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of the book is increased by this course, and the methods answer to the description given in the subject made more human.
preface, and will be found serviceable to the works In conclusion, it is perhaps sufficient to say that analyst, it must be confessed there are also many the treatment is marked throughout by the author's others which fall short of it. In too many instances well-known and admirable lucidity of style. Take, there is a lack of descriptive detail, an absence of for example, the last paragraph in the book reference to recent improvements, and the omission discussing the result which follows from the fact of recognised and standard methods. The common that as an extreme case for the green thallium light fault of this class of book is to be too discursive; the periods of 88 per cent. of the vibrating molecules to cover too much ground. The small treatise on one are identical within about one part in two millions. subject by an expert like Blair or Ledebur on iron
". If you had a great many clocks, and found that and steel analysis, Brown on gold and silver assaving. taking their average rate to be correct, not more Lunge on the alkali manufacture, is the sort of thing than one in eight would be wrong by a second in
one would like to see multiplied. twenty-three days, that would represent the maximum amount of variation which one interpretation of the
The writer has no wish to deal unfairly with the experiment allows us
of to admit in the
review'. It is not uniform in molecular vibrations. But would any maker under-character, and if the above criticism applies to certain take to supply you with a number of clocks satisfying sections, it is also abundantly evident that other that test?' Ii, further, it is considered that the limits portions have been carefully and conscientiously put we have chosen for the possible variations of together by one who possesses a thorough knowledge molecular vibrations are far too great, we see that though Sir John
the introduction of Herschel's saying that atoms
of his subject. Moreover, possess the essential character of manufactured mechanical tests, which are too frequently overlooked, articles is still correct, yet no manufactured article is a feature deserving mention. The translator's approaches in accuracy of execution the exactitude attention should be directed to the mis-spelling of of atomic construction. We may conclude with
Stanfurt for Stassfurth, p. 41, Vollard for Volhard, Maxwell that 'Each molecule therefore throughout p. 106, and Spiegal for Spiegel, p. 206. The illustrathe universe bears impressed on it the stamp of a metric system as distinctly as does the metre of the
tions suffer very much from the rough surface of the archives at Paris or the double royal cubit of the paper. Temple at Karnac.
The name of Dr. G. Lunge on the title page of any
book, and especially one connected with technical TECHNICAL ANALYSIS.
analysis, would command a careful perusal and a Janual of Chemical Analysis. By E. Prost, D.Sc. thoughtful judgment. It must be confessed that in Translated by J. C. Smith, B.Sc. Pp. iv + 300.
the present case the author has not done himself (London : Maclaren and Sons, 1904.) Price 125. 6d.justice. Anyone who purchased the volume in the net.
hope of obtaining practical information on techno Techno-Chemical Analysis. By Dr. G.
Lunge. chemical analysis (the translator's rendering of Translated by A. 1. Cohn. Pp. vi + 136. (New chemisch-technische Untersuchungsmethoden) would. York : Wiley and Sons; London : Chapman and
to say the least, be disappointed. Hall, Ltd., 1905.) Price 4s. 6d. net.
When it is stated that in 128 small octavo pages. DR. R. PROST'S manual contains number of in addition to “ general operations," and gas, water, selected methods dealing more particularly with
and fuel analysis, the analysis of about eighty mineral and metal analysis which have been compiled, technical inorganic and organic products is described, so the presace states, for the use of the industrial further comment seems superfluous. The subject of chemist,” and which the author assures us are the glycerine, which comes under the section of soap. result of his own experience or that of specialists may be taken a specimen of the method of with whom he is in touch.
analytical treatment. The analysis of mineral products-silicates, phos
Glycerine is found in large quantity only in toilet phates, clays, cements, iron and iron ores, and the soaps. The method of determining it is given here, assaying of lead, silver, gold, &c., have been so
because it must be examined by itself as an individual
commercial article, and the glycerine yield of raw fully elaborated that no analyst deserving the name fats in the manufacture of stearin must also be would be satisfied without knowing the latest im- determined. The determination is effected either by provements in the methods connected with his own oxidation with potassium-permanganate solution in industry. A chemist in an iron works, for example, alkaline solution, precipitating the oxalic acid formed wants all the information he can obtain from the
as a lime salt, and titrating the latter, or by oxidation specialist who has made a minute study of iron and addition of an excess of ferrous sulphate solution of
with normal potassium-dichromate solution, with the steel analysis, including the character of etched | known effective value, and then titrating the disurfaces, and through whose hands a large variety chromate solution." of specimens have passed The same, of course, This occupies half a page, sugar is elaborately applies to raw materials and finished products of other treated in four pages, tanning in two and a half. manufactures. The works analyst is not a student, dyeing in as many as seven, mineral oils, vegetabit and though he may wish to be informed on analysis oils, and fats in seven, and so on. The most useful in general, it is not essential to his business, page in the volume is the bibliography of important Does Dr. Prost's book
whole fulfil its works of reference at the beginning, though it is promise? Whilst there is no doubt that many of the scarcely worth the price of the book. J. B. C.
p. 21 of
THE ZOOLOGICAL RECORD.
