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Girders, and Columns, in Machines and Structures, with * The Vegetable Garden, or the Edible Vegetables, Salads Examples in Graphic Statics," by W. H. Atherton, illus- and Herbs Cultivated in Europe and America," by W. trated ; “Smoke Abatement," by W. Nicholson, illustrated ; Robinson. and new editions of Electrical Practice in Collieries," by Messrs. George Newnes, Ltd., promise :-"Reptile Lile," D. Burns, illustrated ; " The Principles and Construction of by W. P. Pyeraft. Pumping Machinery (Steam and Water Pressure)," by H. Messrs. Oliver and Boyd (Edinburgh) direct attention to :Davey, illustrated ; The Metallurgy of Steel,” by F. W. “ Structural and Field Geology for Beginners in Geology Harbord, illustrated ; “ Gas, Oil, and Air Engines, " by and Students of Mining, Civil Engineering. Agriculture, B. Donkin, illustrated ; and “ Properties of Matter” (vol. i. Public Health, &c.," by Prof. J. Geikie, F.R.S., illustrated of " A Text-Book of Physics ''), by Profs. J. H. Poynting, Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons give notice of :--" The Cav F.R.S., and J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., illustrated.

for Physical Culture, by

1. Hancork, illusMr. Heinemann directs attention to :-“ Publications of an trated; " The Jordan Valley and Petra," by Prof American Archæological Expedition to Syria in 1899-1900, W. Libbey and Rev. F. E. Hoskins, ilustrated : part iv., Semitic Inscriptions,” by Dr. E. Littmann, illus- Physical Regeneration," by J. Cantlie, illustrated; "The trated.

Trees of North-Eastern America, with introdurtius by Messrs. Hodder and Stoughton's list includes :-“ Nerves X. L. Britton; and new editions of “The Shrubs of Northin Order, or the Maintenance of Health,” by Dr. A. T. Eastern America," by C. S. Newhall, illustrated: " in Schofield ; “Modern Electricity,” by J. H. and K. J. Hora ; Introduction to Vertebrate Embryolog, based on the Study “ Woodmyth and Fable,” by E. Thompson Seton ; The of the Frog and the Chick," by Dr. A. M. Reese, illus. Lure of the Labrador Wild, a Story of the Exploring Ex- | trated ; Materia Medica for Nurses," by L L. Dock: pedition conducted by Leonidas Hubbard, jun.,"' by D. and " Thinking, Feeling, Doing," by Dr. E. W. Scriptura, Wallace; and The New Knowledge, a Simple Explanation illustrated. of the New Physics and the New Chemistry in their Relation The list of the Walter Scott Publishing Co. includes to the New Theory of Matter," by Prof. R. K. Duncan. “ Diet and Hygiene for Infants," by Dr. F. H. Alder-ou.

Mr. U. Hoepli (Milan) announces :—“ Contribuzioni alla Messrs. Swan Sonnenschein and Co., Ltd., announce Storia della Botanica, by O. Penzig; and “ La Flora The History of Philosophy," by Dr. J. E. Erdmann, fitta Legnosa del Sottoceneri," by A. Bettelini.

German edition, revised by W. B. Erdmann, an Engli In Messrs. Longmans and Co.'s list we notice :- A abridgment, translated and edited by W. S. Hough: Systematic Course of Practical Organic Chemistry," by Student's' Text Book of Zoology," by A. Sedgwick, L. G. Radcliffe ; Elementary Steam Engineering,” by F.R.S., vol. i., illustrated ; " The Races of South H. W. Metcalfe, illustrated ; and An Atlas of Derma- Africa : their Migrations and Invasions, showing the tology,” by Dr. M. Dockrell ; " A Common Humoral Factor Intrusion of the Stronger Races into Hunting Groundof Disease, and its Bearing on the Practice of Medicine," of the Ancient Abatura Bushmen, the Abcriginal by Dr. F. Hare, 2 vols. ; " Ice or Water, another Appeal to Cave Dwellers of the Country" by G. W. Stow Induction from the Scholastic Methods of Modern Geology," illustrated ; Physiological Psychology,' translation by Sir H. H. Howorth, K.C.I.E., F.R.S.

