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ADOLESCENCE.

practical interests are closely blended. Underlying the

scientific treatment there may be said to be two leadAdolescence: its Psychology and its Relations to ing principles. One principle is that of the intimate

Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, union, or rather the identity, of physiological and
Religion. By G. Stanley Hall, Ph.D., LL.D., psychological processes.
President of Clark University and Professor of

“ More summarily, then,” he says, “ the idea of Psychology and Pedagogy. Vol. i., pp. xx + 589; soul we hold to is in its lower stages indistinguishable vol. ii., pp. vi+784. (New York : D. Appleton and from that of life, and so far in a sense we revert to Co., 1904.) Price 31s. 6d. net.

Aristotle, in holding that any truly scientific psycho

logy must be first of all biological. . . . The first of wide and

is interest. subject of growth has

, the already been studied in relation to the earlier years food getting, assimilation, and dissimilation." and in its special features. The period intervening

The other principle, of greater novelty and interest, between childhood and adult life, which has been com

is the application of the recapitulation theory to the paratively neglected, is the one to which Dr. Hall has mental as well as the bodily life of childhood and youth. directed his investigation. The work is thus of interest

“Realising the limitations and qualifications of the in focussing attention on an important section of human life; it is of value also in that the results of recapitulation theory in the biologic field, I am now

convinced that its psychogenetic applications have a biology and anthropology are freely used in supple- method of their own, and although the time has not menting and interpreting the data which are gained yet come when any formulation of these can have much from physiological and psychological investigation. value, I have done the best with each instance as it

The first three chapters deal mainly with physical arose.” growth, taking up in order the increase in height and

In his application of this theory Dr. Hall is unweight, the growth of parts and organs, and the doubtedly original, but it is strange that among the growth in muscular power. The next two chapters many references to the literature of the subject there deal with the physical and mental disorders of should be no mention of the work of Baldwin on adolescence, and with juvenile faults and immorality. “Mental Development in the Child and the Race,” in Sex is taken up in three chapters, one relating to boys which the same theory is applied in detail. and two to girls; of these two chapters one deals with That the work took its origin in courses of lectures the physiology of sex, the other with its bearing on

may perhaps explain in part the diffuseness and repetieducation. Dr. Hall insists with great earnestness on tion which appear in these pages. There is an unthe necessity of ceasing to mould woman's education necessarily frequent use of strange words; one is at a on that of man, and of finding an education which loss to understand, for example, what is meant by the shall be adapted to her nature, physical and mental. “ solipsistic hopo and by minds that are “rily.” The volume closes with an account of adolescence in One meets with long lists of objects and with masses. literature, biography, and history.

of facts which are not adequately correlated. In the second volume, after a preliminary survey of It is impossible to enter on a discussion of the many changes in the senses and in voice, the emotional theoretical and practical questions which are raised. phenomena of adolescence are treated under the head. The treatment of the material, gathered from the most ings of adolescent love and adolescent feeling towards varied sources, is original and suggestive in a high nature. Several chapters deal with social and degree; but among the wealth of new material and historical relations; initiations in savage and classical new conceptions one misses an exact discussion of the times, confirmation as their correlative in modern method by which the processes of psychogenesis are to religion, the social instincts and institutions of youth, be ascertained. Prominent among the data in the ethnic psychology, and the treatment of uncivilised book are the results of the questionnaires which have races, form the subject of successive discussions. In been so much used by Dr. Hall and his pupils. We treating the subject of religious conversion, Dr. Hall have, however, no presentation of the difficulties . points out that it is peculiarly a phenomenon of inherent in such a method of investigation, and of the adolescence, and that it has close relations to the sexual precautions to be adopted in utilising its results. life. “ It is thus,” he says, “no accidental syn. Apart from this special point there is the difficulty, chronism of unrelated events that the age of religion which does not receive adequate attention, of disand that of sexual maturity coincide.” In the chapter tinguishing in any stage of adolescent development on intellectual development and education there is a what is to be regarded as “palæopsychic,” what is careful review of education in school and college, and due to traditions and customs handed down from a discussion of its value in the light of the results generation to generation of boys and girls, and lastly, presented in preceding sections. Dr. Hall does not what is conditioned primarily by the awakening mental hesitate to condemn vigorously and comprehensively and physical activity of the individual as he reacts on the studies and methods of schools for their aridity his experience. There is not sufficient treatment and want of vital relation to the developing individual, of the idea of individual growth in completeness and and though his criticisms are directed to American complexity, and of its relation to factors of deschools, they have a wider application.

