radiation from compounds appears to be merely a inixture quite motionless. If we treat the matter more compre

of the radiations which proceed from the separate elements hensively, and seek the forces in a moving ether, with

in the compound, both the absorbability and polarisation

effects being what would be given by such mistures. moving polarisable matter in it as well, if this is a complication one way it is a simplification in another, viz. in

Atomic weight, not molecular weight or density, thus seems the ideas concerned. There is harmony produced with the

to govern the character of the radiation produced by a giren stress theory. To illustrate, (0/8t)VDB' is the moving force


These results may be accounted for by considering the per unit volume when the ether and polarised matter have a common motion, D and B being the complete displacement

electrons constituting the atoms as the radiators. In light and induction. (The variation of u is ignored here.) But

atoms the electrons are far enough apart, and have sufficient if we stop the ether, a part of this force becomes inactive.

freedom to move almost entirely independently of one another,

under the influence of the primary pulses, consequently to If the matter is unmagnetisable, the only active part is that containing the polarisation current, for that is carried along intensity of which depends on the direction of propagation

emit a secondary radiation similar to the primary, but the Besides this electromagnetic force, there is also a force

with regard to that of electric displacement in the primary due to a pressure of amount U,. But it does not alter

beam. In heavier atoms considerable inter-electronic forces the reckoning of the moving force on the glass, because

are probably brought into play by small displacements, and the pressure acts equally and oppositely at the front and

the resultant acceleration of inotion of an electron is then back of a pulse.

not in the direction of electric displacement of the primary Some other illustrations of the curious action between electromagnetic radiation and matter can be given.

beam, and evidence of polarisation of that beam vanishes For

Also there ceases to be a simple connection between the example, two oppositely moving plane pulses inside moving time for which the electron is accelerated and that of passage glass. Say E, = uw,H, one with the glass, and

of the primary pulse. E, = - uw,H, against the glass. If H,=-H,, work is done

In atoms of greater weight we would expect appreciable upon the glass when they cross, ceasing the moment they inter-electronic forces to be called into play sooner, and to coincide, so that the energy of the momentary electric field

attain a much greater intensity than in lighter atoms. is less than the wave-energy. On separating, the loss is

The precise connection between the atomic weight of the restored. If, on the other hand, E, = - E,, work is done by radiator and the absorbability of the radiation is being the glass on the waves when uniting, so that the momentary investigated.

CHARLES G. BARKLA. magnetic energy, together with the polarisation energy, is l'niversity of Liverpool, March 1. greater than the wave energy. In this second case, too, it is noteworthy that the solitary waves are of unequal energy, whereas they are equal in the first case. But details must be omitted, as this communication is perhaps already too

Dates of Publication of Scientific Books. long


I Have just bought a copy of “A Treatise on Slate and February 21.

Slate Quarrying, Scientific, Practical, and Commercial," by
D. C. Davies, F.G.S., fourth edition, dated 1899 (Crosby

Lockwood and Son).
Secondary Röntgen Radiation.

To my astonishment, I find no statistics of later date in In a paper read before the Royal Society on February 16, it than 1876, e.g. p. 33, statistics of 1872 and 1873, p. 5& I described experiments demonstrating the partial polarisa- list of quarries in 1873, p. 59, production in 1876, p. 64, protion of Röntgen radiation proceeding from an X-ray bulb, duction last year (1876), p. 170, prices of slates io London and at the same time verifying the theory previously given last year (1876). of the emission of secondary X-rays from gases and light As the Home Office publishes annually a general report solids subject to Röntgen radiation.

and statistics of mines and quarries, and also a list of mines Later experiments have shown that beams of X-radiation and quarries, there is no excuse for the book being so out may be produced exhibiting a greater amount of polarisa- of date in its statistics.

B. Hobsox. tion than there was evidence of in the original experiments. The Owens College, Manchester, February 21.





memory and grasp of the meaning of words is opening VII.—THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY OF

out a most important subject. THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.