of the fifth and wholly re-written (1902-3) German Messrs. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., direct attention to :- edition, by Prof. E. B. Titchener, vol. ii., illustrated , ard “ The Life History of British Flowering Plants, by Lord new editions of Introduction to the Study of Organic Avebury, F.R.S. ; “ The Historical Relations of Medicine Chemistry," by J. Wade ; “ Sanatoria for Consumptes and Surgery,” being the address delivered at the St. Louis in Various Parts of the World,” by F. R. Walters, illus Exhibition by Prof. T. Clifford Allbutt, F.R.S. ; · Tribes trated ; and " Handbook of Systematic Botany." by Dr. E. of the Malay Peninsula," by W. W. Skeat, illustrated ; " A Warming, edited by Prof. M. C. Potter, illustrated. Treatise on Chemistry, by Sir H. E. Roscoe, F.R.S., and The list of the University Tutorial Press, Lid., comProf. C. Schorlemmer, F.R.S., i., The Non-Metallic prises :-" Chemistry, First Stage, Theoretical Organic Elements," revised by Drs. H. G. Colman and A. Harden : by Dr. R. A. Lyster ; Chemistry, Junior,** by R. H. ** Stonehenge Astronomically Considered, by Sir Normandie : Technical Electricity, by Prof. H. T. Davidga Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S., illustrated ; The Theory of and R. W. Hutchinson ; Magnetism and Electricity Light,” by Dr. C. E. Curry; “ Magnetism and Electricity School, by Dr. R. H. Jude ; * Practical Physics, by for Students," by H. E. Hadley ; Lectures on the Phil- W. R. Bower; Properties of Matter," by C. I. I.. Wag. osophy of Kant, and other Lectures and Essays,” by the late staff; “ Elementary Science of Common Life (Chemistry), Prof. H. Sidgwick ; Philosophical Studies," by D. G. by W. T. Boone ; Physiography, Section One **; Ritchie, edited by Prof. R. Latta; and a new edition of metry, Junior," by W. P. Workman and A. G. Cracknell; " A Handbook of Metallurgy," by C. Schnabel, translated Geometry, Preliminary (Part i., Junior Geometry)," or and edited by Prof. H. Louis.

the same authors; " Geometry, Theoretical and Practical, Messrs. Masson and Co. (Paris) promise :-" Traité de by the same authors; “ Scholarship Geometry," by W. P Chimie minérale," edited by H!. Moissan, tome ii., fasc. i. ; Workman and A. G. Cracknell ; Scholarship Elementar tome iv., fasc. i. ; · Le Chauffage des Habitations, par Science, Section i."; Scholarship Elementary Science Circulation d'Air chaud, de Vapeur ou d'Eau chaude," by R. Section ii., (a) Chemistry, (b) Astronomy, (c) Biology Périssé ; “ Le Chauffage électrique,” by Lévylier ; Les and new editions of “ Chemical Analysis, br Drs. 15 Moulins à Vent,” by Prof. Hérisson ; Le Vinaigre," by Briggs and R. W Stewart; Light, Text-Book of,*' N Astruc; “ Procédés de Commande mécanique par l'Électri- Dr. R. W Stewart; Inorganic Chemistry, Second Stage cité, by Capt. Frilley; and “L'Industrie de l'Or," by (Theoretical),” by Dr. G. H. Bailey; and The New L. M. Granderye.

Matriculation Physics ; Heat, Light, und Sound," by Dr Messrs. Methuen and Co. announce :-- Archæology and R. W. Stewart. False Antiquities," by Dr. R. Munro.

Mr. T. Fisher ['nwin announces :-" "Travels of Mr. John Murray's list includes :-“ Lhasa and its Naturalist in Northern Europe," by J. A. Harvie-Brown: Mysteries,” by Lieut.-Col. L. A. Waddell, C.B., illus- • Siberia, a Record of Travel, Exploration, and Climbing trated ; Our Sudan, its Pyramids and Progress," by by S. Turner ; The Age of the Earth, and other Gevlogica? J. Ward ; An Expedition into the Central Tian Shan, Studies," by Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ; and “ Gardening carried out in the Years 1902-1903,” by Dr. G. Merzbacher. for the Million," by A. Pink. illustrated ; An Account of the Rothamsted Experiments,' Messrs. ll. Wesley and Son promise :- An authorisnl by A. D. Hall ; Recent Development in Biological English edition of the “ Atlas of Emission Spectra of no Science,” by W. B. Hardy, F.R.S. ; * Descartes : his Life of the Elements," by Prof. A. Hagenbach and H. Kuna and Times," by E. S. Haldane, illustrated ; “ Artillery and translated by Dr. A. S. King. Explosives,” essays and lectures written and delivered at The following are Messrs. Whittaker and Co.'s announ various times, by Sir A. Noble, K.C.B., F.R.S., illustrated ; ments :-" Steam Turbines," by H. M. Hobart and T.