velopment, the meaning of which is to be sought in It will thus be seen that we have in these volumes past organic history; and one feels that some of the a text-book of adolescence in which scientific and suggestions of racial influences are little more than interesting fancies. We may illustrate these points by tion of no less than eighteen Black Terns, more than reference to the author's interpretation of the child's fifty Turnstones, several Common and Arctic Terns, attitude towards water. Human infants, we are told a number of Dunlins, Grey Plovers, Whimbrel and in one passage, have an untaught horror of water, and Godwits, and not least worthy of a glance, three man must learn to swim. This is part of the evidence Spoonbills.” that there are psychic vestiges in man which are To one who is learned in the fishes of our suggestive of former arboreal life.” Again, we learn seas, ready access to Yarmouth Market, and an

have that “ children are phyletically older than women, and extensive acquaintance among the fishermen after the first shock and fright most of them take the been a great advantage, and many a rare fish greatest delight in water.” This, among other pheno- has the author rescued from oblivion and added mena, may be interpreted as a pelagic vestige. Do

Not the least

to the east coast catalogue of fishes. we need arboreal or pelagic vestiges to account for the valuable part of the book is that containing the fish fact that, while some children dislike water at first

notes, although the bulk of the volume deals with and others delight in it, most of them in the end find birds, their migrations and habits. Among the it an excellent plaything?

W. G. S.

various interesting scraps of information here collected we find a record of the value of birds and the prices

realised by the wildfowler and at the sales of noted A NATURALIST ON THE EAST COAST.

collections; accounts of wildfowl brought into the Notes of an East Coast Naturalist, By Arthur H. market in hard winters, and incidents related by old

Patterson. Illustrated in colour by F. Southgate. time wildfowlers, whose habits and customs, as well Pp. xiv + 304.

(London : Methuen and Co., n.d.) | as their recollections of the hard winters and wildfowl Price 6s.

of the “old days,” are most amusing. Whales, crabs, THE "HE author of these notes, who has been in the lobsters, toads, insects, and rats all find a place in

habit of spending his spare time in a house-boat these very readable notes. Indeed, some of the most moored on Breydon Water and other East Anglian valuable paragraphs relate to the old English black lagoons, has naturally enjoyed opportunities of making rat, now extinct in most parts of the country, but so observations which are given to few people; for abundant in the malthouses and sail lofts of Yarmouth Breydon is a locality probably more famous than any

that Mr. Patterson can write of “a plague of Black other in the annals of British ornithology as a place Rats.” This and many other of the records are well where rare birds are in the habit of " dropping in.” worth preserving as of permanent value, and the Moreover, as all field naturalists know, early morning author is quite justified in thinking that some value and nightfall, ay, even night itself, are the times when may attach to these notes and observations “owing the good things of their lives come to them. Hence

to their dealing with a period during which great the advantage of living on the field. In the latter part changes have taken place in the habitat of the local of the quarter of a century which these notes cover the

fauna." author discarded the gun in favour of the field-glass,

The twelve plates of bird-life reproduced in colours and could thus give undivided attention to observation

are among the most pleasing things of the kind we without being distracted by the hopes and fears

have seen, and these alone make the book one which attendant on the wildfowler's efforts to obtain “a

all field naturalists will like to put on their shelves. shot."

