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tools and jade ornaments, knives, hatchets, arrow- Santos Dumont series, the ill-fated De Bradski airheads, armlets, rings, and a multitude of stone seats ship, the Lebaudy, Barton, Spencer, Baldwin, Benand idols.
bow, Beedle, and Deutsch forms. A few details of Let us hope that Mr. Hartman may follow up his these, collected for comparison, may be of interest. good and useful work by an exploration of the north- M. Santos Dumont's No. 7 is 160 feet long, and western slope of the country which has been the 23 feet in diameter, and is provided with a four-cylinder scene of his labours. GEORGE EARL CHURCH. motor capable of developing 60 horse-power and
making 1200 revolutions per minute. Its prede
cessor, No. 6, was 108 feet long and 20 feet in PROGRESS IN AËRIAL NAVIGATION. diameter, with a motor of 16-20 horse-power. This
was the machine which won the Deutsch prize, and problem of aërial navigation has been
its speed relative to the air was probably about 19 attacked by direct methods for
many miles an hour. No. 7 was originally intended to centuries that the results of the recent aëronautical
compete at St. Louis, but M. Santos Dumont did not competition at St. Louis can scarcely be regarded as
enter. a matter of surprise. It is doubtful whether the
The De Bradski airship is now a thing of the offering of large prizes for the achievement of a
II feet long and weighed about result which has been attempted for years without
1923lb., and a special feature was that the machine success is the best means of promoting progress. was not qui light enough to raise itself, the ascent
As will have been learnt from the daily Press the being effected by a screw revolving in a horizontal great prize of 20,000l. was not even competed for, plane. The experiment ended in October, 1902, with and a much more useful purpose would have been
a fatal accident, the airship becoming unmanageserved by a systematic and organised attempt to able, and the car breaking away owing to the weakencourage, means of prizes, investigations
ness of its supporting wires. calculated to throw an indirect light on the general
The experiments of MM. Lebaudy have been question of aërial navigation, such, for example, as
remarkably successful in spite of an accident which improvements in the efficiency of propellers, diminu- destroyed their first machine in November, 1903. tion of the angle of gliding of gravity-propelled This did not deter these indefatigable aëronauts from machines, reduction of air-resistance of motor-pro- constructing, partly out of the wreckage of the old pelled balloons, solution of the difficulties connected
one, a new machine of the following dimensions :with longitudinal stability, especially in gliding Length 38 metres, greatest diameter 3.8 metres. machines travelling at low speeds, and what is still volume of gas 2600 cubic metres, or about 94,000 cubic more important, the discovery of new results in any feet; motor, a four-cylinder Daimler of 40 horse-power direction whatever calculated open up fresh running at 250 to 1200 revolutions per minute; promethods of approaching the whole question.
pellers, two screws 2.44 metres in diameter running If we chronicle merely the attempts that have at 800 to 1000 revolutions per minute. Of the thirty successfully been made in striking out on new lines,
voyages made with this “ aërial cruiser " in 1904, the leaving out of account improvements subsequently
following appear to have been the most successful :made on the same lines, and also omitting early August 16, a distance of 16 miles in 41 minutes; attempts such as those of Dante of Perugia and Le November 22,
a run of 1 hour 33 minutes. An Bris, a history of aërial navigation will be summed
accident occurred August 28 owing to the up in the following short list :-(1) Montgolfier's dis- swimmer ” breaking loose, but it floated away to covery of the balloon; (2) application of mechanical a distance and finally got caught in a wood 70 power to the propulsion of balloons by Renard and kilometres distant, whence it was brought back with Krebs ; (3) introduction of gliding experiments under slight damage. The present model is remarkably gravity by Lilienthal; (4) the introduction of explo- like a fish in shape, and the resemblance is further sion engines and other light motors theoretically accentuated by the tail-like double horizontal rudder capable of maintaining a flying machine in the air. in the stern. The balloon has a flat base with a Each of these innovations has brought the goal more long vertical keel, and all these arrangements are distinctly in view, and yet experiments so far have well calculated to make it travel steadily. left a wide gap between the results of actual per- Beyond the mere rumour of an accident last spring formance and what is necessary to render aërial the Barton airship seems to have lapsed into oblivion navigation practically useful. The special difficulty of late, but it must not be forgotten that a year is connected with aërial navigation is that it is not small interval of time in the construction of aëroeasy to see how to approach the problem except by nautical machines. The dimensions given are direct methods of attack, while the great majority follows :-Length of balloon 170 feet, diameter of scientific discoveries have been made indirectly as 40 feet, total estimated weight 15,700lb. ; number of the result of observations originally undertaken for propellers, six, each consisting of six blades arranged some entirely different object that has been known tandem fashion, placed in pairs, one each from the very outset to be possible of attainment. side of each motor; motors, three in number, develop