Growth and Spread of Culture, by Prof. E. B. Tylor, Stevens; “ Armature Construction," by H. M. Hobart: F.R.S., illustrated ; and new editions of Marine Boilers, "Concrete-Steel, a Treatise on the Theory and Practice their Construction and Working," dealing more especially Reinforced Concrete Construction," by W. Voble 'Twelve with tubulous boilers, based on the first edition of the work trees; “ Practical Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony." by M. L. E. Bertin, edited by L. S. Robertson, illustrated ; Prof. Mazzotto, translated by S. R. Bottone ; and aru


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editions of :-* Electricity in its Application to Telegraphy," experimental science again been demonstrated, but its beneby T. E. Herbert ; ' Central Station Electricity Supply," by ficial effects on the progress of Ireland's industries and A. Gay and C. H. Yeaman : “ The Alternating-Current agriculture have been made clear. Notwithstanding the Circuit and Motor," by W. P. Maycock; and Radium," success which naturally has followed the introduction of by S. R. Bottone.

practical instruction in scientific principles into Irish elementary schools, the Treasury has refused to renew the

small grant required to meet the necessary expenditure, and UNIVERSITY AND EDICATIONAL

the work of organising science instruction in the schools INTELLIGENCE.

after four years—is being stopped. It is difficult indeed to

understand so retrograde a policy. The incompleteness of CAMBRIDGE.-An Arnold Gerstenberg studentship will be all schemes of education which ignore the claims of pracoffered for competition in the Michaelmas term of 1906. tical instruction in the fundamental facts of science has been The studentship will be awarded by means of essays. demonstrated rep: atedly; the connection between American Every candidate must send on or before October 1, 1906, an and German industrial success and the scientific systems of Day on one of the subjects printed below addressed to education established in these countries has become familiar Dr. James Ward. Trinity College. The studentship, which to all interested in their country's welfare, so that no will be of the annual value of nearly gol., will be tenable excuse--not even the urgent need of economy in national for two years, upon the condition that at the end of the expenditure-can justify this action of the Treasury. It is first year the student's progress in philosophical study is to be hoped earnestly that steps may yet be taken to avert deemed satisfactory by the board of managers. The subjects what would be nothing short of a calamity to Ireland, and kip essays are :-(1) å philosophical discussion of the doctrine that the work, which has begun so auspiciously under the of energy and particularly of the new theory of energetics; present organisers of science instruction, instead of being 12) a critical examination of Descartes' philosophy of stopped may be broadened and extended. nafure; (3) the relation of mathematics and the theory of

It is stated in the Times that the committee, presided probability to physics ; (4) the theory of psychophysical

over by Mr. Haldane, M.P., appointed to consider the alloparallelism ; (5) the scope and methods of comparative cation of the increased grant-in-aid of education of a psychology: (6) the philosophical import of post-Darwinian university standard in arts and science has now finished Theories of natural selection.

its inquiry. Excluding goool. to be allctted later in the The principal and the professors at McGill University,

financial year, the committee proposes that the sum of Montreal have nominated Mr. L. V. King, a student in the

45.000l. (making a total grant of 54,000l.) be allotted as faculty of arts, to the Canadian scholarship lately estab

follows :-Manchester, 6oool.; University College, London, lished at Christ's College.

5000l.; Liverpool, 5000l.; Birmingham, 4500l. ; Leeds, An exhibition of sol, a vear tenable for two years is

4000l.; King's College, London, 39001.; Newcastle-on-Tyne, otiered by the governing body of Emmanuel College to an

zoool. ; Nottingham, 29001. ; Sheffield, 2300l. ; Bedford advanced student commencing residence at the college in

College, London, 2000l.; Bristol, 2000l. ; Reading, 17001. ; Ortober, 1905. Applications should be sent to the master

Southampton, 17001. ; Dundee, 10ool. The committee exof Emmanuel (from whom further particulars may be ob

presses the view that the time has come for making a new tained) not later than October 1.

departure in the principle on which State assistance is to The local examinations and lectures syndicate is about

be given to the highest education. It is recommended that to plect an assistant secretary for the department of the

a moderate sum should be set aside for distribution by way local lectures. The appointment will be in the first instance of payment to post-graduate students from the university for one year. The stipend will be 150l. in an ordinary year, colleges who devote themselves for one, two, or three years and 2001, in those years in which summer meetings are to special problems; and that to ensure the money being hrld. Graduates of the university who desire to offer them- ! applied most efficiently to the stimulation of individual selves as candidates are requested to send their names study, as distinguished from the general purposes of the before May 8 to the Rev. D. II. S. Cranage.

college to the development of which other sums out of the

grant are directed, the distribution should assume the form THE London School of Tropical Medicine has been ad- of a grant made directly to the student on the advice of mitted as a school of the University of London in the some impartial authority. It is also suggested that the faculty of medicine in tropical medicine only.

grant-in-aid should in future be made to a committee, The committee of the Liverpool School of Tropical should make an annual report to the Treasury, to be laid

instead of to the colleges direct, and that this committee Medicine has appointed Mr. R. T. Newstead lecturer in

before Parliament. In conclusion the committee urges the Etonomic entomology and parasitology.

necessity of leaving to the advisory committee discretion The fourth annual students' soirée of the Sir John Cass to deal with particular circumstances as they arise. Technical Institute will be held in the institute, Jewry Street, Aldgate, E.C., on Saturday, March 18. Exhibits and demonstrations referring to the work of the various depart

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. nients form part of the programme.