O. V. A. Breydon is a very carefully protected breeding area. A watcher has been stationed there for several years

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR during the close season; but it will perhaps be dis

BEGINNERS. appointing (although we hope it may prove instructive) Tables for Qualitative Chemical Analysis. By Prof. to ardent advocates of county council “orders” to

A. Liversidge, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. (London: find that Mr. Patterson writes, “I must, however,

Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1904.) Price 4s. 6d. net. state that since stricter preservation has obtained, not The introductory chapter of Prof. Liversidge's nearly so many birds are to be seen on Breydon." book makes it clear that it is only when It is impossible to deny the fact that no amount of analytical methods are used intelligently that the time preservation will bring back the breeding birds which devoted to qualitative analysis is well spent, and to left us with the spread of population and buildings, and

that end the student must have some preliminary the alterations in the system of agriculture. The training in other kinds of simple practical work (not spoonbills come and go in safety, but the late date at described in the book), and be frequently supervised, which they arrive shows that nesting is not the object lectured to, and examined as his work progresses. of their visits. As a former east coast naturalist, re- All this is very right and proper, and quite as it markable for his common-sense views of such subjects, should be, but leaving out the excellent counsel of wrote years ago, “ Unless England becomes dis- perfection set forth in the introduction, the book is peopled and uncultivated, nothing can ever bring back very much like other books on this subject. That in numbers or variety the wealth of the ancient avi- is to say, it describes a series of qualitative tests in fauna.” But for all that the naturalist still “ has his which inorganic and organic bases and acids, delights on Breydon; as, for instance, on May 15, metals, and alkaloids are treated individually, and 1893, when the author, paddling up stream, saw on then collectively in tables after the old-established the “ lumps " still uncovered by water a congrega- manner and with the old-established purpose.

rare

xvi + 308.

It should be stated, however, that some attempt is

OUR BOOK SHELF. made to introduce quantitative notions into the

Les Lois naturelles. By qualitative methods by using roughly weighed

Félix Le Dantec. Pp.

(Paris : Félix Alcan, 1904.) Price amounts of the substances; but the effect is somewhat 6 francs. discounted by the frequent omission of the quantity | Just as anyone can play the piano ” with a pianoand strength of the reagents. I refer more particu-player, so anyone can write a book on the philosophy larly to the use of “ drops,” which may vary con

of science. The result gives satisfaction and pleasure siderably in bulk, and to the omission of the strength other, but whether his particular interpretation is

to the performer in one case and to the writer in the of the acids.

equally satisfying to an outsider is another question. Prof. Liversidge attaches great importance to The effects are, however, more lasting in the case the study of qualitative analysis as a means as well of the author, for we are getting such an enormous as an end of chemical education. It is an opinion accumulation of books on space, matter, force, the very widely held, and is well worth discussing. ether, and laws of nature that it is becoming a The fact is sometimes lost sight of that chemistry wonder who finds time to read them or even to cut

the is a handicraft as well as a science, and that its

pages, if the publisher has failed to attend to his

proper duties in this respect. science is as yet not exact.

Let us examine how M. Le Dantec deals with Perhaps there is no branch of chemistry wherein thermodynamical considerations. In commencing the skill of the craftsman is in greater demand, or he supposes bodies to have definite thermic masses, the inexactness of the science more clearly emphasised,

and he defines quantities of heat by the products of than in chemical analysis.

these masses into the changes of temperature. He A student may study intelligently the reactions for according to which the heat gained by one body is

also enunciates the principle of conservation of heat individual elements, and so learn their properties; but equal to that lost by another. But in the first place he finds that when they are mixed they behave the quantities which he calls thermic masses are not differently, and the more observant and careful he is constant for the same body between the same limits the more will these subtle influences, which conform of temperature, but they also depend on whether the to no equation, become apparent.

changes take place at constant pressure or constant No substance is insoluble; mass action is a power

volume; and, in the second place, his equation of con

servation of heat is contrary to common experience ful factor; a precipitate will carry down a substance

of what happens when two rough bodies rub against which should, for all he knows, remain in solution, each other. In the next chapter the author goes on and a substance will retain another in solution a different tack, and speaks of the equivalence of which, for equally occult reasons, should form a quantities of work and quantities of heat, quite

regardless (to all outside appearances) of the fact precipitate.

that the term “ quantity of heat" is meaningless Tables for the analysis of mixtures, which are

except in the case of passage of heat from one body based on the behaviour of single substances by a another. In the next chapter the author condemns process of simple logic, become artificial and illusory,

the use of the term “ quantity of heat ” altogether. and give a sense of false security which subsequent | What ideas can a reader form of the nature of experience alone can dispel.