Mistakes and omissions there must of course be;
but these seem to be few and far between. We notice, The Zoological Record, l'olume the Fortieth; Relat
however, in the mammal part that Condylarthra has ing Chiefly to the Year 1903. Edited by D. Sharp.
been put in place of Amblypoda, while in the con(London: The Zoological Society, 1904.) Price
cluding paragraph of the first page of his introduction zos.
to the insects the editor is guilty of a blunder which EAR by year this invaluable publication appears should cause him to be lenient to the shortcomings of
with commendable regularity, and year by year his contributors. Whether he can escape blame for its bulk steadily increases, the bulk of the present errors like the omission of a reference number in the issue being nearly double that of its predecessor of
penultimate line of
the mammal part forty years ago. Hitherto the subscribers have yearly may, however, be open to question. obtained more for their money, but there are limits Taken all in all, the volume is a marvellous probevond which even the generosity of a great scientific duction, both as regards accuracy, fulness, and the society cannot go, and it has consequently been
comparatively early date of its appearance; and the decided, although with reluctance, that in future the
editor and his staff are entitled to the best thanks price of the annual volume must be increased. The
of the zoological world. When we have said that bulk of the present volume has been somewhat the “ Zoological Record” still stands without a rival, diminished by printing it on thinner paper than its we have said sufficient.
R. L. predecessors; and, although this innovation may have been unavoidable in order to bring the weight within the limits laid down by the Post Office for transmis
OUR BOOK SHELF. sion abroad, it cannot be said to be altogether an A Synonymic Catalogue of Orthoptera. By W. F. improvement, as in places the type shows through Kirby. Vol. i. Orthoptera Euplexoptera, Curin a decidedly obtrusive manner.
soria, et Gressoria. (Forficulidae, Hemimeridæ,
Blattidæ, Mantidæ, Phasmidæ.) Pp. Whether such a radical alteration
X + 501. was really
(London: the Trustees of the British Museum, inevitable may perhaps be doubtful, for it is quite
1904.) evident that a large amount of space might be saved
The value of such a general synonymic catalogue as if a uniform plan were adopted throughout the work.
this work is obvious, but the increased interest which For instance, in the section on mammals 385 titles has been taken in Orthoptera in recent years, and the are recorded and their subjects epitomised in a rapidly accumulating mass of literature, has made a space of forty-two pages, whereas in the section on complete and systematic catalogue of this order an chinoderms no less than 105 pages are taken up in
urgent necessity. The work is upon the same model
as the author's previous catalogue of dragon-flies. dealing with 339 papers.
The species are numbered, though no particular If such prolixity is necessary in the one case, it is order appears to have been followed; the distribuequally essential in the other; and, conversely, if the tion is iven in the margin, and synonymy is brief mode of treatment will suffice in one instance, attached, although a complete list of references is it should be adopted in the other. Much space might
not given in every case. One of the most prominent
features of the list is the conscientious manner in also be gained, without any loss, in the sections on
which the author refuses to admit as synonymous reptiles and fishes, as well as in certain others.