LONDON. It is reported, says Science, that Mr. Andrew Carnegie

Royal Society, February 9.—"On the Stellar Line near has offered to give 100,000l. to the University of Virginia

^ 4686.' By Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S., and on the condition that the authorities of the institution raise

F. E. Baxandall. A.R.C.Sc. a similar amount from other sources, and that the late James C. Carter, the eminent New York lawyer, has be

In this paper the authcrs direct attention to a well

marked line of unknown origin which appears in one of queathed 40,0001. to Harvard University. Science also

the Kensington photographs of the helium spectrum near States that at the first of the winter convocations of the

1 4686. George Washington University a gift of property, estimated

It is shown that a conspicuous line near the same waveto be worth 20,000l., was announced for the establish nent of a chair and course of graduate study on the history of bright-line stars, certain Orion stars, and in s Puppis, the

length occurs in the spectra of the chromosphere, nebulæ, civilisation. Various sums of money raised by the trustees

star the spectrum of which was found by Prof. Pickering to and alumni association, aggregating 55,0001., were also

contain a new series of lines which he considered to belong announced.

to hydrogen. A Commission was appointed a few years ago to inquire The mean wave-length of the stellar line, as derived into the condition of manual and practical instruction in from the available published records, is shown to agree very Irish primary schools, and, as the result of the recom- closely with the wave-length of the line in the laboratory mendations made by this Commission, instruction in ele- spectrum, and the authors conclude that the identity of the 25entary experimental science was introduced into the two lines is probably a real one. primary schools of Ireland. The results of this teaching Rydberg has shown that the line near 1 4686 is the first have, in the opinion of competent authorities, been in every line in the principal series of hydrogen, and the authors Way satisfactory. Not only has the educational value of of the present paper consider that the strange

line in



the helium spectrum is probably none other than the same revived phosphorescence. These can be explained as due to line. They can, however, assign no reason for its appear- atomic changes in which chemical affinity is the controlling ance in only one of the numerous photographs of the factor. helium spectrum taken at Kensington.

(3) The phenomena of this type appear to support the

view that a species of electrolysis occurs in solids exposed to “Note on the Spectrum of u Centauri.” By Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B. F.R.S., and F. E. Baxandall,

the B or kathode rays; that the products of electrolysis are

insulated from each other, as in a viscous electrolyte and A.R.C.Sc. In this note the authors give an analysis of some of the

that it is the breaking down of this insularion with the

re-combination of the ions which causes revived phosphorbright lines in the spectrum of u Centauri. This star being available at Kensington, an excellent reproduction

When the canary-yellow crystals of barium platinocyanide by Prof. Pickering was used as a basis for the analysis. The chief bright lines belong to hydrogen, as Pickering red, and their phosphorescence in the rays falls to 8 per cent.

are exposed to the B and y rays for some hours, they turn and other observers have pointed out. The minor bright

of its original value. Neither the colour nor the phosphor. lines, however, have hitherto had no origin suggested for

escence is restored by exposure to sunlight or to diffused them. In this note it is shown that the most marked of the minor bright lines agree very closely in position with daylight. The only way completely to restore these qualities

is to dissolve the salt in water and re-crystallise it. In this the strongest enhanced lines of iron, and the authors conclude that the stellar and terrestrial lines are probably

way the reddened salt is completely re-converted into the identical in origin. It is pointed out that the same lines are

yellow form, and there are no signs that the reddening has

been associated with any permanent chemical change. The conspicuous in the spectra of Novæ in their earlier stages.

possible physical changes were, therefore, investigated. “ The Arc Spectrum of Scandium and its Relation to When the crystalline structure of the yellow salt is impaires, Celestial Spectra. By Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., either by mechanical flowing or by dehydration by heat F.R.S., and F. E. Baxandall, A.R.C.Sc.

there is a very conspicuous colour change, the canary-yellos In this paper a record is given of the lines in the arc giving place to an intense brick-red colour, while the phos spectrum of the rare element scandium between a 3900 and phorescence in the radium rays falls to 2 per cent. of its * 5720. The photograph used for reduction was taken with original value. By solution and crystallisation the a large Rowland concave grating, having a ruled surface amorphous forms are restored to the yellow crystalline state of 51X2 inches (14) X5 cm.), and a radius of 21 feet 6 with its full phosphorescent value. The effects produced by inches. The scale of the photograph is such that the the B rays are, therefore, closely analogous to those produced distance between K and D is 304 inches, or 77 cm. This by the change from the crystalline to the amorphous state. is equivalent to 2.6 tenth-metres per millimetre.