By analogy with fishes and birds, respectively, the ing 50 horse-power each, and running at 16oo revolutwo forms of machine experimented on, involving as tions. A peculiarity of Dr. Barton's design is the they do the use of gas bags and aëroplanes or aëro- series of aëroplanes, thirty in number, employed to curves, might not inappropriately be described as the raise the machine. The shape of the balloon and aerial swimming machine and the flying machine the structure of the underlying framework and car proper. It is somewhat remarkable in the face of suggest the possibility of considerable head resistnatural evidence that the swimming machine has up to the present proved by far the most tractable of of the performances o Messrs. Spencer's airthe two, and has undoubtedly led to the best results. ship satisfactory records were given in the Press at It is the safest to experiment with. That accidents the time. The dimensions are: Length 93 feet, have frequently occurred is perfectly true, but they diameter 24 feet; propeller, a single screw 12 feet in have all been attributable to causes not beyond the diameter, placed in front; engine of 24 horse-power ken of an ordinary practical but intelligent mechanic. running at 1050 revolutions.
Of aerial swimmers constructed within the last few Mr. Baldwin', and Mr. Benbow's airships, exyears the most notable ones are undoubtedly the hibited at St. Louis, appear not to have made any
noteworthy performances, the former having failed If observations of this kind were made it would to stem a wind of six to eight miles an hour, and be possible to work out on paper the oscillations, and the latter having made progress at the rate of three to ascertain the lowest velocity at which a machine miles an hour. We have before us a brief descrip- would glide safely. tion of the machine with which Mr. Beedle made a But experimenters have hitherto confined their successful preliminary trial in November, 1903, and attention to measurements of the air resistance, and further trials were promised for last spring. Mr. very few have up to the present given much atten. Beedle proposed to dispense with rudders and steer tion even to the variations in the position of the by means of a screw fan in front which could be centre of pressure except for a few cases such as a turned in any desired direction, an arrangement square lamina. The object in most cases has been calculated to leave much to be desired in the matter merely to find out the speed at which a flying machine of steadiness. The particulars are :—Length 90 feet, would travel under favourable conditions, and not its diameter 24 feet, horse-power 12. Of the Deutsch powers of extricating itself from the most unfavour. “ swimmer 's only a model was exhibited at St. Louis. able positions which it might assume on a gusty day.
A comparison of the figures of several of these air- “Stability of motion " is a phenomenon which rarely ships gives the impression that the Lebaudy balloon enters into practical problems. In the flying is far ahead of most of its rivals in its well designed machine it is of paramount importance. proportions. The only questionable feature is the A similar mathematical investigation has been presence of horizontal rudders at the back of the car, made by Signor G. A. Crocco in Italy, in connection in a place where they might prevent the stream lines with stability of airships, but the author obtains of air from closing round the balloon, and thus an equation of the third instead of the fourth degree. increase the resistance. About this point MM. He, however, takes no account of the fluctuations in Lebaudy are best able to judge.
the horizontal motion, which are certainly of The limits of speed of the aërial swimmer attain- importance in the case of gliders. able by existing methods are now pretty well known, Meanwhile the artificial balancing of gliders under and fall far short of the amount necessary to travel gravity has been the subject of a considerable number in the teeth of a high wind. Still, the navigable of experiments in America, and more recently in balloon offers the most promising field of experiment France, and the initial success of Mr. Orville Wright for those who are not prepared to devote themselves in rising from the ground on a motor-driven machine to a long course of purely mathematical and experi- in the face of a wind and landing safely constitutes mental researches, or run blindfold into the the first achievement of an actual flight. It is a dangers which such a course of study would enable matter of congratulation that Mr. Wright was not so them to predict.