such names as to the absolute identity of which he This lack of uniformity in treatment is, in our is not personally convinced, resulting in an apparent opinion, the one point in which this “ Record
multiplication of species. Thus, on pp. 30 and 31, pares unfavourably with the one issued by the com- we find Spongiphora parallela, S. Therminieri, S. mittee of the “International Scientific Record”; and it
dysoni, and S. croceipennis all entered as separate is high time that it was amended. Surely the editor is
species, though nowadays there are few who doubt
their identity, and fewer still who can discriminate strong enough to keep his contributors in hand, and
between them. Again, on p. 2, Diplatys gerstaeckeri to make them do the work his way and not their and D. longisetosa are regarded as separate, although oun. As an instance of this slackness of the guid- it is impossible to distinguish them. To such an ing hand we may refer to the fact that in one of extent does the author carry this principle, that he the sections the recorder has been allowed to adopt
admits names published with figures only, such as
Pygidicrana huegeli, Sharp, and even Ancistrogaster the spelling Meiocene and Pleiocene, which is both
petropolis, Wood, based upon a reference and an wrong (on the supposition that we form our scientific
illustration in a popular work. But yet he relegates names through the Latin) and pedantic. If any Psalis indica, Hagenb., var. minor, Borm., as alteration in orthography of this nature were per- synonym of P. guttata, Borm., although the describer mitted, it should be the substitution of Plistocene for
insisted upon the extreme variability of the older Pleistocene; but if such a change were made i'
known species. But questions of nomenclature and
classification are of necessity controversial; many should run through the entire volume,
may disagree with the author's arrangement of the The comparatively early date at which many of the genus Labidura, in which a number of insufficiently sections are now sent to press renders it impossible to described so-called species are regarded as valid, include so many of the papers for the year to which only on account of the difficulty of proving their they specially refer as was formerly the case, but this
identity with the excessively variable and universally is a matter of no great moment, so long as such
distributed Labidura riparia, Pallas.
Otherwise, changes of well-known names are few. papers make their appearance in the volume for the We are glad to see Blatta retained, at the expense following year.
of Stylopyga for orientalis and not for germanica.
Hololampra, Saussure, 1864, replaces the
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. familiar Aphlebia, Brunner, 1865. But this catalogue should be received less with [The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions
expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake criticism than with gratitude to the painstaking
to return, or to correspond with the writers of rejected author, and we hope the second volume will appear
manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE at an early date; it will doubtless include such
No notice is taken of anonymous communications.] omissions have been unavoidable in the first volume, owing to the time necessary for publication.
The Infection of Laboratories by Radium.
M. B. In a recent attempt in the physics building of MeGill Percentage Tables for Elementary Analysis. By Leo University to make electroscopes with a very small natural F. Guttmann, Ph.D. Pp. 43. (London : Whittaker leak, repeated failures were encountered. The rate vi dis
charge of several instruinents, carefully made, was found and Co., 1904.) Price 3s. net.
to be about sixty to one hundred times as large as that This book is only intended to facilitate the calcula- obtained by Mr. H. L. Cooke two years earlier in the same tion of the results of an ordinary organic analysis, building. At first it was supposed that the insulation wi and its title, therefore, is somewhat misleading. It the sulphur bead was defective. But the natural lak was is stated that “the tables have been carefully large and unaffected when the upper support of the sulphur calculated and checked, they are therefore absolutely bead was raised to a higher potential than the gold leaf accurate." After this statement, nothing is left to system, so that the insulation was not at fault. Nor was us but to see if they are likely to be useful. After the rate of discharge altered when the electroscope was careful consideration of this question we are
entirely surrounded by lead one inch thick. Removal to pelled to give an unfavourable reply. If we have
another building produced no effect on the leak of the the analytical result that 0.1173 gr. of a substance electroscope. li appeared probable that the trouble was
due to the radio-activity of the materials from which thr gave 0.2869 gr. carbon dioxide, we
can, in the
electroscope was made. A rude instrument, made in ordinary course of things, by looking out the private house with a tobacco tin, the amber mouthpiere al logarithm of 0-2869, adding the easily remembered a pipe, and a cork, was found to give better results than logs. of 12/44 and of 100, and subtracting the log. of the most carefully constructed instrument in the physics 0:1173, get the log: of the percentage. But according building. Some electroscopes
made in the to the tables before us, we look out a number chemistry building, using materials which had never been corresponding to 0.117 and 0.28. We then look again into the physics building. Instruments with a very slow for a number corresponding to 0.118 and 0.28. We
rate of discharge were now easily manufactured. These subtract the two numbers, multiply by 0.3 by means
were used to test materials from various parts of the physics of another table, and subtract this result from building, and it was found that all were infected with the first number looked out. We
excited activity. Sheets of mica, lead foil, iron, zinc am
next find number corresponding to 0.117 and 0.69, divide by cupboards.
tin were all active, even when taken from drawers op 100 and add this result, and thus, after four
of the substances tested, the only one which showed no references to tables, two arithmetical operations in activity was some thin Dutch metal leaf kept between tissue the head, one subtraction and one addition on paper, paper in a closed drawer. About 90 per cent. of the excited we get our percentage. Appeal to
chemist activity could be removed from the metal sheets by strong constantly engaged in organic analysis has only hydrochloric acid, but the activity was transferred to the confirmed the view that these tables are unlikely to solution. It was also possible to volatilise a portion of the save time or to promote exactitude in the calculation of deposit by raising the metal sheet to a red-heat in a Bunsen organic analyses.