In the light of the author's earlier observations on the An analysis of the lines is given with regard to their phase changes AZC in metals and salts, it was to be appearance in the Fraunhoferic spectrum. It is shown that expected that the change C--A, produced by mechanical nearly all the stronger lines occur as solar lines, but the flow, would be reversed by raising the temperaturr of the great majority of the lines weaker than intensity 6 substance to the stability point of the A phase. Making dur (maximum intensity 10) are missing from the solar spectrum. allowance for the difficulty caused by the presence of water

Short analyses are also given of the relation of the of crystallisation and its partial loss on heating the salt, it scandium arc lines to the lines in the spectra of the was found that the change A-C could be brought about chromosphere, sun-spots, and stars. The strongest scan- in the mechanically-flowed salt at a temperature of about dium lines are shown to be specially prominent in the 90°, the colour being thereby changed from red to yellow, anu chromospheric spectrum, the same lines being conspicuous the phosphorescence raised from 2 per cent. to 33 pris ceat in stellar spectra of the Polarian type (e.g. 7 Cygni). In of its original value. It was found that the crystals reddened the higher stellar type Cygnian (a Cygni), the strongest by the rays could also be partially restored to their former scandium lines are present, but only weak. At the still condition of colour and phosphorescence by quickly beating higher stages of stellar spectra the scandium lines are them in a sealed capillary tube to about 120°. By this reailacking.

ment the phosphorescence was raised from 8 pis rent, tu With regard to sun spot spectra, the only solar-scandium 33 per cent, of its original value in the yellow arystals. line (^ 5672-047) given by Rowland in the region F to D, | The analogy between the phase changes caused by is found to be nearly always well affected, and it often mechanical How and the change which results from ot occurs amongst the twelve most widened lines recorded at posure to the B rays is thus complete, and it is concludel Kensington in spot spectra.

that the over-stimulation to which the vibrating melecules “On Europium and its Ultra-violet Spectrum": Sir

of the platinocyanide crystals are subjected under the action William Crookes, F.R.S.

of the B rays during the preliminary stage of bright plur. Exner and Haschek have measured the

phorescence results in a state analogous to that of plastu lengths of the europium lines' from material

fatigue in vibrating metal wires or glass fibres. 1'p to

supplied by Demarçay. A comparison of their lines with

certain point, this fatigue may be recovered from, that is the present author's shows that the material was by

to say, if the relative displacement of the molecules from no means pure. Urbain's europia is not quite so free from

their proper crystalline relations has not passed beyond impurities as his gadolinia. The author has been able to

certain stage ; but beyond this stage there is no power detect in his photographs the following lines :-Gadolinium

self-recovery, and heat is necessary to endow the molecules is represented by very faint lines at 3450.55, 3481.99, 3585.10,

with freedom of movement sufficient to enable them to return 3646.36, 3654.79, 3656.32, 3664.76, 3697.90, 3699.89, 3743.62,

to their crystalline positions. The final stage of permacer" 3768.52, 3796.58, 3805.70, 3850.83, 3851.16, 4050.08, 4225-33.

fatigue or over-strain in the salt corresponds with the Yttrium is represented by the line at 3774-51, lanthanum by amorphous condition which results from mechanically-prthe line at 3988.66, and calcium by the two lines at 3933.825

duced flow. The comparative instability of the crystallir and 3968.625.

structure in this salt has thus been the means of directir

attention to the part which may be played by physiz February 9. and February 23.-“ Phosphorescence caused structure in phosphorescence. But the persistence of phos by the Beta and Gamma Rays of Radium." By G. T.

phorescence, even in the amorphous state, gives an equalis Beilby. Communicated by Prof. Larmor, Sec. R.S. Part clear indication that a more general explanation of th i. read February 9, part ii. read February 23.

phenomena is still needed. The conclusions arrived at in these papers may be sum- This further explanation was reached by a stud of the marised as follows :

action of the Band y rays on quartz, glass, calcspar, *** (1) Certain types of phosphorescence are due to the the haloid salts of potassium. In these suberantes, jo molecular movement or displacement which is produced by addition to a primary phosphorescence, the rays prodes. heat, by mechanical stresses, or by radiant energy. certain well-marked coloration effects; quartz is turned

(2) Certain other types are distinguished by their appear brown, calespar faint yellow, glass purple or brown ance in three stages, called here primary, secondary, and potassium chloride reddish-violet, and bromide and indie

Wellenlängen-Tabellen für Spektralanalytische Untersuchungen," blue to green. Further, whether the coloration last F. Deuticke. (Leipzig and Vienna, 1902.)

months or only for a few moments, it is found that phosphra


escence is revived when the substance is heated, while the as the bulb was rotated, though experiments were made colour fades or disappears. In quartz, glass, and calcspar with primary radiations varying considerably in penetrating it is easy to locate the seat of phosphorescence within the power. layers which have been penetrated and coloured by the rays. Geological Society, February 17.-Dr. J. E. Marr, This penetration may take place to the depth of several

