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is indeed a fundamental difference between the two cases. It need hardly be said that such a statement is a The colleges of the Victoria University are widely parody of the views of men who have had at least as separated, and appeal to the strong local feeling of powerful and independent districts. A generous rivalry
| much experience as their critics (of the tone of mind may therefore exist between them without ill result.
of the governing bodies of great educational Each should be left, as they have been left, to work out institutions, and who therefore would be the first to their own success with as little external interference as anticipate the difficulties which such demands would possible.
inevitably 'cause. " It is sometimes argued that because the population : No responsible body has, as far as we are aware. of London largely exceeds that even of such districts as Lancashire or the West Riding, there ought to be room
advocated more than the establishment of a University within it for the separate and independent institutions in
on a basis which would permit the union of the various which teaching of the highest type could be provided. colleges, in whose buildings the University teaching might This view ignores the importance of geographical at first be carried on, if the colleges were themselves separation, and unduly exalts that of the numerical willing that such a union should be effected. The magnitude of the population whose wants are to
advocates of union have all along been striving, not to
a be met. If Manchester and Leeds were on opposite sides of the Irwell or the Aire, if they
attain an immediate and complete realization of their were connected by an elaborate system of over ideal University of London, but to prevent the Charter ground and underground railways, then it would be more being drawn so as to make that realization impossible. economical to concentrate, in one or the other, the higher It cannot be beyond the limits of human skill to frame teaching which must now perforce be given in both. I a scheme which shall offer every inducement to the The loss of time to the students in reaching the scene of their daily labours would be but imperceptibly increased,
London colleges to effect an immediate fusion, and while the prestige of the colleges, great as it already is,
shall further provide that any approximation which their claims on the State, strong as they already are, would may at first take place shall easily become closer in be enhanced in a proportion greater than that calculated the future. by merely adding their separate reputations and resources.
The Victoria University does not consist of competing In a city of the size of London it is desirable to multiply institutions in which preparatory work of all sorts is un
colleges. A federal University of London would consist dertaken, but I think it may be assumed as almost axio
of colleges which from their mere local proximity would, matic that it is impossible, at present at all events, to
whether they willed it or no, be necessarily antagonistic. create in one town more than one institution in which la- | Unless the Commissioners fairly grasp this fact and boratories and lecture rooms and the other machinery of realize that they have it in their power to lay down the scientific instruction shall be provided on the large scale
lines on which a great institution shall be founded in which the elaboration of the highest modern scientific teaching demands. In London, then, the teachers in
close connection with the State, which shall concentrate almost all existing institutions 'feel the necessity for under one central di recting power all the educational a combination of forces. They have expressed them efforts which are at present partly wasted through wa't selves as willing to be formed into battalions and of joint action, they will have failed to make the most of regiments rather than to be left to carry on their work
a great opportunity, and will have frittered the forces as isolated companies. I will not dwell on the fact that this desire could only be declared by men who were will
which, if allowed free play, are competent to do for the ing to risk their personal position for the public good, but
higher education of London all that the best friends of I want you to observe how in this case also the work of London can desire. decentralization, which began with the foundation of University College, London, has been followed and would
- - - - - have been far more effective had it been accompanied by a corresponding manifestation of centralizing force."
THE STUDY OF ANIMAL LIFE. With these views we heartily agree. If ever we are to have in London laboratories such as
The Study of Animal Life. By J. Arthu Thomson, those which are to be found in Germany, it can only be
! M.A., F.RS.E. “University Extension Manuals." if the higher teaching in each subject is concentrated in
(London : Murray, 1892.) some one great central institution, and if rival colleges are THE chief aim of an “Extension Manual ” as of allowed to combine their forces for the public good, instead 1 “Extension lectures” is to stimulate interest and ta of being compelled as at present to fritter them in sui- spread information. In natural science, at any rate, it is cidal competition.
impracticable through the medium of either Extension Taking it for granted that all will admit that such an lectures or Extension manuals, to give that training which ideal would be the best if it could be realized, we believe the student, be he specialist or generalist, can obtain ons that the possibility of its realization is chiefly doubted on by practical work, aided by practical instruction. But two grounds, to neither of which any real importance is to there are a great number of people, some already busih be attached.
engaged, others on the threshold of their life's work, wb. It has been supposed, in the first place, that those possess some interest in, and some information abou. who advocate a policy of union among the London 'those matters, with the study of which scientific men are colleges think that this union must be carried out in occupied. For them Extension lectures and manual all particulars immediately; and secondly that in order are a great boon; and to them Mr. Thomson's work o to secure this end it must be carried out by compulsion, “ The Study of Animal Life” may be cordially recoeeven if the practical confiscation of the property of the mended. We trust it will stimulate them, as he woui. existing colleges were necessary.
desire, to become themselves observers.