emboldened by his success that he became reckless, For the successful realisation of mechanical flight and pushed the experiments on to a premature proper, what is most wanted is a complete and ex- end. haustive investigation, both by mathematical and The large curved surfaces of the disastrous experimental methods, of the longitudinal stability Lilienthal and Pilcher experiments have now given of various forms of machine gliding at various angles place to a pair of narrow superposed rectangles, first either under gravity alone or when mechanically pro- | introduced by Chanute and Herring. The tail has pelled.
since, in the hands of Messrs. Wilbur and Orville The small fluctuations of a gliding machine about Wright, been replaced by a front rudder, and the steady motion are determined by exponential functions adoption of a horizontal position "à plat ventre " of the time the coefficients of which are the roots of shows that the maintenance of balance has been an equation of the fourth degree. If these roots reduced to a matter of steering. determine oscillatory motions there will be, not one, These types of gliders have been taken up in but two different oscillations of the machine in a France by Captain Ferber, of the Artillery, and vertical plane. Either of these oscillations may subsequently by Mr. Ernest Archdeacon, both of whom increase or decrease with the time, and unless they have become enthusiastic “ aviators," and have in both tend to decrease the pitching will become their turn brought gliding experiments into considerdangerous and the machine will overturn. Photo- able popularity in that country. As Captain Ferber graphs of the paths of gliders taken by Mr. Williams remarks, a sloping hillside with a wind blowing some time ago with magnesium light distinctly straight up it are necessary, and a convenient experishowed the two oscillations, and in several cases the menting ground has been found at Meudon. With final overturning in a manner perfectly consistent the object of experimenting on larger motor-driven with theory.
models Captain Ferber constructed an aërodrome Now it is possible to determine experimentally for consisting of a column eighteen metres high, supportany given machine the coefficients of stability when ing a rotating beam thirty metres across. This gliding at every different angle. To do this it would apparatus would be very useful for determining the be necessary to measure, by means of dynamometers, stability coefficients of an actual machine firmly the force and couple components acting on either a attached to its beam, but it must not be forgotten full-sized machine or a model when moved through that any kind of suspension may seriously modify the air in different directions in its plane of symmetry. the longitudinal oscillations. So, too, may the rotaIt is necessary also to take account of the small tion about the vertical axis; it is much easier to make changes in these forces and couples when the machine a glider describe a corkscrew path than glide in a has a small rotational motion, such as occurs when straight line. A kite illustrates the same properties it is turning upwards or downwards in the course of Its oscillations also depend on a biquadratic equa. its oscillations. These small changes may, and in all tion, but the supporting string modifies their probability do, play an important part in affecting the character, and Mr. Cody claims that a man has stability. A whirling table gives exactly the kind of been lifted 1600 feet by kites, though how the photosmall rotation required in addition to the necessary graph of the Cody man-lifting kite 800 feet high" translatory motion. By reversing the model experi was taken, which appears in the Aëronautical Journal
, mented on the direction of this rotation may be is not explained. The use of kites for saving reversed, and the differences of the two sets of life at sea might well receive more attention than dynamometer readings will give three of the coefficients has been bestowed on this question up to the present. of stability.
The clumsy plan of sending up rockets in the teeth
ot a gale such as would just blow a kite line from a lyre of seven strings (which are therefore older ship to shore needs reconsideration.
than Terpander by a thousand years); men carrying Little has been published about Prof. Langley's animals in their arms; and lastly the dead man experiments beyond a reference to the accident which himself, standing beside a tree before his own tomb gave Prof. Manley a premature bath in the Potomac. and receiving the pious offerings. A most noteworthy
The idea of combining a glider and boat was tried fact in this representation is that the men initially with success and ultimately with failure by women's skirts. Herr Kress on a reservoir a few miles out of Vienna, Next come three vases of steatite, each bearing a near the main railway line from Germany. Major scene carved in relief. The workmanship of these Baden-Powell has adopted the same plan at the carvings is astonishing for its finish, and the designs Crystal Palace. The machine descends a kind of
are full of life, reminding us not distantly of good chute from a height of about thirty feet, and is shot Attic work. On one vase a couple of youths stand face ofi into the air about six feet above the water. With to face, one leaning upon a spear or staff, the other this small height it is not, unlikely that successful bearing over his shoulders a staff and a whisk of some glides might be made even if the steady motion were
sort. Both are naked, save for the familiar loincloth longitudinally unstable, for by careful projection of the Mycenæans (which the Greeks never wore, exseveral wave-lengths might safely be described in
cept in the very earliest times at the Olympian games), the air before the pitching became dangerous.