F.R.S., president, in the chair.–Annual general meeting: millimetres, and in materials like quartz, glass, or calcspar

In his anniversary address, the president directed attention it is certain that whatever changes occur in these layers

to the classification of the sedimentary rocks, pointing out must be chemically self-contained and quite removed from

that the arrangement of the events which, taken together, atmospheric influences. The view, therefore, that coloration constitute earth-history, according to their proper sequence is due to the reduction of one of the elements of the sub

in time must ever remain the territory of the geologist in stance, e.g. potassium in glass, affords only a partial ex- which he will pursue his labours by exclusively-geological planation of the phenomena. It is necessary to suppose that

methods. He pointed out that, since the time of William the separation and retention of the metal ions must equally Smith, and mainly by the adoption of his principles, the involve the separation and retention of the ions of the acid classification of the strata had progressed towards perfection radicle with which the metal had been combined. Further, by the method of successive approximations. He directed in order that the different ions may be kept apart, the un

attention to the many similarities between the records of the altered molecules must act as barriers or insulators to prevent geological column and the records preserved in the“ meteorotheir re-combination. But the molecules are not always

grams ” of meteorologists. In each case the records were immovable barriers, for, as the temperature is raised, their impressed as zigzag and broken lines, though an additional mobility is increased, and their insulating power is corre

difficulty occurred in the case of the geological records owing spondingly diminished. Experiments were made on the to their frequently-blurred nature. Further, the meteorostorage of latent phosphorescing power at all temperatures logist had his chronometer, whereas the geologist must conbetween – 100° and +300°. While for each substance there

struct his time-scale from the records on what might, for is a range of temperature over which its storage capacity purposes of comparison, be referred to as the " geograms, is at a maximum, yet the range over which storage can or strips of the geological sediments. In some cases the take place is sometimes very wide. In calcspar, storage lines of the geograms closely coincided with time-lines, in occurs over the whole range investigated, while in crystal- other cases they departed therefrom more or less widely, and lised platinocyanide of barium it was only observed between

it was one of the tasks of the geologists, from study of the - 100° and – 50°.

geograms, to attempt to draw in the time-lines. It was February 16.—“ Polarised Röntgen Radiation." By Dr. to be remembered, however, that however closely the timeCharles G. Barkla. Communicated by Prof. J. J. Thom

lines and lines of the records coincided, they were not the son, F.R.S.

same lines. The principal variations in the records of the Experiments on secondary radiation from gases and light geograms are due to alternate formation and cessation of solids subject to X-rays led to the theory that during the deposit; to the differences in character of the deposits owing passage of Röntgen radiation through such substances each

to various local conditions ; to accumulation of contemporelectron has its motion accelerated by the intense electric

aneous volcanic material; to variations in the nature of the fields in the primary pulses, and consequently is the origin earth-movements; to changes in the nature of the included of a secondary radiation which is most intense in the organisms; and lastly to climatic changes, and proceeded to direction perpendicular to that of acceleration of the electron, consider the significance of these records as bearing upon and vanishes in the direction of that acceleration. The the classification of the sediments. The president advocated direction of electric intensity at a point in a secondary pulse

the adoption of a triple classification, such as had been is perpendicular to the line joining that point and the already tacitly adopted in the case of some of the sediments, origin of the pulse, and is in the plane passing through the

as, for instance, those of Jurassic age, where divisions were direction of acceleration of the electron.

made according to (1) lithological change, (2) organic A secondary beam the direction of propagation of which change, and (3) time; and pointed out how such a classificais perpendicular to that of the primary will, according to this

tion could be adopted without any violent changes in an theory, be plane polarised, the direction of electric intensity existing nomenclature or in the rules of priority. He illusbeing parallel to the pulse front in the primary beam. If

trated the suggested changes by a more detailed discussion the primary beam be plane polarised, the secondary radiation

of the classification of the Ordovician strata, and pointed from the electrons has a maximum intensity in a direction

out that we had names which might be used with chronoperpendicular to that of electric displacement in the primary logical significance in the case of the divisions of the rocks beam, and zero intensity in the direction of electric displace- of most of the great systems; and maintained that, as our ment.

knowledge increased, we could refer beds of new areas to In these experiments the secondary radiation from light

their places among the different series, marking periods of substances was too feeble to allow accurate measurement of

time with a confidence similar to that with which we have the intensity of the tertiary radiation.

long assigned strata of remote regions to one or other of the A consideration of the method of production of primary great systems. Röntgen rays in an X-ray tube, however, leads one to expect

February 22.–Dr. J. E. Marr, F.R.S., president, in the partial polarisation of the primary beam proceeding from

chair.- Exhibition of a series of Danish rocks illustrating the antikathode in a direction perpendicular to that of pro-|() the share that Echinoderms may take in rock-building; pagation of the impinging kathode rays, for there is

(2) the transition from the Secondary to the Tertiary Era in probably at the antikathode a greater acceleration along the

the Baltic basin near Denmark; (3) the special conditions at line of propagation of the kathode rays than in a direction

the close of the Glacial Period, in the limited area where at right angles; consequently, in a beam of X-rays proceed- | alone these rocks are now found as erratic blocks : Dr. F. A. ing in a direction perpendicular to that of the kathode

Bather.-On the order of succession of the Manx slates in stream, there should be greater electric intensity parallel to

their northern half, and its bearing on the origin of the the stream than in a direction at right angles.

schistose breccia associated therewith : Rev. J. F. Blake.