physical laws after perusing such a series of chapters

as this? Is this a subject for extended study on the part of a beginner in chemistry? In the opinion of the Nature Teaching. By F. Watts and W. G. Freeman. writer the preparation of simple substances and a Pp. xi + 193. (London: Murray, 1904.) Price careful study of their properties, into which the general principles of qualitative and quantitative This little book forms a welcome change from the analysis are introduced, is his proper sphere of work.

many appearing under similar titles in that it is The host of reactions and elaborate tables of separa-things about which the writers really know and have

avowedly based upon experiments, and treats of tions, and still the countless precautions, not merely read up. Dealing in the main with the life Kunstgriffe, and manipulative details of practical of the plant, it describes a simple series of experiments analysis are a part of the handicraft of the specialist within the capacity of an elementary school or an evenin chemistry. To thrust this work upon a beginnering continuation class, illustrating the function of seed, who is not to be a specialist is almost equivalent to

root, stem, leaf, &c., and amplifying the knowledge

thus obtained with further examples drawn from the expecting a student of mechanics, who is not to be practice of the garden or the farm. A certain lack of an engineer, to work a lathe

a planing | definiteness in the description of experiments militates machine.

at times against the spirit in which the book has been The crux of the whole question lies in this, that conceived ; in a subject where everything depends upon

the cultivation of accurate observation and rigorous qualitative analysis is a branch of practical work, call

scientific method the authors should not allow theming itself chemistry, which can be easily adapted to the

selves to fall into the slipshod generalised accounts of process of examination. Were the practical examin- things which are the bane of so much of the current ation banished from the syllabus and replaced by note-teaching of this nature. For instance, in their account books supervised, signed and submitted by the of striking cuttings, the authors do not direct attention responsible demonstrator or teacher of recognised to the differences in the management of herbaceous standing, the mass of ill-digested analytical tests and

and woody cuttings, the time of year at which they

should be struck, and so forth, so that the teacher withtables would vanish from the curricula of

out experience would be apt to fumble over the matter schools and colleges, and its place supplied by a series at first, and would in real life be discouraged from tryof rational exercises.

J. B. C.

ing any experiments in this particular direction unless

35. 6d. .

more

or

use

soon

one

he got hold of a gardener to give him some practical

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. advice. However, with this slight drawback, the book is admirably designed for the teacher who wishes to [The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions work out an elementary course of instruction for a expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake country school, either as an introduction to practical to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected life or to a more special study of agriculture and horti- manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. culture.

No notice is taken of anonymous communications.] I. Clinical Lectures on Diseases of the Nervous

A Note on the Coloration of Spiders.
System. Pp. 279; price 75. 6d. 11. Lectures on
Diseases of the Nervous System. Second series.

It is well known that in a large number of animals, both

vertebrate and invertebrate, the colour of the flanks and Pp. 250; price 6s. net. By Sir William R. Gowers,

ventral side of the body differs from that of the dorsal. In M.D., F.R.C.P., F.R.S. (London: J. and A.

the majority of cases the dorsal surface is most darkly Churchill, 1895 and 1904.)

tinted, the ventral palest, and the flanks intermediate in In these two volumes Sir William Gowers has collected

depth of tone between these two. This gradation of colourin revised form a number of clinical lectures which ing has the effect of neutralising the shadows that are cast have appeared in various medical journals. In the by the upper upon the lower portions of the body. Thus the latter volume he has also printed the Bowman lecture animal does not stand out in prominent relief, but is, so to on subjective visual sensations delivered to the speak, artistically flattened, and thereby rendered less Ophthalmological Society, and the Bradshaw lecture conspicuous. on the subjective sensations of sound. The clinical To this general rule I have recently observed an interestlectures deal with many subjects in neurology; some

ing exception which affords strong evidence in favour of are mainly descriptive, some speculative. In reading ing to the genus Linyphia are, almost without exception,

the truth of the above interpretation. The spiders belongthem not only appreciates the original and