The work is divided into four parts, of which the delight of love death awaits many, and sometimes most." first, entitled “The Everyday Life of Animals," deals with And in the analysis of the forms of struggle for existence, the wealth of life, the web of life, the struggle of life, the we have the “struggle between rivals in love." Again, shifts for a living, the social life of animals, the of the cuckoo it is said that, “in spite of the poets, the domestic life of animals, and the industries of animals. | note of this blessed bird' must be regarded as suggesThe second part, on “The Powers of Life," contributed tive of sin"! And again, “ It is not quite correct to say by Mr. Norman Wyld, treats of vitality, the divided that the cuckoo-mother is immoral because she shirks labours of the body, and instinct. The third par the duties of maternity ; it is rather that she puts her describes “ The Forms of Animal Life" and includes young out to nurse because she is immoral.” It is true chapters on the lise-history of animals, and their past that Mr. Thomson adds this footnote :-“ The student history as read in the geological record. The fourth will notice that I have occasionally used words which and last part treats of “The Evolution of Animal Life” are not strictly accurate. I may therefore say definitely and, besides a discussion of the influence of habits and that I do not believe that we are warranted in crediting surroundings, and of heredity, gives a sketch of the animals with moral, æsthetic, or, indeed, any concepevolution of evolution theories. Appendices on the i tions." We are glad to be thus assured. But why imrelation of aniinal life to human life, and on some of the plant notions in the text which have to be eradicated in best books on animal life bring the work to a conclusion. a footnote? Does not Mr. Thomson know how easy it
The general arrangement of the subject-matter is, as will is to sow tares and how difficult to root them out? be seen by the above summary, well and carefully thought Mr. Norman Wyld's chapter on “Instinct” is short, out, and the facts given in elucidation of the varied ten- but quite to the point. We hope that he may further dencies of organic development are skilfully marshalled observe and experiment in the field of comparative and are derived from the most trustworthy sources. The psychology, for he is fully alive to the peculiar difficulties information given is therefore accurate and up to date. of the subject, and there is a wide field before him in The only suggestion we have to offer in this connection wbich the scientific workers are none too many. In is that a little more selective elimination might have been criticizing Mr. Lloyd Morgan's definition of instincts as exercised. Some facts are given in so terse and con- “ oft-recurring or essential to the continuance of the densed a form that no one but a zoologist could appre- species," Mr. Wyld says:—“This is not quite satisciate their value. If a considerable number of these had factory, for many actions that are instinctive are not ostbeen struck out and the space thus gained had been recurring, and many are not necessary to the preservautilized in expanding those that remained, the Extensionee tion of the species.'' He does not show that there are would have been the gainer. “ The Zoological Summary any such actions which are neither the one nor the other. of the Animal Kingdom” (pp. 210-272) might by some | We have reason for supposing that he understood such process have been replaced by a sketch with more Mr. Lloyd Morgan to say that instinctive actions were life and go in it. As it stands it will, by many readers, be | “oft-recurring and essential to the continuance of the gracefully skipped.
species." But this he did not say. In such a work style is an important element. Here | In conclusion we may repeat that " The Study of AniMr. Thomson is often exceedingly happy. He has ima- mal Life," though by no means faultless, may be recommengination and a feeling for the poetic aspect of nature. | ded to Extension students and the general reader as, in the But his imagination and poetry need at times just a litile main, accurate, readable, and suggestive. chastening. When he tells us that in birds "the breath
C. LL. M. ng powers are perfected and economized by a set of balJoons around the lungs," and that their brains “are not wrinkled with thought like that of mammals"; when he
VECTOR ALGEBRA. speaks of the sponge as “a Venice-like city of cells"; when he describes the ciliated cells of the windpipe
Principles of the Algebra of Vectors. By A. Macfaras “ lashed cells," or the embryonic membranes as “birth
lane, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S.Edin., Professor of obis," and when he says that in ponds subject to drought
Physics in the University of Texas. Reprint from the he organism often" sweats off a protective sheath which Proceedings of the American Association for the 's not a shroud, and waits until the rain refreshes the Advancement of Science, Vol. XL., 1891, pp. 65-117. pools”; in these and sundry other cases of which these (Salem Press, Salem, Mass., 1891).