On the wash-outs in the Middle Coal-measures of south C'sing such a beam as the primary radiation, and a light substance, as air, paper, or aluminium, as the radiator, the

Yorkshire : F. E. Middleton. The opinion of the author intensity of a secondary beam as indicated by an electroscope

is that the wash-outs occupy the sites of winding streams, was found to reach a maximum when the direction of the meandering through the alluvial tracts in which the coal. kathode stream was perpendicular to that of propagation of

seams were being formed. the secondary beam, and a minimum when these two were Zoological Society, February 21 Mr. Howard Saunders, parallel.

vice-president, in the chair.--A contribution to our knowA number of experiments made this evidence of partial ledge of the varieties of Lacerta muralis in western Europe polarisation of the primary radiation conclusive.

and North Africa : G. A. Boulenger.—The Nigerian giraffe When heavier metals, such as copper, tin, and lead, which (Giraffa camelopardalis peralta) and the Kilimanjaro Giraffe emit a secondary radiation differing considerably in character G. camelopardalis tippelskirchi) : R. Lydekker.-Dolphins from the primary producing it, were used as ihe radiators, from Travancore : R. Lydekker. In this paper the author no variation in intensity of secondary radiation was observed | made special reference to two specimens of the genus


Tursiops, drawings and particulars of which had been groups: the late R. E. Doran (compiled by A. E. Dixon). supplied to him from the Trevandrum Museum.-A second --The influence of solvents on the rotation of optically collection of mammals made by Mr. C. H. B. Grant for active compounds. Part viii. Ethyl tartrate in chloroMr. C. D. Rudd's exploration of South Africa : Oldfield form : T. S. Patterson.-A further note on the addition Thomas and Harold Schwann. The collection, which of sodium hydrogen sulphite to ketonic compounds : A. W. has been presented to the National Museum by Mr. Rudd, Stewart.- Action of hydrogen peroxide on carbohydrates was made in the Wakkerstroom district of the South-eastern in presence of ferrous sulphate : R. S. Morrell and . E Transvaal, and includes examples of twenty-six species. Bellars. In this work attempts have been made to trace Several local subspecies were described, besides a new shrew the disappearance of different sugars by optical measure from Zululand. - The greater kudu of Somaliland : R. I. ments during oxidation, and from the initial and final Pocock. The author pointed out that the northern form reducing powers of the solutions. The simpler acids, formie of Strepsiceros strepsiceros differed from the southern in and oxalic, resulting from the oxidation, were detected, but having only about five white stripes instead of nine or ten the more important keto-acids could not be isolated, though on each side of the body. The northern form should thus evidence of their presence was obtained.--Studies in chioriorank as a distinct subspecies, for which the name chora ation. The chlorination of the isomeric chloronitroberzwas available. The difference in coloration seemed to be enes : J. B. Cohen and H. G. Bennett. It is shown that correlated with a difference of habitat, the northern form when the first two hydrogen atoms of benzene or toluene frequenting more mountainous and loss thickly-wooded have been substituted either by two chlorine atoms or be country than the southern, which was frequently found in one chlorine atom and one nitro-group the positions oriuthe thick jungle along river-banks as well as in the hills. pied by subsequent chlorine atoms or nitro-groups are the Anthropological Institute, February 28 – Prof. W.

Linnean Society, March 2.-Prof. W. A. Herdman, Gowland, president, in the chair.-Group marriage, with

the chair.-The Ashe-Finlayson especial reference to Australia : N. W'. Thomas." in the F.R.S., president, in

Comparascope": D. Finlayson. The instrument displays course of his remarks the author pointed out that the

two objects in the same magnified field, this being attained theories of Lewis Morgan were without sufficient basis. In the place of Lewis Morgan's fifteen stages, later theorists by, a secondary stage and objective at right-angles to the had postulated first a period of promiscuity, and following primary instrument, the rays being transmitted up the bodo on that group marriage, so-called, which in Australia is of the microscope through a right-angled prism, and clear.

ness of the two images preserved by means of a diaphragm only now being transformed into individual marriage. But here too no sufficient account had been given of the causes

placed longitudinally in the microscope-tube.-Zcological which led to the abolition of promiscuity. The grounds on

nomenclature : international rules and others : Rev. T.R.R. which it was assumed that promiscuity and group marriage