darkly coloured upon the ventral surface; their flanks are suggestive way in which the facts are presented, but variously slashed with oblique white bars and stripes, while also the finished literary style. In a short notice it is their dorsal surface is yet more freely speckled with white impossible to deal with them in detail. The two or pale spots and lines. In these spiders, then, the scheme lectures on the subjective sensations of vision and hear- of coloration is the exact opposite to that which prevails ing are perhaps of wider scientific interest than the elsewhere. Now the Linyphiidæ spin horizontal webs, in clinical lectures. In the first the visual phenomena

the centre of which they rest inverted, clinging to the lower

side. Thus it is the ventral side of a Linyphia that is exexperienced by sufferers from migraine are described and figured, and there is an admirable résumé of posed to the strongest light, the dorsal side being in the

deepest shadow. The inversion of attitude at once fully

In physiological teaching with reference to vision. the second lecture the phenomena of tinnitus, of explains the inverted shading of the body.

OSWALD H. LATTER. auditory vertigo, and other labyrinthine sensations are

Charterhouse, Godalming, October 30. discussed in a luminous and attractive way. Both neurologists and physiologists will find much in these volumes to assist and to stimulate them in researches

Sir J. Eliot's Address at Cambridge. into nervous phenomena.

AGAINST some of the main conclusions of Sir J. Eliot's Lectures Scientifiques. A French Reader for Science opening address before Section A (subsection : cosmical

Students containing Extracts from Modern French physics) may be set the facts that south-east winds are rare Scientific works in Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, on the south-east coast of South Africa, and that the rain Physiology and Botany, with a Glossary of Technical of the greater part of the tableland and south-east coast Terms. By W. G. Hartog, B.A. Pp. vii+371.

comes mostly from some northerly direction.

My concern, however, is chiefly with the following re(London : Rivingtons, 1904.) Price 5s. The University of London now insists that candidates marks, reported in Nature of August 25 last :

“ The chief features of the rainfall of the period 1895for a degree in science shall be able to read and under

1902, in the Indo-oceanic region were as follows :stand accounts in the original of French and German

There was a marked tendency in each year for late comscientific work. In compiling this book Mr. Hartog mencement and early withdrawal of the monsoon currents, has had the needs of such students in mind so far as and for deficient rainfall throughout the whole season over French is concerned, and he has succeeded in bring- the greater part of India. These features were very proing together a varied and representative collection of nounced in the years 1896, 1899, and 1901. The most reextracts from French scientific works and scientific markable feature of the period was that the region to the periodicals. Among the latter the Revue générale des

south of the equator, including South and East Africa, Sciences takes a very prominent position, contributing Hutchins,' Conservator of Forests, Cape Town, states that

Mauritius, and Australia, was similarly affected. .. Mr. to Mr. Hartog's collection as many as fifteen extracts.

drought prevailed more or less persistently over the Karroo The book should be of service not only to the under- region in South Africa from 1896 to 1903, and that cattle graduates referred to, but also to students of science and sheep perished by millions. He also states that the everywhere, for it is now more than ever necessary that drought extended to British Central Africa from 1898 to the man of science should be able to acquaint himself 1903. The previous statements evidence the continuity, at first hand with the results of fellow-workers abroad. extension, and intensity of the drought. . : : The preceding L'Industrie oléicole (Fabrication de l'Huile d'Olive). I longed periods similar in character have occurred, and may

statements have shown that variations of rainfall for proBy J. Dugast. Pp. 176. (Paris : Gauthier-Villars

hence occur again, over the very large area including the and Masson et Cie., n.d.). Price 3

francs.

Southern Asian peninsulas, East and South Africa, This little volume, which belongs to the Aide-Mémoire Australia, and perhaps the Indian Ocean. The abnormal series, is a practical account of the manufacture of actions or conditions giving rise to these large and prolonged olive oil, and indicates several directions in which the variations must hence be persistent for long periods, and results of scientific research have been utilised to im

be effective over the whole of that extensive area. prove technical processes. The formation and compo

Now the question is, what is a drought? sition of olives are first explained, then the methods of point of view there is nothing but drought over a very large extracting the oil are described and an account given print, showing the variation of the mean actual rainfall

area of South Africa. But I gather from the table you of the appliances necessary for the purpose.

from the normal in India, that by drought is meant unusual properties and methods of preservation of olive oil and and prolonged general dryness setting up marked economic the utilisation of the oil-cake are also considered. results such as large loss of cattle and great loss of

From one

The

capital," and so forth. If that interpretation is correct, then there has been no such drought in South Africa in the years stated.