and high boots of the same kind which are still worn It is probable that a motor driven machine in Crete and always have been. The second vase repretravelling at high speed would be much more stable than a gravity machine, but to understand the boxing, and a bull-hunt or bull-baiting. The boxers
sents several pairs of men, some wrestling and some management of the machine is a necessary condition of success, and the more this can be made the subject have their hands bound about with straps of leather, of mathematical study the easier will the task be for
or something like a fingerless glove. Some of these an aëronaut who is perfectly familiar with the equa
men wear helmets, which in part at least seem to be tions of motion. In regard to the effect of speed on
made of metal; and helmets hitherto have been unstability , the pretty butterfly-like " helicoptera.” But the last vase is the most striking of all
. driven by elastic must not be quoted as instances. *They raise themselves nearly vertically; we
bears a procession of men marching two and two, led concerned with machines moving nearly horizontally. by a personage clad in a stiff bell-shaped tunic covered From all that has been said above it will be seen
with scales. He is bareheaded and carries a long that there is plenty of work to be done in connection
staff or sceptre resting upon his shoulder. The men with aërial navigation. At the present time, careful
behind him wear flat caps something like to a turban, quantitative measurements of 'the coefficients of
and loincloths, and each carries over his left shoulder stability of actual machines by attaching them to
a long pole branching out into three long flexible whirling tables are even more needed than further wands at the end. In the middle of the procession balancing experiments in mid-air.
are four men singing, one bearing the sistrum of G. H. BRYAN. Isis; these have no wands. Some see in this a
triumphal procession of soldiers after war. The lack
of arms or shields makes this unlikely; the threePHAISTOS AND HAGIA TRIADA, CRETE.
pronged objects can hardly be weapons, for they seem N the south of Central Crete, a day's journey from
to be flexible, but what they are it is impossible to IN Candia on a good horse, lies the scene of dis
say. Those are more likely to be right who believe
it to be a harvest festival of some kind, and the threecoveries no less important than those of Dr. A. J. pronged implement an implement used in Evans at Knossos. They consist of the ruins of two
harvesting process. If we may assume that these palaces, one large and one small, but both built on
objects have no use at all, but are ornamental (which the same general plan and with the same materials is not likely), the whole might be a religious procession (stone and concrete) as that which has made Dr.
without regard either to war or husbandry. Evans famous. There can be no doubt that all three belong to one age and one social system; that they were under one Government is clear from the fact that none of the three were fortresses. Crete was,
NOTES. in fact, as Thucydides told us long ago, a sea-power
Tue Bakerian lecture of the Royal Society will be which had no fear of assault by land. With the delivered by Dr. Horace T. Brown, F.R.S., on March 23, architectural or historical interest of these remains upon the subject of “ The Reception and Utilisation of we need not concern ourselves at present, nor with Energy by the Green Leaf." the general character of the articles found in them. In all three we meet with vessels of use and ornament,
It is proposed to erect in Jena a memorial to Prof. Ernst painted frescoes, inscribed blocks or tablets, seals, | Abbe, so that all who see it may be reminded of his great human and animal figures, and articles of domestic services to optical science and industry, and his sterling or religious character. But in or near Hagia Triada qualities as a man. Abbe's work and influence are apthere came to light a number of objects of special preciated wherever physical science and sociology are interest which distinguish that palace, smallest of studied, and there should be no difficulty in obtaining the three, above the others.
sufficient funds to raise a noble monument to his memory. First there is a sarcophagus of stone, painted upon The committee organised for this purpose includes the all four sides. Each of the two ends bears a chariot names of Dr. Czapski, Dr. Eggeling, Dr. G. Fischer, in which are two female figures; a pair of horses
Prof. Rosenthal, and Prof. Winkelmann. Subscriptions for draws one, a pair of griffins the other. The two sides
the memorial should be sent to the treasurer, Dr. Gustav bear a representation of sacrifice to the dead. Men Fischer, Jena. leading animals—bull, goat, or sheep-women with baskets of fruit, others with bowls apparently full of Science states that the Prussian Academy of Science has wine or some other liquid, which is being poured awarded its Helmholtz medal to Prof. Ramón y Cajal, into a large jar; a flutist and a harper, playing upon professor of neurology at Madrid.