A. S. fame. Both a and B rays were detected, but it was diffiHow to Photograph with Roll and Cut Films.
cult to measure their exact proportion. The natural Irak
of an electroscope was increased to a measurable extent Amateur Photographer" Library, No. 30. By when a mica window was replaced by one cut from a sheet John A. Hodges. Pp. xviii + 120. (London: of mica kept in the physics building, Hazell, Watson, and Viney, Ltd., 1904.) Price is. The difficulty of conducting radio-active experiments in net.
rooms where strong preparations of radium were presen! The ever increasing number of photographers and
was early observed by Madame Curie, and later by Elster more especially amateurs, who work with either roll
and Geitel, but the present experiments seem to show that or cut films, will find in these pages all the necessary
the effect may be widely spread. The emanation from information for the production of pictures.
radium used in the large physics building has passed by The
convection and diffusion into various rooms. In a few data author does not pretend to have written a treatise on the whole art and science of photography, but he has changing substances radium A, B, and C. The further
each fresh supply of emanation is transformed into the rapidly given a straightforward account of the various oper- changes of the products of radium have been investigated by ations that have to be completed to ensure good Prof.' Rutherford, and described by him in his Bakerian results. The treatment is well suited for amateurs, lecture (Phil. Trans., vol. cciv., pp. 169-219), and in a and the numerous well reproduced illustrations serve recent letter to NATURE (February 12). In the former he has admirably to render many points clear.
pointed out that bodies exposed to the air in the open all
be covered with an invisible film of radio-active matter ou The Telescope. By Thomas Nolan. (New York . D. Van Nostrand Company, 1904.) Price 50 cents.
very slow rate of change, and that the strong radio-activity
observed in a room in which radium preparations have The first edition of this small treatise the once been used is probably due to the deposit on the walls elementary principles of optics as applied to telescopes of the room of this slowly decaying matter from the emanaappeared in 1881. In the present issue the author has tion. In his letter to NATURE, he has shown that radium left this matter practically as it first appeared, with
C gives rise to radium D, and that the further change to only one or two minor corrections, but has added a
E is rayless in character and attains half value in forty chapter describing in a brief manner the advances
years. The further change to F emits B rays, and reaches that have since been made. At the end is also given
half value in six days, whilst the change from F to the a bibliography relating to the telescope, which will be value in 150 days.
final product is accompanied with a rays, reaching hall of service to those who wish to study more in detail
The a and B rays emitted by the coating on the materials different branches of the subject to which slight in the physics building are doubtless due to the changes references only have been given. The book
is above mentioned. If the supply of emanation were arrested published in the Van Nostrand Science Series, and at the present date, the activity already deposited would should prove a useful addition.
rise to a maximum in two or three years, and then gradu.
ally decay, following an exponential law, and reaching half far towards a solution of many vexed problems as to value in forty years. But should the supply of emanation the relation betwen early Mexican culture and that of in the future equal that in the past, the activity would the Andean peoples-Chibchas of ancient Cundinacontinue to increase in magnitude for the next hundred
marca, the Quitos and Cañaris of Ecuador, the years or so, until the supply and decay of radium D attained Quichuas and Aymarás of the Inga empire.
Much a steady value. By that time radio-active experiments of a
of the data necessary to the formation of a just delicate nature would become difficult or impossible, as the excited activity would rapidly discharge a gold-leaf electro- of Turrialba, Irazú, Barba and Poás, and, in that
conclusion are buried on the slopes of the volcanoes scope. As the excited activity can be largely removed by acid,
richest of fields for archæological research, the the infection will at present cause no serious difficulty in
district lying between Lake Nicaragua and the Gulf the majority of experiments on radio-activity, particularly of Nicoya on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, while, as the leak arising from it remains almost constant for the lowlands lying between Nicaragua and the weeks or months. But when an electroscope with a very Atrato River of Colombia probably hide, under their small natural leak is required, it will be necessary to employ densely matted and almost impenetrable vegetation, fresh materials which have not been exposed to emanation. whatever evidences may exist of their occupation by It appears desirable, in the case of laboratories not yet
man, not only in the far-remote past, but even at infected, to keep radium in sealed vessels, and to blow the the date of the Spanish conquest. emanation into the open air, and not into the rooms of the
Hence we may welcome a scientific examination laboratories.