The output of work from most laboratories bears

the stamp of the Director, for in his hands mainly THE seat of the University of London was trans- lies the attraction of workers, and their useful em

ferred to the Imperial Institute in 1900, and in ployment in the earlier stages of their career. It is the same year the University received a new constitu- his constant patient interest in the problems under tion, and commenced its career a teaching investigation in the laboratory which largely university. In May, 1902, a laboratory devoted to determines their direction, and serves to weld them research physiology was housed within the same into a solid phalanx of advancing facts. An examinImperial building, and the secretariat of the University ation of the list of papers shows the presence of such of London was for the first time brought into contact an influence here, an influence which has already with one of the sources of knowledge, which it started several workers upon paths of independent had been newly arranged not only to control but inquiry. Acknowledgments of this fact may, for also to foster.

instance, be found in the papers of Drs. Alcock, The laboratory occupies the upper floor of the Collingwood, Legge Symes, Wells, from all of whom eastern wing of the Imperial Institute, and has already valuable contributions have come. Dr. Alcock has been described in the pages of this journal (NATURE, carried out several excellent researches upon the vol. Ixvii., pp. 441, 442). It covers a space of about electrical response of mammalian medullated and 3000 square feet.


Boldly selecting material There are special rooms for experimental psychology, offering, as it was thought, almost insuperable experimental physiology, electrical and chemical work, difficulties, he has been able to make many observa lecture theatre fitted up for the delivery of the special ations of value, and in doing so has also extended courses of lectures in advanced physiology, and a departmental library. The work carried on has been of the double character indicated in the scheme originally adopted by the University Senate. In the first place courses of lectures have been given by a large number of the physiologists who form the professorial staff of the University in this subject. It should not be forgotten that this cooperation has been obtained without an offer of the most trifling award. The professorial staff, by this free gift of its labour, has once more shown its loyalty to interests which are really wider than the interests of any local scheme, but which, nevertheless, are well expressed as the interests of the University of London.

All these lectures, originally intended, have been of a peculiarly living type_lectures delivered upon subjects on which each lecturer was actually en

Fig. 1.- Dr. Augustus D. Waller, F.R.S., Director of the Laboratory, gaged in research at the time. After submission to referees, they are published for the general field of inquiry. Dr. Collingwood has dethe University by Messrs. Murray ; a volume entitled signed an apparatus for the exact dosage of chloro“ Signs of Life,'' by Dr. Waller, and another on the form, and elaborated a method for the estimation of “ Biochemistry of Muscle and Nerve," by Prof. percentage of chloroform vapour in expired air. Mr. Halliburton, have already appeared, and a volume on Legge Symes has published work on the respiratory the Blood, by Dr. Buckmaster, is in the press. quotient, estimation of chlorides in blood, and is carry

In the second place, room and facilities are afforded ing on work on the physiological action of chloro orm to workers in the prosecution of research whether for and betaine. Mrs. Waller has continued the work their doctoral theses or for other purposes. The re- upon the distribution and meaning of “blaze searches carried on since May, 1902, have resulted currents. in thirty published papers; among them, and specially That the many-sided industries of this laboratory noteworthy as regards their immediate practical are by no means completely stated in the last parabearing, are the contributions of Captain Leonard graph is at once seen from the fact that its walls Rogers, J.M.S., to our knowledge of the physio- have also looked out upon the work of several logical action of the poison of the Hydrophida and investigators who have obviously been attracted by the physiological action and antidotes of colubrine its conveniences and equipment alone. It is and viperine snake poisons; of Waller and Plimmer sufficient to mention the names of Drs. Brodie, Buckon the physiological action of a ptomaine extracted master, Goodall, Locke, Macdonald, Mummery, Seefrom commercial beet sugar; and of Waller on the mann. Dr. Pavy is engaged in work on the metaquantitative estimation and graduated administration bolism of the carbohydrates, and will give a course of chloroform. In physiological psychology, work is of three lectures in the summer on the results of his continuously carried on by Miss Edgell, who has pub- investigations. Dr. George Oliver is now working lished a paper on time judgment, and whose work on in the laboratory on the effects of various organic pro

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