Stebbing. The author's paper, introductory to a discussion,

insisted on the paramount importance of obtaining agree were stages in human development were first philological and secondly sociological. The philological grounds were

ment among zoologists on this subject. Incidentally, Mr shown in the paper to be wholly insufficient, and the facts

Stebbing ventured to ask whether there were not many ruirs

of nomenclature on which it would be satisfactory and adof present-day Australian life to be susceptible of other ex

visable for zoologists not only to agree among themselves planations.

but also to come to terms with their botanical colleague Chemical Society, March 2 - Prof. W. A Tilden, F.R.S.,

In this regard he offered some remarks in favour of adopting president, in the chair.- The following papers were read :

the year 1751 and the “ Philosophia Botanica " as startingThe relation between natural and synthetical glycerylphosphoric acids: F. B. Power and F. Tutin. The authors point and basis for what might be called the Linnean era.

A section of the paper was devoted to the Nomenclator have shown that the discrepancies of statement respecting Entomologicus" of F. Weber, published in 1795. with the the properties of the glycerylphosphates are due to contamination with salts of the di-ester. They have prepared object of showing that the generic names in that catalogu

are without value in questions of priority. While consignand analysed a number of these salts in pure condition.

ing various smaller details to an appendix, the body of the Proof is also adduced that the conclusions of Willstätter

paper concluded with a proposal to get rid of tautonym and Lüdecke that the differences between the salts of

(as in Trutta trutta, Ipus (.1 pus) a pus, or other comic natural (derived from lecithin) and artificial glycerylphos, arrangements) by a plan distinguishing what was legal phoric acids are not those existing between mere optical the past from what is to be legal in the future. - Biscava isomerides are not justified. — The transmutation of geo-plankton collected by H.M.S. Research in 1901, part ii., metrical isomerides : A. W. Stewart. The author assumes

Thaliacea : Dr. G. Herbert Fowler. as a phase of the reaction the formation and disruption of

Mathematical Society, March 9. – Prol. Forsyah, a tetramethylene compound, which in the case of fumarie president, and temporarily Dr. Hobson, in the chair.-- The and maleic acids would be tetramethylene-1:2:3: 4-tetra: following papers were communicated :-On the projectam carboxylic acid, and this by disruption in two different

of two triangles on to the same triangle : Prof. M. J. I directions would give rise to either fumaric or maleic de.

Hill, Dr. L. N. G. Filon, and Mr. H. W. Chapman ! rivatives. Illustrations of the applicability of this ex

construction is given for projecting two given triangles on planation to other cases are also given.-Linin : J. S. Hills and W'. P. Wynne. Linin, C, H,,0,, a crystalline sub

to the same third triangle when the plane of the lattes is stance obtained by hydrolysis of a glucoside present in

given, and this construction makes it possible to determir

the projective relation between two planes when four point Linum catharticum, melts at 203°, contains four methoxyl

in the one and the four corresponding points in the other groups, and is physiologically inactive. The constitution of

are given. The lines joining corresponding vertice of the phenylmethylacridol : J. J. Dobbie. Hantzsch's view that the substance formed when phenylacridine methiodide is regulus, and the possible points of projection when both ar

two given triangles are generators of one system ex treated with an alkali is a carbinol is confirmed by the projected on to the same triangle lie on a generator of the fact that the absorption spectra are different from those of the parent methiodide, and similar to those of dihydro- of the point in the plane of the second triangle whi*

other system. As this line describes the regulus, the keys phenylacridine.-The ultra-violet absorption spectra of corresponds to a given point in the plane of the first triang certain diazo-compounds in relation to their constitution : is a cubic curve with a double point. A constructron ho J. J. Dobbie and C. K. Tinkler.-The latent heat of the points of the cubic is obtained.-The Weddle quart evaporation of benzene and some other compounds : J. C. surface : H. Bateman. The surface is the locus od paiBrown.—The reduction of isophthalic acid : W. H. of points which are conjugate with regard to all quado. Perkin, jun., and S. S. Pickles. When isophthalic acid passing through six given points. Any chord of the twiste is reduced with sodium amalgam at 45o it yields two tetrahydro-acids, A? and cis-A®, and from these two others harmonically by the surface. This result leads to a para

cubic which passes through the six given points is all may be obtained, so that the four possible tetrahydroiso-metric representation of the points of the surtarr. T. phthalic acids have now been prepared. The properties and reciprocal of the surface belongs to a family of suriarra, reactions of these are described. The influence of tem- described by Darboux, which possess conjugale sistemas el perature on the interaction between acetylthiocyanate and plane curves.-On the complete reduction of any transcertain bases. Thiocarbamides, including carboxy-aromatic permutation group, and on the arithmetical nature of th

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