Te samples, one may question whether the expressions 'THIS is a very suggestive contribution to the foundawhich we have underlined are justified either by special 1 tions of the Algebra of Vectors as recently so
legancy or by real helpfulness to a beginner. And this strongly advocated in America by Prof. Willard Gibbs. se say in no spirit of hypercriticism, but as desirous of and in this country by Mr. Oliver Heaviside.
iding the author in what is by no means an easy The extensive use of quaternions among physicists ask.
has been prevented by the fact that the meaning of a Somewhat deeper would be our criticism of sundry ex- | product of vectors has been made to depend on the ressions which are of essentially human implication and use of a vector as a quadrantal versor, and by the fact hich in our opinion should not lightly be applied to that this method leads to the square of a vector being nimal activities. Much is said of the "love" of animals negative. The advocates of the new algebra define a or their mates when some such phrase as “sexual product of vectors independently and in such way that
ppelence" would be more appropriate. For example, the square of a vector is positive. Rotations are exoncerning ants we read :-“After this midsummer day's pressed by means of dyadics, or ratios between vectors
and the quaternion notion of a vector being also a quad the plane containing the two vectors. The angle is the rantal versor is not entertained at all.
angle through which the first vector (occurring on the The author of this pamphlet devotes a portion of it to left-hand side of the product) would have to turn to make the consideration of quaternions, which he holds its direction coincide with that of the second should form a distinct algebra by themselves, and he Prof. Gibbs and Mr. Heaviside, on the contrary, define suggests a special notation for them. He restricts a the scalar product and the vector product as if they were quaternion proper to a pure number (a stretching factor) entirely distinct and independent quantities. Finally the combined with a certain amount of turning. A vector, on same result is attained, but Prof. Macfarlane's mote the contrary, may be a quantity of any dimensions, of introducing these partial products as arising natural possessing direction, with no suggestion of turning from applying the distributive law of multiplication woul attached to it.
seem to have an advantage from the point of view of al He clearly shows that the objectionable minus i student. which occurs in scalar products in quaternions arises Prof. Macfarlane dwells emphatically on the importanc from the attempt to use the same symbol both for a of considering dimensions of vectors, as well as the quadrantal versor and for a vector, so that the laws direction, and to emphasize this he separates his vector established for dealing with one set of quantities may not into tensor and unit-vector, but into quantity and hold also for the other set, or for a combination of the direction. Thus in the equation X = xi, x is the quan two.
tity, and i denotes the axis. Hence the equation jk = It may be worth while to notice that this minus sign of is not a violation of dimensions, but is merely a conventhe quaternionists would disappear as an explicit tion as to the interpretation of a composite direction : symbol if they considered the second vector as being convention, moreover, which could only be adopted a drawn from the end of the first, as AB, BC, and then space of three dimensions, and is the statement that the took the angle ABC as being the angle between the plane in which ; and k lie has its orientation sufficienti vectors—that is to say, if, in a polygon of vectors, they indicated by the normal direction i, with the further were to define the angles between the successive vectors convention that the angle from j to k shall be considered to be the internal angles of the polygon. Indeed, by positive. many the internal angles of a polygon (or triangle) are The author's notation is novel, and forms a very imconsidered as being the angles between the sides, though portant feature in his treatment of the subject. The there is loss of real naturalness and of symmetry caused scalar product of AB, which is ab cos (ab), he calls cos (AB by so considering them : for instance, the connection and the vector product he calls Sin AB, its magnitude. between A, B, C and a, b, c in a spherical triangle would | irrespective of direction, being denoted by sin AB be greatly simplified if A, B, C were to denote the external | Possibly an improvement in this latter would be to denote angles. However, if we consider these internal angles it by sin ab, and then the capital letter in the complete to be the angles considered by the quaternionists, the vector would become unnecessary. reason for the square of a vector being negative appears The particular symbol used to denote a scalar or a at once ; for if a be the quantitative part (freed from the vector product is a matter of secondary importance, be notion of direction) of a vector A, we have A A = aé cos is a matter which must sooner or later be settled if vector180°, A and A being consecutive sides of the polygon algebra is to come into general use. Lord Kelvin is at which have straightened out till the internal angle opinion that a function-symbol should be written with no between them is 180°.