A. S. Eve. McGill University, Montreal, February 25.
of any section of the region outlined above, but especially when the results so carefully and
clearly set forth as they are in the work under International Atomic Weights.
review-a large quarto volume richly illustrated. Its The committees engaged in revising the tables of atomic publication, as well as the explorations of which it weights have now sent in their reporis for 1903. The one treats, have been made at the expense of Mr. Åke which appeared in the Berichte is, of course, printed in Sjogren, who has presented to the Royal EthnoGerman, and that which has just been circulated by the logical Museum of Stockholm the valuable Chemical Society is in English.
archæological collection with which Mr. Hartman Unfortunately, there is a want of uniformity in the naming returned home. This gentleman, whose studies had of the elements. Thus, in the English table we find
well equipped him for his task, proceeded Glucinum, GI, and Columbium, Cb, whereas in the German table these elements are called Berylium, Be, and Niobium,
Costa Rica in 1897, where he remained more than Nb, respectively. Historically, no doubt, the names adopted
a year in the territory once occupied by the Guëtare in the English table are more accurate. But in all text-books
He commenced his researches in May (the the names and symbols employed in the German tables are beginning of the rainy season) near the hacienda used, and have been for many years.
of Mercedes, which is situated the Guapiles It is difficult to see where the advantage in making the branch of the Costa Rica Railway, about fifty miles. change comes in, but, on the other hand, the disadvantages from Port Limon. of having two forms of nomenclature are obvious.
“ On the Atlantic side, the moisture-laden atmo
F. MOLLwo PERKIN. sphere and tropical heat have clothed the mountain London, March 8.
chains and the low swamp lands with eternal verdure,
with forests which are almost impenetrable, woven The Planet Fortuna.
together as they are by lianas passing from tree to PERHAPS Airy quoted his Juvenal correctly, which
Neither aboriginal nor Spanish culture ever * W. E. P." (p. 410) has failed to do. The poet was so made great inroads on the primeval forests of the well satisfied with the lines that he gives them twice, in Atlantic coast.” his tenth and fourteenth satires. And they run thus :
Near Mercedes is a mound about 100 feet in Vullum numen habes, si sit prudentia ; nos te
diameter at the base, 65 feet at the top, and Nos facimus, Fortuna, deam cæloque locamus.
feet high. It is in partially walled W. T. closure, and probably served as a platform on which
to erect statues facing the rising sun. The mound The lines are variously quoted, and I cannot say what may have been covered with a wooden structure version Airy favoured. I believe he spoke from memory.
with a thatched roof. Among the many human W. E. P. figures found there, all mutilated, were two of life
size, one of which is notable as having ear plugs.
The chest and back are crossed by two thick ropes, COSTA RICA. I
which pass over the shoulders and reach to the hips. UP P to 1540, Spain had reserved for the crown that
The right wrist supports a human head. part of the territory of Veragua lying west of large statue has its hands resting on the hips. The the portion which had been granted to the heirs of
heads of both figures are covered with conical hats. Columbus; but, in that year, it was erected into a
Rudely sculptured representations of alligators, pumas, province and called Costa Rica. It lies between
and other animals were found, but in fragments. Nicaragua and the newly hatched, but featherless, All of these, including the statues, were cut from republic of Panamá, and is the smallest State of hard, basaltic lava. the New World except Salvador. But it is one of
Mr. Hartman also examined the extensive burial the most interesting, for, with Panamá, it forms places of the ancient inhabitants of this district, and the connecting link between North and South opened a great number of cists. These varied in America, not only physically but ethnologically. If dimensions, but it is apparent that they were rarely more were known of its ancient inhabitants, their intended for the interment of more than one person. type, character, modes of life, habits and customs,
They had side and end walls of cobble stones, but inter-tribal relations and forms of worship, and of
the bottom and top were of slabs ó' limestone. The the ruins of ancient towns and burial places which
horizontal section of the cists was very irregular, are silently dotted over the country, one might go Only in one did he find traces of bone, but the dark I "Archäological Researches in Costa Rica." By C. V. Hartman. The
soil near the bottom seemed to prove that the body Royal Ethnological Museum in Stockholm. Pp. 195 ; mar + 57 plates.
or bodies had been placed there.' (Stockholm: C. E. Fritzes, 1901.)