It is announced that Prof. Albert B. Prescott, professor has also been appointed a member of the staff of the Royal of organic and applied chemistry, dean of the school of Infirmary, Liverpool, in accordance with the terms of the pharmacy and director of the chemical laboratory of the donation that the research work in cancer should be carried University of Michigan, died on February 26 in his seventy- on at that infirmary. From the same source we learn
that, in response to an appeal made for funds to initiale a We learn from the Times that negotiations are in active permanent memorial to the late Sir W. M. Banks, the progress for the amalgamation of the Society of Arts and sum of 55231. has been subscribed. Of this amount, the the London Institution. A scheme has been prepared by a sum of 1500l, is to be devoted to founding a lectureship, to joint committee, and it only remains to be submitted to be attached to the University of Liverpool, and to be called the general body of the members, whose assent in all the Mitchell Banks lectureship." The University author, likelihood will be given.
ities will be enabled to invite yearly a distinguished A COMMITTEE of the French Physical Society has arranged
surgeon, pathologist, or anatomist to treat of the latest to have a medal struck in commemoration of M. Alfred investigations and discoveries in medical science. Cornu.
At the Optical Convention to be held in Mar neri al The Royal Society of Naples (mathematical and physical the Northampton Institute, Clerkenwell, to which attention section) has awarded its prize of 401. to Prof. E. Pascal, has already been directed in these columns, the following the subject being the theory of the invariants of the ternary amongst other papers will be read. Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, quartic with special reference to the conditions for splitting F.R.S., will deliver the presidential address. Mr. H. into inferior forms. A prize of zol. is now offered for the Dennis Taylor will read a paper on some properties of best essay in Italian, Latin or French on “ The theory of lens systems; Mr. Walter Rosenhain will deal with two subelectrons and the dispersion of light.” The last day for jects-the mechanical design of instruments, and some sending in is June 30, 1906, and the essays are to be sub- problems relating to optical glass; Dr. C. 1. Drysdale mitted under a pseudonym.
will discuss binoculars, and, in collaboration with Mr. Since our note on the late Prof. Emilio Villari appeared
S. D. Chalmers, will introduce a discussion on aberration : in last week's NATURE, we have received a copy of the
Mr. J. Gordon will take up the question of diffraction in Rendiconto of the physical and mathematical section of the optical instruments; Mr. J. Blakesley, some optical Neapolitan Royal Society (x., 8-11) containing another
measurements; Mr. J. H. Sutcliffe, ophthalmometers; Dr. notice of Prof. Villari by Prof. L. Pinto. It differs from
R. M. Walmsley, education in optics; Prof. Forbes, spectrothe previous notices in containing a general summary
scopic vision; Prof. Poynting. F.R.S., a parallel plate of the scope of Villari's works, classified under the
micrometer; and Dr. W. Watson, F.R.S., sused quartz fer various headings of acoustics, molecular mechanics, heat, optical purposes. Full particulars of the convention can be light, electricity, and Röntgen rays, and it will be found a
obtained from the secretary, Mr. C. L. Redding, at the very useful notice for purposes of reference, especially for Northampton Institute, Clerkenwell, E.C. physicists, whose time is limited, interested in Villari's
The March number of the American Journal of Scienne researches.
contains a short account of the work of Prof. A. S The Lancet states that the King has acceded Packard, who died in Providence, R.I., on February 14. suggestion that the skeleton of Ambush II., the famous at the age of nearly sixty-six years.