less than three letters, and Prof. Macfarlane's notation It may therefore be contended that the quaternionists' obeys that law, and is moreover easy to work with, but minus is not quite irrational in vector algebra (though it is incomplete, being applicable to products of 2 cannot be said not to be inconvenient there), and that vectors only. Mr. Heaviside uses no prefix at all to 2 the advantage of being able to treat a vector as a quad- scalar product, but considers that AB means the scalar rantal versor without having to establish a new set of product. He uses the quaternionic expression V AB fe: formulæ far more than compensates for the loss of sym- the vector product. Prof. Gibbs uses no prefix for either. metry. On the other hand, the advocates of vector but denotes the scalar product by A . B, and the vecto: algebra without the minus would probably reply that they product by AXB. The three-lettered prefix seems the have to deal with vectors which are not in any sense the clearest in both cases to denote the special produc same as quadrantal or any other kind of versors, and that intended, and the symbols cos and sin are more or less the imaginary completeness gained does not in any degree
suggestive. whatever compensate for the loss of naturalness and loss
In forming a product of three vectors, Prof. Macfarlaze of symmetry involved in the minus.
makes the convention that ABC shall mean (ABC, the The author differs from Prof. Gibbs and Mr. Heaviside
combination commencing on the left. In his notatio in the mode in which he defines the product of two
this product expands into vectors, as he considers the complete product formed on the understanding that the multiplication shall obey the
(cos AB + Sin ABC distributive law. He then finds that this complete pro = cos (cos AB.C+ Sin AB. C) + Sin (cos AB. C+Sin ABC duct consists of a non-directed part, and of a directed or =cos (Sin AB. C) + Sin (cos ABC)+ Sin (Sin AB.C) vector part, the former consisting of the product of the | = vol ABC+C.cos AB+ Sin (Sin AB.C) two quantities into the cosine of the angle between them,
which finally becomes and the latter of the product of the two quantities into the sine of the same angle, having as axis the normal to l = vol ABC+C cos AB+B cos AC - A cos BC ;
ere vol (ABC) denotes the volume of the parallelopiped The Lake of Geneva, however it may have been which ABC are three adjacent edges. The only ob- | caused, is more modern than the middle of the Miocene tion to this name lies in its suggesting that A, B, C | period : “Le lac n'existait pas encore, la vallée du Léman • linear vectors.
n'était pas même indiquée quand la mer helvétienne Here appears the defect in the author's cos and sin déposait les mollasses d'Epalinges et du Mont.” Its tation, in that it cannot be applied to the products of slopes, and almost certainly its bed, are covered with ee vectors, or at least that the special reason for its | glacial deposits, of later date than the formation of its
has disappeared, and the author does not suggest basin. Terraces around its shore indicate that its waters applying it.
once reached a higher level, the greatest elevation which But there is a certain perspicuity attained by this very
can be identified with certainty, being about 3om. above the aitation of the cos and sin notation to the products of
present surface. The next pause was at iom. ; after that ly two vectors, inasmuch as there can be no ambiguity
the lake sank (the fall always being rapid) to its present the meaning of an expression in which they occur, even
level. Traces of still higher terraces are to be found on brackets are omitted or placed differently. Indeed,
the north shore, but as these neither can be identified on stead of cos (Sin AB.C) the author writes cos (Sin AB)C,
the opposite side, nor correspond with any natural baraich seems a curious use of the bracket. But
rier in the course of the Rhone below the lake. Prof. s Sin AB.C, or preferably cos C Sin AB, is just as
Forel doubts whether they indicate old levels of its waters.
Lake Léman consists of two basins. The first and plicit, and even cos Sin ABC, though wrong to write as ing puzzling, can only have the same meaning.
larger extends from the embouchure of the Rhone to the The author concludes with short sections on dyads and
narrow of Promenthoux. At the east end the slope of the
cone of alluvium deposited by the Rhone in no part exatrices, on scalar- and vector-differentiation, including alar-differentiation of a quaternion. On the last page
ceeds 25o. First comes a zone of very shallow water e a series of propositions relating to the addition of
off the actual shore line ; to this succeeds a more rapid alar and vector quantities situate at, or passing through,
slope, which gradually eases off as it descends. The Secified points.