Many vessels of burnt clay, sometimes roughly
decorated, were lying in the cists, but a great part decayed for removal. Summarising his year's work, of them, covered with soot, appear to have served he says of the culture of the Guëtares " that it as cooking utensils. Several contained charred proves to be that of a stone-age people of high standmaize and fragments of corn cobs. In one was ing, possessed of ornaments of gold and copper, but found some Millefiori beads, the manufacture of with no tools or weapons of metal at all. We have which was an important industry in Venice during no data whatever to enable us to determine how far the latter part of the fifteenth century, and the back into the past this culture reaches, but the author says that, “ Later on, I discovered a number presence of beads of glass in the graves goes to show of this kind in a grave at Osori in the highlands.” that it continued to exist after the arrival of the
Thus it appears that these Indian towns were still Spaniards. No traces of a more primitive culture in existence at the time of the Spanish invasion. were met with."
Mr. Hartman also opened a cache, similar to a Similar cists are to be found on the slopes of cist, but there was no proof that it had ever been Popocatapet in Mexico, Zaculen in Guatemala, used as a grave; in fact, it was too small. It con- Chiriqui in Panama, and at Arayo in the Cauca tained sixteen clay vessels, some of them ornamented, valley of Colombia. In outline and elegance, the and much broken pottery. There
several clay vessels of the Guëtares are inferior to those globular bowls and vases. “ The practice of secret- found in Chiriqui, but the objects in stone from the ing household articles as well as food in pits or in two sources closely resemble each other. caves has from early days been observed among It is to be regretted that Mr. Hartman has not widely disseminated tribes of North America." given us his views as to the ethnological relations o'
The work-yard of the ancient stone-cutters the Guëtares to the other aboriginal tribes of Central happily discovered, and many unfinished idols were America. No doubt, in his travels subsequent to the lying about.
researches so elaborately detailed in his valuable In June, 1895, I roughly examined the mounds volume, he must have formed opinions of much imand some of the graves near the hacienda of portance to the student of aboriginal Imerica. Costa Mercedes, and especially remember the two great Rica was a debatable ground between the Mexican statues described by Mr. Hartman. People resident
Fig. 1.-Shallow, tripod bowl found in Field II., Chircot. Height, 128 cm.;
Fig. 2.-Seat of Stone. Found in the forest in the neighbourbood of the Diameter, 22 cm. Fron “Archæological Researches in Costa Rica."
large mound, Mercedes. From “ Archæological Researches in Costa
Rica." in the vicinity, who know much of the region, said that the whole Santa Clara district, occupying the race and the warlike Carib of the northern shore of slopes of Turrialba, Irazú and Barba, and the South America. It may, perhaps, be conceded that heavily forested lowlands to the north and east, are an offshoot of the highland people of Mexico pressed dotted with ancient burial grounds.
south and east from Chiapas into and through the From the coast lands, Mr. Hartman ascended to long strip of the Pacific coast occupied by the the highland plains near Cartago, one and a half Chorotegas or Mangues, followed the Pacific slope of miles
of which town is the water divide, the Cordillera and the narrow belt of land between 5100 feet elevation, between the Atlantic and Pacific Lake Nicaragua and the ocean, penetrated into Oceans. Cartago is about 4800 feet above sea-level, north-western Costa Rica, settled and helped the and lies upon the southern slope of the volcano of Mangues to develop a considerable civilisation in the Irazú, the only one of Costa Rica which has ejected Guanacaste and Nicoya districts, and in part subdued compact lavas. In its eruptions of 1841 and 1851 it all the mountainous area lying north and west of the almost completely destroyed Cartago, which
river Reventazon. The culture which was the former capital of Costa Rica. In its vicinity Mr. characteristic of the region indicated was infinitely Hartman uncovered numerous cists similar to those superior to anything attained by the Guetares, for of Mercedes, but they contained a greater variety of the Mangue-Náhua people carried some of the arts, potsherds and ornamental pottery.
He made such as pottery, sculpture, weaving, and tilling the especially rich collections at a spot called Chircot, ground, to greater perfection than any of the tribe where he observed that a favourite figure of the occupying the territory between theirs and that of ancient artists a flute-playing god. In the the Chibchas of the plateau of Bogotá. In their stone-bordered necropolis at this place he found 205 graves are found examples of the ceramic art and cists, many of them in three layers. In about thirty gold ornaments showing taste in design superior to there were skeletons, or fragments of skeletons, which any that the present civilised Indian of Costa Rica averaged five feet in length. The skulls were doli- | can equal. Their graves produce beautiful specimens chocephalic, but of the remains
of obsidian, greenstone, and finely wrought nephrite