Prof. Packard was steeplechaser from the Royal Stables which died some graduated from the Maine Medical School and the Lanweeks ago, should find a place in the Museum of Veterinary rence Scientific School in 1864. At Cambridge, Mass., he Anatomy at the University of Liverpool. The skeleton will one of that remarkable group of students-Hyatı be mounted and placed in a prominent position at the Morse, Packard, Putnam, Scudder, Shaler and VerrillUniversity museum, and a plate will be affixed giving a associated with the elder Agassiz in the early 'sixties. H. short history of the well-known horse.
served for a time in 1864-5 as assistant surgeon in the It is announced in the Electrician that Lord Kelvin will U.S. Army, but never became a regular practitioner el be the recipient of the first John Fritz gold medal awarded medicine, his life being devoted to his choseo work ir by the joint committee of the four national American zoology and geology. He was specially distinguished a engineering societies, under the deed of gift, to the man an entomologist, and he was an enthusiastic field naturalist, most representative of, and eminent in, scientific advance collector, and explorer, and a voluminous author who wrote in the engineering field. This medal was founded three on a remarkably wide range of subjects. He will probably br years ago on the occasion of the eightieth birthday of John longest remembered for his original work on insects and Fritz, the famous inventor and engineer in the iron and his several text-books on entomology and zoology. Earls steel industry, who is still enjoying excellent health.
in his career he accepted the theory of evolution and later Os Tuesday next, March 21, Prof. W. E. Dalby will
became an ardent neo-Lamarckian. One of his last workdeliver the first of a course of two lectures at the Royal
Lamarck, the Founder of Evolution, his Life and Institution on Vibration Problems in Engineering,” and
Work." He was one of the founders of the American on Thursday, March 23, Mr. Thomas G. Jackson will begin a
Naturalist, for twenty years its chief editor, and a constant course of two lectures on “ The Reasonableness of Architec
contributor to its pages. Prof. Packard was a member ol ture.” The Friday evening discourse on March 24 will be
the National Academy of Sciences and of many othor delivered by Sir Oliver Lodge, his subject being A Per
scientific societies. tinacious Current," and on March 31 by Prof. J. Wright on The ceremony “ The Scientific Study of Dialects.” Prof. Meldola will
of transferring the museum of the
Hastings and St. Leonards Museum Association to the give the first of his two lectures on Synthetic Chemistry (experimental) on Thursday, April 6.
Corporation of Hastings took place on March 1. The
museum is a representative one, and is divided into several The Liverpool correspondent of the Lancet states that sections. The anthropological section includes a cosmoMr. J. E. S. Moore, who has become director of politan ethnological collection, geographically arranged. In cancer research in succession to Prof. A. S. F. Grünbaum, it are some good local bronze and bone obiects, it series :
Veolithic stone implements from many parts of the world, thermometer to instruments of an ordinary character. an ethnological collection from New Guinea and the South There are to be seen the thermometers in use in Sir J. C. Sea Islands, the relies recovered from the Hastings kitchen Ross's Antarctic Espedition, 1839-43, and in the Arctic exmiddens-numbering many thousands of specimens—and peditions 1850–59, as well as thermometers used by the many worked fints of the Paläolithic period. The gec- National Antarctic Expedition 1901-4.
These instruments logical section is remarkable for its collection of animal show the greater degree of accuracy obtainable in manuremains of the Pleistocene period from the Lewis Abbott facture now than was the case, say, half a century ago. collection, and a collection of Wealden fossils from the Barometers and barographs exhibit considerable advance. tieighbourhood. The biological section has a representative An instrument of considerable value is Dines's self-recording collection of the local fauna. After the museum had been mercurial barometer; and a microbarograph, for the study accepted by the Mayor on behalf of the Corporation of of minor variations of atmospheric pressure, under the joint Hastings, Sir Arthur Rücker, F.R.S., delivered a short names of Mr. W. H. Dines and Dr. W. N. Shaw, is likely address, in which he emphasised the value of museums in to prove of much value. A typical climatological station is the study of natural science, and commended the active part shown, its enclosure containing all the necessary instrumunicipal authorities are now taking in educational work. ments in position for observation. A prominent position Dr. J. J. H. Teall, F.R.S., expressed the opinion that local is given to aëronautics, and there are specimen kites with museums should illustrate local natural history, and out- meteorograph in position. There are anemometers of very lined a plan which would secure this end. Sir Harry varied description, many of these being self-recording. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., also spoke on the value of Sunshine recorders, past and present, are to be seen, from
the wooden bowl, by Campbell, used as early as 1853, to A BOTTLE thrown overboard in latitude 29° 30' N., long- Stokes. Among the many drawings and photographs
the almost perfect instrument known as the Campbellitude 68° 10' W., by Colonel Swalm, C.S. Consul at South
may be mentioned the water-colour drawings made during ampton, in May, 1903, has just been found on the Donegal coast, Ireland, near Arranmore. The bottle had apparently cloud effects. The Royal Meteorological Society is to be
the recent National Antarctic Expedition, exhibiting sky and been carried by the Gulf Stream along the North American
congratulated on the thoroughly interesting character of coast, then across the Atlantic to the Irish coast. To travel
the exhibition. this distance it had taken 662 days at an approximate speed of five miles a day.