current of the Rhone has made and maintains a wellThe pamphlet is confined solely to statements of
marked channel in this mass of detritus, and the contour
lines are affected down to 250m. At the embouchure of rinciples and the section devoted to dyads and matrices very condensed, so that it is not in any sense a text
the Dranse, on the south shore, another alluvial cone has ook for students. It is rather a synopsis of the subject,
| been deposited. This, however, is rather steeper, but it ith the introduction of a special notation which the
is much smaller, and does not perceptibly affect the uthor has found useful. A text-book of vector algebra,
course of the subaqueous contour lines below about 2oom. ith examples showing its application to problems in
On the north side of the basin the slope varies. Under eometry, mechanics, and general physics, and contrast
the walls of Chillon the descent is rapid, amounting to ng the method with the Cartesian method of treating the
137 in 100; it is nearly the same near St. Gingolph on the ame problems, is much needed, as many physicists are
opposite shore, doubtless indicating submerged crags; ecoming interested in the new algebra, owing in great
but it is generally more moderate. West of Vevay it is veasure to Mr. 0. Heaviside's able exposition of its
about one in four, whence it changes gradually to one in rinciples and applications in the Electrician and else
ten opposite to Ouchy.
West of this port the descent is still more gentle, and so it continues round the western end of the basin, the
lip of the latter being 75m. below the surface. The conTHE LAKE OF GENEVA.
tours of the south side correspond generally with those of e Léman : Monographie Limnologique. F. A. Forel. the north, and the form of the basin is evidently related Tome Premier, (Lausanne : F. Rouge, 189-.)
to the geology of the district, being narrower and steeper PROF. FOREL has been for some years occupied in among the harder rocks at the eastern end. The deepest * studying the Lake of Geneva, and has now published part is a large rudely triangular area, the apex pointing he first instalment of the fruits of his labours. The work, towards the west, and the base lying roughly north and when finished, is intended to be a complete monograph of south, extending from almost opposite to the embouchure he history of a single lake, and will be a most important of the Dranse to near Lutry. All this area is an almost contribution toaninteresting branch of physical geography. | level plain, for it is wholly below the 300m. contour line, In the present volume the geography, the hydrography, but the greatest depth obtained was only 309'7m. be geology, the climatology, and the hydrology of Lake
The Petit Lac may be described as a comparatively Léman are discussed, after some introductory matter narrow and shallow trough, rising very slowly from a elating to the instruments employed in sounding with depth of about 70 to 50 metres, and then gradually sther preliminaries. But, though only a single volume, mounting to the embouchure of the Rhone, its bed being he work embraces so many questions that we must, for slightly interrupted by five small shallow basins, which vant of space, confine our notice mainly to one, which, roughly speaking, have a linear arrangement, but their flate years, has attracted the most attention, at any rate floors only sink four or six yards at most below the n this country, viz. What has been the origin of the general level. ake basin? Was it formed by the old Rhone glacier or The lake to some extent is still held up by the huge n some other way? The especial value of Prof. Forel's mass of gravel brought down by the Arve, through which nemoir is the number of new facts which it brings to the two rivers have now cut their channels on either side wear on the problem thus propounded.
I of the plateau of La Bâtie below Geneva. But it is
in the main a true rock basin, though its bed no doubt versed in scientific knowledge than himself when he preis concealed beneath glacial deposits and the finer mud pared this volume, or at any rate did not have the procfbrought down by rivers. This alluvium has been studied sheets revised by some zoologist with a good knowledge by Prof. Forel, but into the matter we are unable to
of the Mammalia. The consequence of this want of fore
sight is that the nomenclature and localities upon which enter.
the importance of the records entirely depends are in a Both the origin of lake basins in general and of that of
very confused state, and in many cases quite erroneous. Léman in particular are carefully discussed by Prof. Forel. Take the Deer (Cervidae), for instance. Of this fam He examines, only to reject as attended by insuperable a very correct and accessible list, drawn up by the late difficulties, the hypothesis that it was excavated by the
Sir Victor Brooke, has been published in the “ Proceedold glacier of the Rhone. He shows that the subaqueous
ings" of the Zoological Society for 1878, which Mr. Ward
would have done well to follow. But we find under the portion corresponds in its general features with a river
Sambur (Cervus aristotelis) a head from "Java," where valley, and is only a prolongation of that of the Rhone. this species certainly does not occur, recorded in the list This valley was first defined at a very early period in the | Next to this (p. 10) comes the “ Central and South Indian uprising of the Alps ; its excavation progressed with their Sambur, Rusa hippelaphus” (whatever this may be), but growth ; it was practically completed at a time when they
three out of the four specimens assigned to it are fron
Nepal ! On the other hand, several heads from Java are were higher, perhaps by some 1000 m., than at present.