This is proved by the accompanying table. It shows the average rainfall over each of the twenty rainfall districts of South Africa, during each year, in percentages of the means. These means have been computed for 160 stations having long records of twenty years, more or less, and are fully given and explained in my “Introduction to the Study of South African Rainfall.” The information from which they are derived is open to all who take the trouble to look for it in the annual reports of the Cape Meteorological Commission.

The great mortality among cattle and stock can be explained without assuming that there has been a prolonged drought. In farming matters we live from hand to mouth. Farmers of the Karroo prefer to pray for rain rather than take the trouble to store it up when it comes. Therefore, if the rain is short in the late summer, and late in coming in the next spring, they have no reserve to fall back upon, and their cattle die. One year's drought kills off the stock almost as surely as fifty years' would. For instance, there was great loss of stock in 1897. Yet what were the facts of rainfall? At my station, where the annual mean is about 18.5 inches, the fall in December, 1896, was 8.42 inches; in the whole of 1897 it was 8.85 inches, and in January,

Percentages of Rainfall in the l'arious Districts of South Africa during the Years 1891 to 1902.

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1898, it was 8.43 inches. Thus there was a drought during 1897, many cattle died, and there was much praying for rain. The year 1903 was probably almost the same as 1897, the fall at Kimberley being only some 65 per cent. of the mean, whereas the fall during the last half of 1902 was good, and during the first half of 1904 excellent. But with the exception of these years there has been nothing that can properly be called drought, in the sense of Sir J. Eliot's address, over any extended region of South Africa within the past fifteen years at least. Thus there is nothing to justify the statement that we have been under the same influence as that which set up the prolonged drought in Australia and the dry years in India. J. R. SUTTON.

It is pretty plain that the area of winter rains, including the west coast and Cape Peninsula, was short of rain in 1896; that 1897 was a dry year over the area of summer rains, which comprises the greater part of South Africa; and that the south coast and adjacent districts, where the rainfall is fairly uniform throughout the year, had a dry year in 1899, and one not very wet in 1895. The area of summer rains, being so much greater than the rest, of course sets the tone of the mean rainfall of the whole country, making 1897 a dry year on the whole, and 1891 a very wet year.

There seem to be dry areas somewhere or other in pretty well every year:

For example, the rainfall was short in the western part of the area of summer rains in 1902, although the fall was good enough further east. It was short over the east-central Karroo and south-east in 1899 in sympathy with the dryness of the south in that year. Even in 1891 there was a short fall over an extensive region.

I fancy that the impression of unusual dryness over South Africa in recent years arises from the misleading mean values used by the Meteorological Commission for comparative purposes. These are taken from Buchan's rather sutile “ Rainfall of South Africa,” and average fully two inches (equal to perhaps 10 per cent.) too great.

Buchan used only the rainfall of the ten years 1885-94 in constructing his results, and therefore got inflated averages in conSequence of the heavy rainfall of 1891; whence the rainfalls of recent years are made to appear minus as compared with what is called the mean, whereas, as compared with the better means of longer periods, they would be often plus.

I trust to your courtesy to give my reply to Mr. Sutton's criticisms on certain portions of my address at the recent British Association meeting.

My address was in part based on an investigation I have had on hand for nearly two years, and which will be shortly published as a paper in the Indian Meteorological Memoirs. In that will be found a statement of the chief features of the meteorology of South Africa during the period 1892–1902. It is confessedly based upon very imperfect informationpartly derived from newspaper reports, partly from data in certain meteorological reports received from Cape Town by the Calcutta Meteorological Office, and partly from data obtained from Mr. Hutchins, Conservator of Forests, Cape Colony, with whom I have been in correspondence for many years on the meteorology of South Africa and

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