PROF. H. HERGESELL 'has communicated to the Comptes
rendus of the Paris Academy of Sciences, January 30, some ACCORDING to a Reuter despatch from St. Petersburg,
of the preliminary results of the kite ascents made on the dated March 9, the North Pole Commission has officially
yacht of the Prince of Monaco in the Mediterranean and declared that the expedition under Baron Toll to the new
North Atlantic Ocean in the summer of 1904. Altogether, Siberian Islands, in the Arctic Ocean, has ended with the death of all the members of the party. The party sent in
twenty-five ascents were made, eight in the Mediterranean,
one in the Baltic, and sixteen in the Atlantic. The principal search of the expedition found in Benett Island a letter object of the latter was the exploration of the meteorological written by Baron Toll saying that the members of the
conditions in the region of the trade winds. The results expedition had continued on their journey though having
show that in the lowest strata of the air there is a cononly eighteen or twenty days' provisions left. It is therefore believed that Baron Toll and his companions perished
siderable decrease of temperature with increas” of altitude ;
the adiabatic gradient (1° C. per 100 metres) is always of hunger.
attained, and even exceeded in the lowest stratum. The THE Weekly Weather Report of March u issued by depth of this adiabatic stratum varies from 100 to 600 the Meteorological Office showed that the rainfall from metres; the relative humidity at the sea-level is 70 or 80 the beginning of the year was still deficient in all districts per cent., and rises gradually to 95 or 100 per cent. At except the north of Scotland and the north of Ireland ; the upper limit of this stratum a sudden change occurs ; the deficiency amounted inches and upwards in the temperature rises quickly by several degrees, and the several parts of England and in the south of Ireland. humidity suddenly diminishes to below 50 per cent. The During the recent severe gales, however, falls of about temporature continues to rise, through a stratum an inch in twenty-four hours have been recorded in several times extending to a depth of 1000 metres, and the humidity localities, In the neighbourhood of London the rainfall decreases to 10 or 20 per cent. ; at a height of 1000 metres, during the part of the present month already elapsed has temperatures of 30° C. are experienced, while at the seaexceeded the mean for March, which is 1.5 inch.
level only 22° or 23° are recorded. Above this stratum the Is exhibition of meteorological instruments with photo
adiabatic gradient again holds, but the humidity is low, graphs and records of meteorological phenomena, under the compared with that of the first adiabatic stratum. In the auspices of the Royal Meteorological Society, was opened being about sixteen miles an hour ; with increasing eleva
lower stratum the N.E. trade is experienced, the velocity on Tuesday at the Institution of Civil Engineers, Great George Street, Westminster, and the exhibition will remain
tion the wind gradually shifted through N. to N.W., and in open until 5 p.m. to-morrow, Friday. The instruments ex
two instances it shifted through E. to S.E. and S. 1
south-westerly current, which would correspond to the hibited represent all branches of meteorology, and show
theory of anti-trades, was never exhibited by the kites, clearly the great advance which the science has made in recent years. Continuous records can
although they several times exceeded the height of the Peak
now be secured in nearly all branches, and in many of these ample choice is perienced in the highest strata did not exceed seven or nine
of Teneriffe. The velocity of the N.W. or S.E. winds exprovided. There are several forms of self-recording rain
miles an hour, and was generally still less in the intergauges, notably the Beckley and the Richard patterns,
mediate strata. while Halliwell's improved float pattern pluviograph is of more recent invention, and of exceptional scientific value. Tue latest issues of the Proceedings of the U'.S. National The thermometer exhibits are fairly numerous, and of Museum include a description, by Dr. Steineger, of a gecko various designs, from Callendar's electrically recording and three frogs from the Philippines, and an article by Mr.