attributed (p. 22) to Cervus rusa, which is merely 3 Then the iake was formed by a general subsidence of
synonym of Cervus hippelaphus. the mountain region, the lowland remaining compara The heads of the large Deer of the Caucasus obtained tively unaffected. The movements of the parts depressed by Mr. St. George Littiedale are assigned (p. 28) to the may have been to some extent differential; but this, in Red Deer (Cervus elaphus). But we have good reason Prof. Forel's opinion, is not a necessary assumption. To
to know that they really belong to the Persian Deer C.
maral), quite a different species. us, however, it appears that it would be very difficult to
Looking over the list of Antelopes, we find similar explain the rock barrier at St. Maurice between the upper errors prevalent, though perhaps not quite to so great an and lower plains without some amount of differential extent. The specimens of the Chiru (Panthalogi movement. Prof. Forel's view, of course, is not novel ; hodgsoni) are assigned to “India," whereas this Antelope for it has been long maintained in England as a general
is only met with in the snow-fields of Ladakh and Tibet.
Nor can the “ Takin ” (Budorcas taxicolor) be properly explanation of the greater Alpine lakes by a few geolo
stated to be from “India.” It occurs only in the Mishm gists, who never bowed the knee to the glacial Baal
Hills on the frontiers of Assam. With their writings, however, Prof. Forel does not appear These and many like mistakes are the more serious as to be acquainted, though they appeared in publications Mr. Ward's volume is well got up, nicely illustrated, and generally accessible.
| likely to be frequently used by the sporting naturalist The remainder of the present volume is occupied by a
But the statements contained in it cannot be relied upon
for scientific accuracy. discussion of the temperature, rairfall, and general hydrology of the Lake Léman region. It is full of interesting Der Peloponnes. Versuch einer Landeskunde aui facts and discussions, which we would gladly notice did
geologischer Grundlage. Von Dr. Alfred Philippsoc. space permit. The book is well printed, and contains
Berlin : R. Friedländer and Son, 1891-1892.) many illustrations, together with a large map of the lake
GREECE has hitherto been interesting mainly to
scholars, archæologists, and lovers of art ; and no doubt on which the subaqueous contours are depicted. If the
it is from their various points of view that the countr book were less diffuse its scientific value would have been
will always be most eagerly studied. The subject. greater, but Prof. Forel pleads in excuse that he aimed at however, has also elements of attraction for students of writing a volume which would be also acceptable to the natural science, and it is to these elements, so far as the general public, or in other words, would combine meat Peloponnese is concerned, that Dr. Philippson has sough: for men with milk for babes. As a comprehensive to do justice in
to do justice in the present work. His results have been
obtained by direct personal observation, and are set forth history of a lake is a great desideratum, it would be un
with admirable clearness. The book is divided into two gracious to find fault with Prof. Forel's very natural
parts, the first of which is called “special," the second desire to secure a large number of readers and of " general.” In the "special" part the author deals with purchasers.
T. G. BONNEY. particular regions of the Peloponnese ; in the "general
part he presents an account of the peninsula as a whole
Dr. Philippson is a careful and accomplished geologist, OUR BOOK SHELF.
and has been remarkably successful not only in throwing
fresh light on the geological phenomena of the country, Horn Measurements and Weights of the Great Game
but in showing their relation to the various orders of of the World, being a Record for the use of Sportsmen
facts which come more especially within the province of and Naturalists. By Rowland Ward, F.Z.S. (London :
the geographer. He has also excellent chapters on the Published by the Author, 1892.)
forms and phenomena of the surface, on climate, on vege In these days, when every one is striving to “beat the tation, on the animal world, and on the population. Is record,” it is only right that sportsmen should have dealing with the last of these subjects he has much that clearly put before them the results already arrived at as is valuable to say about productive industry, means of regards the size of the trophies and the weight of communication, density of population, and towns, villages.. game-animals already obtained by their brother Nimrods. and other settlements. The interest of the work is great No one is in so good a position to do this as Mr. Rowland increased by maps and profile-sketches. Ward, to whose well-known “jungle" in Piccadilly all the leading shooters of the present day send their
Traité Encyclopédique de Photographie. By Charle “heads" to be mounted and their “skins" to be stuffed. Fabre. (Paris : Gautier-Villars and Sons, 1892.) It is, however, much to be regretted that Mr. Ward did in a previous number of NATURE (vol. xlvi. p. 464) not take into his councils some brother “F.Z.S." more noticed the first part of the supplement which M, Fabre